Business Communication Chapter # 3

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BusinessCommunication Chapter#3Businesscommunication Business communication andtheGlobalContext

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InternationalBusiness: International Business: InternationalBusinessisthebusinessof 2000s. PacificRimCountries:Taiwan,Singapore, HongKongcame Triad(Mexico,Canada,America) Euro Legal,Illegalimmigrants EvenRussiastartedfocusingQualityand i df i li d CustomerSatisfaction2

Globalization: Throughoutthebusinessworldtheterm globalization iswellknown. Globalizationmeansthatoracompanytosurvive,It mustestablishitsmarketnotonlyinitsowncountry butalsoinmanyforeigncountries. but also in many foreign countries Thusemployeesandyouasapotentialinternational communicator mustunderstandothers,culturesand communicatormust understand others, cultures and variables. Additionally,youmustbeawareofyourown country'sethnicdiversityinordertocommunicate effectivelywithglobalcompanies3

Globalization: The process of making something Theprocessofmakingsomething international,suchasbusinessortheresultof this. this

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The world's largest 25 multinational corporations

Rank 1999 Company Headquarters USA Germany USA USA Japan p Japan Japan USA USA Japan Japan Industry Motor vehicles Motor vehicles Motor vehicles General merchandisers Trading g Trading Trading Petroleum refining Electronics Motor vehicles Trading5

1 General Motors 2 Daimler Chrysler 3 Ford Motor 4 Wal-Mart Stores 5 Mitsui 6 Itochu 7 Mitsubishi 8 Exxon 9 General Electric 10 Toyota Motor 12 Marubeni

11 Royal Dutch/Shell Group Britain/Netherlands Petroleum refining

13 Sumitomo International Business 14 Machines 15 AXA 16 Citigroup 17 Volkswagen Nippon Telegraph & 18 Telephone 19 BP Amoco 20 Nissho lwai 21 Nippon Life Insurance 22 Siemens 23 Allianz 24 Hitachi 25 US Postal Service

Japan USA France USA Germany Japan England Japan Japan Germany Germany Japan USA

Trading Computers Insurance Finance Motor vehicles Telecommunicati ons Petroleum refining Trading Insurance Electronics Insurance Electronics Mail/freight g delivery6

Source: Adapted from Fortune (17 April 2000)

Background to Intercultural Communication:Communicatingwithpersonsfromother countriesisnoteasy. countries is not easy Manypersonalandnationalvariablesaffect bothsendersandreceiversofmessages. b th d d i f

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Culture: Culture: is the set of artifacts created Culture:isthesetofartifactscreated byasocietyandcarriedfromone generationtoanothergeneration. Culture refer to the behavioral Culturerefertothebehavioral characteristicstypicalofagroup.

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Culture: It includes ideas values and customs Itincludesideas,values,andcustoms. Icecream,rockmusic,slangwords, AcashierinEuropesitsratherthanstands. hi i i h h d

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Cont d Contd Atribethatcultivatessoilbyhandhasjustas muchofacultureasapeoplethatrelieson much of a culture as a people that relies on directoperatedmachinery. Ethnocentrism: Itmeansjudgingothergroupsorcountriesby y g p theculturalstandardsofyourgroup.

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CharacteristicsofCulture:1.Cultureislearned 2.Cultureissociallyshared 2 Culture is socially shared 3.Culturesaresimilarbutdifferent (Calendar,bodilyadornment,cooking,courtship, (Calendar, bodily adornment, cooking, courtship, music,dancing,government) 4.CultureisGratifyingbutPersistent 5.CultureisAdaptive l d 6.Culturesareselective Ex.1:Europeansacceptedsilk,magneticcompass Ex 1: Europeans accepted silk magnetic compass ,chessandgunpowderfromtheChinese.

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AmericanValues: American Values: Individualism Itiscomplexandinterrelatedwithsuchthingsas freedom,democracy,nationalism Peoplehavefreedom,theyareindependentfrom People have freedom they are independent from outsideconstraints. BuyAmerican","MadeinU.S.A y 1970sAgeofMe TheMedecadefocusedonselfactualization,self fulfillment,innermotivation.Ididitmyownway

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1990We Decade 1990 WeDecade Selfinterestisfocusedintermsof collectiveaction,andsocialeffort collective action and social effort

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Equality :Everyonehasequalrighttolife,libertyandequal opportunitytostriveeconomicrewards. Womenequality Changingsexroles Changing sex roles

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Activity: Stressisonwork Everybodyistoworkhard,make money,savemoney money save money HardworkingLongholidays

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Youthfulness: YouthfulnessTryingtokeepthemselvesyoung

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DoubleIncome Double Income Culture: Wife Works WifeWorks

HusbandWorks

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Progress: Insteadofrememberingpast,theyfocus present. present Theyplanforfuture.

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Religious: TheybelieveinGod,Judgmentday.19

Humanitarianism: H it i i Th Theyalwaysworkforhuman l kf h beings. Forthebettermentoflife

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Subculture: Subculture can be thought as a culture Sub culturecanbethoughtasaculture existingwithinalargerculture. They are participating in the large culture the Theyareparticipatinginthelargeculturethe sametimetheyareengagedinuniqueand distinctiveformsofbehavior. distinctive forms of behavior TheydevelopaspeciallanguagecalledArgot

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Sub culturebasedon: Subculture based on : Common Age: People of same age share the CommonAge: Peopleofsameagesharethe samesubculture. Region: People living in same place share the Peoplelivinginsameplacesharethe samesubculture. Eh i H i EthnicHeritage: P Peopleofthesamehistory, l f h hi backgroundsharethesamesubculture.

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DivisionofCulture: Di i i f C ltWilliamF.Ogburn(1922)dividedcultureto: Material+Nonmaterial MaterialCulture:Itreferstophysicalortechnological Material Culture: It refers to physical or technological aspectsofourdailylivesincludingfooditems ,houses,factoriesandrawmaterials. NonmaterialCulture:Waysofusingmaterialobjects Nonmaterial Culture: Ways of using material objects andbeliefs,government,andpatternsof communication. NonmaterialCultureismoreresistanttochangethan Nonmaterial Culture is more resistant to change than thematerialcultureis. Foreignideasaremorethreateningthanforeign products. products23

DivisionofCulture: Division of Culture: Afghanistan was happily buying Kalawash AfghanistanwashappilybuyingKalawash (specialRussianshoes),butwhentheideasof communism,divisionofland,distributionof communism division of land distribution of profitandincome,wayofrulinggovernment came,theyrejectedandcametofight. came they rejected and came to fight

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ElementsfCulture: Elements f Culture: 1. 2. 3. 4. Culturehasfourelements: Culture has four elements: Language Norms Sanctions Values

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ElementsofCulture(Language): Elements of Culture (Language):Themeansofcommunicationiscalledlanguage. g g Language: 7000languagesarespokeglobally. 200languagesspokenintheUnitedStates. Alphabetsaredeveloped.(Firsttime,wehadno ( alphabets.Justspokenlanguage.Lateronwritten Englishdeveloped.) g p ) LefttorighthandwritinginWest RighttolefthandwritinginEast. WhydoallpeoplelearnEnglish?Becauseitisthe internationalmediumofcommunication.

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ElementsofCulture(Norms): Norms :Establishedstandardsofbehaviormaintained byasociety . y y Allsocietieshavewaysofencouragingandenforcing. Tobecomeanormsignificant,itmustbewidely To become a norm significant ,it must be widely understood.Peoplehavetobegiveninformation aboutthatnorm.Otherwiseifsomeoneisviolating cantbepunished. Applicationofnormcanvary Implementationofnorm differsfromplacetoplace..

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TypesofNorm: Normsaredividedinto: Formal +Informal Formal+Informal 1.FormalNorms(Mores): Formalnormshavegenerallybeenwritten l h ll b downandinvolvestrictrulesforPunishment ofviolators. of violators Lawisthebodyofrulesmadebygovernment forsociety,interpretedbythecourtsand for society interpreted by the courts and backedbythepowerofstate.(Ittellsus whetherbehaviorisproperorimproper.) whether behavior is proper or improper )28

2.InformalNorms(Folkways): 2 Informal Norms (Folkways) : Generallyunderstoodbutarenotprecisely recorded. recorded Ex.1Clothes(Uniform) Ex.2Areyoucomingtointerviewinraincoat/ CricketUniform? Ex.3.Areyouridingbikeinsupermarket?

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AcceptanceofNorms: Normsareevaded.Because: Peopleknowthattheyareweaklyenforced.Governmentdoesntfollow thecriminals. the criminals Onenormconflictswithanothernorm.Onenormcontradictsanother.Your neighborisbeatinghiswife.Ifyouareknockingatthedoor,itisnonofyour business.Ifyouarecallingpolice,youarehelpingoneoppressed. Thereareexceptionstosomenorms. Th i Eavesdropping:Listening totelephonicconversationwhichisstrictly avoided.Butifyouaregoingtofindcriminal,youareallowed. Itissubjecttochangeasthepolitical,social,andeconomicconditions. It is subject to change as the political ,social, and economic conditions WomenintheUnitedStatesaccordingthepreviousconstitutionwere allowedtosithome,traintheirchildren,nourishthem,onthecondition thattheyaresupportedbytheirhusbands. Ex.2Womenwerenotallowedtocomeoutinbathingsuit. Ex 2 Women were not allowed to come out in bathing suit

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ElementsofCulture:(Sanctions): Elements of Culture: (Sanctions): Whathappenswhenpeopleviolateawidelyshared andunderstoodnorm? Sanctions are penalties and rewards for conduct Sanctionsarepenaltiesandrewardsforconduct concerningsocialnorm. Rewards:Agreementtonormscanleadtopositive Rewards : Agreement to norms can lead to positive sanctionssuchasincrementinsalary,Thankingor patontheback Negativesanctionsincludefines,threats, imprisonment31

DevelopmentofCulture: Development of Culture:AllchangesinculturearebecauseofInnovationandDiffusion. Innovation means:Discovery+Invention I i Di I i Discover: Tofindsomethingthatwashiddenorthatpeople didntknowaboutbefore. , g ,p g Invention: Tomake,design,producesomethingforthefirst time. Diffusion: Theprocessbywhichaculturalitemisspreadfrom Diffusion : The process by which a cultural item is spread from grouptogrouporsocietytosociety.

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AttitudeTowardCulturalVariation: Ethnocentrism:Thinkingofyourvalues,product, waysoflifesuperior. Xenocentrism:Thinkingofyourvalues,product, waysoflifeinferior Cultural Relativism: Practice of judging one culture CulturalRelativism:Practiceofjudgingoneculture byitsownstandards Ex.Urbanpeoplecriticizingvillagewomenforbeing sotraditional. t diti l

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NationalCulturalVariables: National Cultural Variables: SocialNorms Language Education Lawandregulation Economics Politics Religion

Explanationnextslides34

Education: AmericanstudentsvisitingcompaniesinChinaare reportingthatmanagersofthesecompaniesarenot highlyeducated.Thisisaseriousproblembecause communicationwithuneducatedpeoplewontbe effective.Itisallbecauseofthefollowingproblems in effective It is all because of the following problems in thirdworldcountries: Revolution Agriculture Monarchy Population35

LawandRegulation:Makingmistakeincommunicationiseasyinaforeigncountry. Youoryourlegaldepartmentmustbeawareofstrictnesstothe alsosimplymeetingtheletterofthelaw. also simply meeting the letter of the law. Inboththedevelopedanddevelopingnations,various governmentregulationsaffectbusinesscommunionsandthe saleofproduct.Forexampleadvertisingdirectedatchildrenis restrictedintheUSA,Canada,andScandinavia. restricted in the USA Canada and Scandinavia Thetypeofproducttobeadvertizedforinstance,cigarettesis restrictinEurope. France,MexicoandtheprovinceofQuebec,alsohavea restrictionontheuseofforeignlanguagesinadvertisements.

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Cont,d Strict rules: Some countries have very strict Strictrules:Somecountrieshaveverystrict rules.ForexampleinMalaysia,acompanyis notallowedtoutilizetheservicesofforeign not allowed to utilize the services of foreign celebrities. In North Korea during survey the surveyors InNorthKorea,duringsurvey,thesurveyors cantinterviewschoolchildren.

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Economics:Availabilityofcapitalandtranspirationandthestandardoflivingpercapita Availability of capital and transpiration and the standard of living per capita varyfromnationtonation.Theopportunitytoborrowmoney,therateof inflationandtheexchangeratesinfluencebusinessandacountry'sabilityto communicateconcerningthatbusiness. communicate concerning that business. If,theeconomylevelofacountryishigh,definitely, 1.Therewillbequicknessincommunication. 2.Therewillbegood:PostSystem,InternetSystem,telephonicrelationship. 2 Th ill b d P tS t I t tS t t l h i l ti hi

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Politics: Stabilityisneededforforeigncompaniesto investinonecountry. invest in one country Duringfightingthepossibilityofgood communicationisperishableoreven h bl impossible. Ifcompanyisadvertising,companysbillboard isdestroyedbecauseofshellfiring.

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Religion Religionisreallyconsideredasabarrierwhile communication. Drinking,eatingarestrictlyavoidedduringthe monthofRamadan. month of Ramadan

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SocialNorms: Social Norms: In various ways education law and Invariouswayseducation,lawand regulations,economics,politics,religionaffect anation ssocialnorms. a nation's social norms Inmanycountriesamalelineofthefamily profoundlyinfluencessomebusinessdecisions profoundly influences some business decisions whichaffectbehaviorandbusiness communication. communication Beawareofanation'ssocialnorms.41

Language: All agree that knowing the language of your Allagreethatknowingthelanguageofyour hostcountryisthemostsignificant contributortoimprovecommunication,ona contributor to improve communication on a personalandabusinesslevel.

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IndividualVariables: Individual Variables:Allpeoplevaluetheirindividualfreedomoften All people value their individual freedom often thisfreedomisexpressedinone'sownethnic diversity. diversity Macronationalcharacteristicsaffecting communicationbothnationalandinternational. communication both national and international

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IndividualVariables(Cont,d): Individual Variables (Cont,d): Time: Time: Space Food d AcceptableDress: Manners DecisionMaking Decision Making Verbal&NonverbalCommunication44

Time: Person in Latin America and the Middle East PersoninLatinAmericaandtheMiddleEast treattimemorecasuallythandoAmericans, whousuallypreferpromptness. who usually prefer promptness Germansaretimeprecise,rarelydoyouwait foranappointmentinGermany. for an appointment in Germany Culture1: Culture2:Let'ssetaphoneappointmentWewillgiveyouacall ' h ll ll for7:00pm

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Space: How close may strangers stand to you ? What Howclosemaystrangersstandtoyou?What doesitfeellikewhenyouareinacrowded elevator? elevator? M A MostAmericansfeeluncomfortableifa i f l f bl if strangercomescloserthan18inches.

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Food: Itmaybeagoodideapriortovisityourhostcountrytovisit variousethnicrestaurantsinyourhomecounty.Thenyourwill various ethnic restaurants in your home county Then your will haveandinitialideaastothekindsoffoodsavailable;how theyareserved,fixedoreaten. InAsia,darkandlightteaarenationaldrinkstheyalsohave goodbeer. In Europe French workers enjoy a glass of wine with lunch InEurope,Frenchworkersenjoyaglassofwinewithlunch, oftenastatedcodicilinalaborcontract. Alcohol,asstatedintheprecedingsectionunderReligionis forbiddenforBuddhist,MoslemsandHindus.Youcangetinto troublebycarryingliquorintosomecountries.

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AcceptableDress: It is better to ask about the mode of dress for an occasion in your...