By Chelsea Hunt The Many Ways We Introduce Direct Quotations.

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<p>PowerPoint Presentation</p> <p>By Chelsea HuntThe Many Ways We Introduce Direct QuotationsQuotatives: the verbs used to introduce direct quotations.For example: She said, Yeah, hes been riding his bike.I said, I might.Hes like, Magic.Im like, Use your Italian.I was like, No.I go like, [sound].And Kaitlyn goes, What?Shell be all like, I love you, Mommy.</p> <p>BackgroundOver time, many new quotatives have become popular, including the following:Be like, go, and be allFrederica Barbieri, Quotative Use in American EnglishLooked at preexisting researchConducted a corpus analysisCompiled common patterns of use for quotativesBackgroundRapid and Anonymous SurveyWilliam Labovs 1966 study of New York City department storesBenefits: Cancels observers paradoxAnonymity Quick resultsReal life and televisionDrawbacks:Ethical issuesLimitationsMethodologyToken description 15Other notes Quotative in context:She said, Its not working.Standard spoken American English (Western U.S.)Familiarity with interlocutorGenderAgeRace/EthnicityStatus Female Under 18 white student Male College- aged black white collar Post-college Hispanic blue collar 30s Asian unknown 40s other 50s unknown 60s+DataFindingsBarbieris findingsMy findingsConversationSayBe like GoPrevalence59.64%23.67%14.89%PersonThird personFirst personFirst and thirdTensePastPresent63.9%Past36.1%PresentTruth ValueDirect speechFormalInner thoughtDirect speechLess formalDemographicsN/ACombined age and gender affect patternsN/AConversationSayVerb + LikeGoPrevalence40.54%45.95%5.4%PersonThird66%First33%Third58.8% First35.3%Third100%TensePast73.3%Present82.4%Past11.8%Present100%Truth ValueMostly direct speechAbout half inner thought and half direct speechDirect speechDemographicsWhite collarBlue collarYounger Blue collarCombined demographic factors affect patternsTruth value mattersPatterns for person and tense existThe effect of demographics is complexThe future of quotativesRoom for future study</p> <p>DiscussionBarbieri, Federica. Quotative Use in American English: A Corpus-Based, Cross-Register Comparison. Journal of English Linguistics 33.3 (2005): 222-256. Web.Work Cited</p>


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