Byzantine/Early Christian Architecture (400-900). Erica Dawn Nelson. Roman to Byzantine. Emperor Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to Byzantium (known also as New Rome, later Constantinople, and Istanbul today) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Byzantine/Early Christian Architecture (400-900)
Byzantine/Early Christian Architecture (400-900)Erica Dawn Nelson1Roman to ByzantineEmperor Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to Byzantium (known also as New Rome, later Constantinople, and Istanbul today)The Byzantine empire lasted for around one thousand years, and heavily influenced both the medieval and renaissance eras. Architecturally, early Byzantine was just a continuation of Roman stylesDomesMuch of Byzantine architecture are domes. They came up with various new ways of holding up their domes, they were so popular. They were the most-used piece of architecture in their repertoire, and such monuments as the Hagia Sophia and the Hagia Irene in Istanbul still stand today to show it to us.
This is the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul.4
This is the Hagia Irene, picture taken in the late 1800s. 5Squinch
A squinch in architecture is a piece of construction used for filling in the upper angles of a square room so as to form a proper base to receive an octagonal or spherical dome. It was the primitive solution of this problem, the perfected one being eventually provided by the pendentive. Squinches may be formed by masonry built out from the angle in corbelled courses, by filling the corner with a vise placed diagonally, or by building an arch or a number of corbelled arches diagonally across the corner.6
A squinch in the palace of Ardeshir, near Firouzabad, Iran.7
A pendentive is a constructive device permitting the placing of a circular dome over a square room or an elliptical dome over a rectangular room. The pendentives, which are triangular segments of a sphere, taper to points at the bottom and spread at the top to establish the continuous circular or elliptical base needed for the dome. In masonry the pendentives thus receive the weight of the dome, concentrating it at the four corners where it can be received by the piers beneath.
Prior to the pendentive's development, the device of corbelling or the use of the squinch in the corners of a room had been employed. The first attempts at pendentives were made by the Romans and full achievement of the form was reached in Hagia Sophia at Constantinople (6th cent.) by the Eastern Roman Byzantine Empire.
Pendentives were commonly used in Byzantine, Renaissance, and baroque churches, with a drum with windows often inserted between the pendentives and the dome.9
Fresco in the left anterior pendentive of the main dome of the Roman Catholic Parish Church of the Most Holy Trinity in Fulnek, Czech Republic.10
Homes found in the ruins of Avdat in Israel.
Believed to be Byzantine homes. Homes found in the ruins of Avdat in Israel. Believed to be Byzantine homes. 11
An early Christian community house, also known as a church-house. This was a smaller structure created for worship when it was no longer deemed acceptable for each family to worship individually within their homes.
An early Christian community house, also known as a church-house. This was a smaller structure created for worship when it was no longer deemed acceptable for each family to worship individually within their homes. 12Sourceshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byzantine_architecturehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hagia_Sophiahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hagia_Irenehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Squinchhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pendentivehttp://www.archididac.com/apps/blog/show/1439572-squinches-and-pendentiveshttp://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/parent-27281.htmlhttp://www.pitt.edu/~tokerism/0040/syl/christian.html