C-9-3 Cellular Respiration. Cellular Respiration: Chemical Pathways Cellular Respiration – the process that releases ENERGY by breaking down GLUCOSE in

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  • C-9-3Cellular Respiration

  • Cellular Respiration: Chemical Pathways

    Cellular Respiration the process that releases ENERGY by breaking down GLUCOSE in the presence of OXYGEN.

  • 3 main stagesGLYCOLYSIS (in the cytoplasm)KREBS CYCLE (in mitochondria)ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN (in the inner membrane of the mitochondria)

  • Each of the three stages captures some of the chemical energy available in FOOD molecules and uses it to produce ATP.ATP HIGH ENERGY molecule that the cell can us for an energy sourceADP LOW ENERGY molecule

  • Cellular Respiration

    Oxygen + glucose ---> carbon dioxide + water + energy

  • 1st stage:

    GLYCOLYSIS - to break apart glucose

  • GlycolysisTakes place in the CYTOPLASM of the animal cellOne molecule of GLUCOSE (6 Cs) is broke in half to make 2 PYRUVIC ACID molecules (3 Cs each)2 ATP molecules are used up in the beginning of glycolysis in order to break apart the glucose moleculeWhen glycolysis is complete 4 ATP molecules are produced (net gain of 2 ATP molecules)

  • GlycolysisNAD+- an electron carrier involved in glycolysis

    NADH - reduced form of NAD+ (NAD+ turns into NADH when it receives electrons)

  • Glycolysis4 high energy ELECTRONS are removed during glycolysis and passed to NAD+

    When electrons get passed to NAD+ it changes to NADH

    NADH holds electrons until they can be transferred to other molecules (THEN it goes to the electron transport chain)

  • FERMENTATION - releases energy from food molecules by producing ATP in the absence of oxygen

    Because fermentation does NOT require oxygen it is said to be ANAEROBIC

  • Alcoholic Fermentation

    Pyruvic acid + NADH --->alcohol + carbon dioxide + NAD+


  • Yeast causes bread dough to rise; when yeast runs out of oxygen it begins to ferment giving off bubbles of CARBON DIOXIDE that forms the holes you see in a slice of bread (the alcohol evaporates when its baked)

    Beer and wine and other alcoholic beverages use this process

  • Lactic Acid FermentationPyruvic acid + NADH --->lactic acid + NAD+Produces LACTIC ACID

    Lactic acid is produced in your MUSCLES during rapid EXERCISES when the body cannot supply enough oxygen to the tissues

  • Without enough oxygen, the body cant produce the ATP that is required so lactic acid fermentation allows NAD+ to be produced so glycolysis continues*Your muscles can get SORE quickly because of the build-up of lactic acid in the muscle cells*This process is also used by unicellular organisms to produce foods such as cheese, yogurt, sour cream, pickles, and sauerkraut.