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c4 Interdependence

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Text of c4 Interdependence

  • There are over a million different species of animals and plants living in groups on earth, interdependent on one another and their environment.

    To study interdependence among organisms, you first need to be familiar with certain terms.SPECIESHABITATCOMMUNITYECOSYSTEMPOPULATION

  • A group of organism thathave the same shape and structure, and can breedtogether. Ex: monkeys, rats, catsand elephants.1SPECIES2HABITAT4COMMUNITY5ECOSYSTEMA natural living place forplants and animals. A habitat provides an organismwith air, food, shelter anda place which to breed.Ex: coconut beach, lotus pond,shark sea, snake bush, crocodile - riverA group of organisms of the same type that livetogether in a habitat.Ex: a population of monkeys on a tree, a population of lions in a grassland.Consist of several typesof animal and plant population that live together andinteract with one anotherIn the same habitat.Ex: a pond community consist of fish, plant,tadpole and insectpopulations.Different communities interact with one another and their environment in ahabitat.Ex: a marine ecosystem, a grassland ecosystem



  • Natural ecosystem are mostly complex. There are many species of animals and plants living together in the same habitat. These different populations that live together are interdependent to one another for survival.

    Interdependence: A number of living organisms depending on each other and the environment to stay alive.

    Animals depend on plants for food and shelter. Ex: Rabbits eat grass and birds nest in trees.

    In turn, plants depend on animals to supply them with carbon dioxide and to disperse their seeds.

  • Plants depend on non-living materials such as carbon dioxide, water and light to produce food.

    Some organisms depend on other organisms for food, shelter, or protection.

    The interdependence among living organisms and the environment creates a balanced ecosystem.

  • Aquatic plants obtain mineral salts from the soil in the pondAquatic animals depends on aquatic plants to supply oxygen for the process of respirationAquatic plants depend on aquatic animals to obtains to obtain animals to obtain carbon dioxide for photosynthesisSmall fishes and tadpoles eat aquatic plantsBig fishes eat small fishesKingfisher eats fishDuckweed, water hyacinths, lotus and land plant obtain sunlight for the process of photosynthesis

  • In an ecosystem, every living organisms interact with other living organisms by: * eating them or being eaten by them * providing them with shelter and protection or receiving shelter and protection from them * competing with them for food, water, light, air or minerals.

    Most of these interactions involve involve relationships such as prey predator, symbiosis and competition.

  • A Predator is an organism that kills and eats another organism.A prey is the organism that is eaten.

    Other examples are:A kingfisher (predator) eats fish (prey)A chicken (predator) eats worms (prey)An eagle (predator) eats rabbits (prey)A guppy (predator) eats mosquito larvae (prey)A lizard (predator) eats mosquitoes (prey)

  • COMMENSALISMAn interaction between two different species of living organism which one benefits while the other neither benefits nor harmed by it.

  • COMMENSALISMAn interaction between two different species of living organism which one benefits while the other neither benefits nor harmed by it.

  • Examples of plants that live on trees to obtain sunlight are:The staghorn fernThe money plantThe pigeon orchidThe birds nest fern

    Examples of animals that live on other animals to obtain foods, as well as for shelter and transportation are:Barnacles that live on the shells of crabs, cockles or snailsRemora fish that live on a shark

  • Other examples are:

    Sea animone and hermit crabThe hermit crab get protection from the sea animone (sea animone has tentacles that can sting)The sea animone obtains transport and food (food bits that drop) from the hermit crab

    Ox pecker and buffaloes- Ox pecker eat the ticks and leeches that feed on buffaloes

    The Egyptian Plover bird and crocodiles- The Egyptian Plover bird eats leeches as well as food particles stuck between the crocodiles teeth

    Nitrogen fixing bacteria and leguminous plantsRhizobium bacteria live in the root nodules of leguminous plants. They convert the nitrogen in the air and change it to nitrates for the use of the plantsThese bacteria obtain food and shelter from the leguminous plants

  • Green algae and fungusThe algae provide the fungus with foodThe fungus protects the algae and releases carbon dioxide for the algae to use during photosynthesis

    Symbiotic bacteria and herbivorous animalsSymbiotic bacteria live in the digestive track of herbivorous animals and help in the digestion of celluloseThe bacteria obtain food and shelter from the host

  • A parasite is the organism that lives on or inside the other organism.The host is the organism on which the parasite lives.The host is negatively affected by this interaction. The parasite may even kill the host.A parasite obtains food, shelter and food from the host.

    For examples:A tick that lives on a host feeds on the hosts bloodstem borers and oil palm leavesTree barnacles and treesAphids and mustard plants

  • Competition occurs when organisms compete for the same basic resourcesPlants compete to obtain, water, sunlight, mineral salts and living space.Animals compete to obtain water, food, living space and mates for reproductionCompetition becomes more intense when basic resources are limited.Stronger organisms are succesful in controlling their territory. Weaker and smaller organisms are driven out of the area.

    Other examples are:Flowering plants compete with weeds to obtain water and mineral saltsLions in a pride compete for foodPlants in a tropical rainforest compete for basic needs. Taller trees obtain sunlight more easily.Paramecium aurelia and paramecium caudatum

  • Paramecium aurelia and paramecium caudatum compete for foodParamecium aurelia succeeds

  • Producers Consumers Decomposers

  • An organismsProducers(Pengeluar) Consumers(Pengguna) Decomposers Green plantsPrimary(herbivore)Grasshoppers Secondary (carnivore)Frog, birds Tertiary (carnivores)Cat, snake Bacteria & fungus

  • Producers (Pengeluar)Must be green plants which can produce food by carryout photosynthesis processesTumbuhan hijau sebagai pengeluarDecomposers (pengurai)Organisms that eat on deadplants and dead animalse.g. bacteria and fungus

  • Consumers (Pengguna)Must be animals because they Cannot carryout photosynthesisConsumersSecondary (Pengguna 2)Must be small carnivores Animals. E.g. birds, frogConsumers primary(Pengguna 1)Must be herbivore animalse.g. grasshoppers, caterpillarConsumersTertiary (Pengguna 3)Must be bigger carnivores Animals. E.g. snakes, crocodile

  • Consumers Producers(Green plants) Simple substance(in soil)Decomposers(Microorganisms) Death and wasteMaterialsDecay (mereput)Death Absorbed by rootsEaten byRelationship among producers, consumers and decomposers

  • The feeding relationship between organisms in an ecosystem forms a FOOD CHAIN (rantai makanan)

  • CaterpillarPrimary consumerCherry tree(producers)Bird Secondary consumer

  • Producers Primary consumerSecondary consumerPaddy plantRats Snakes

  • Producers Primary consumerSecondary consumercarrotsRabbits Cheetah

  • Producers Primary consumerSecondary consumerTertiary consumerGrass Grasshopper Frog Snake

  • Producers Primary consumerSecondary consumerTertiary consumerPalm oil tree Rats Owl Cat

  • Food chain interact to form a food web.

    Food web helps to maintain a balance in environment by controlling the number of Organisms at each level of food chain.

  • Producers Primary consumerSecondary consumerTertiary Consumer Phytoplankton (algae) (Sejenis tumbuhan air)Tubifex(cacing) Tadpoles(berudu) Daphnia(serangga) Small fish(ikan kecil)Water beetles(serangga air)Frog(katak) Big fish(ikan besar)

  • Eagle Bird Caterpillar Lizard Bug Grasshopper Frog Beetle Earthworm Termite Ant Decomposer (bacteria and fungi)

  • Diagram above show 4 food chain in a food web in the forest ecosystem:

    Tree caterpillar bird eagle

    Tree bug grasshoppers lizard eagle

    Tree termite ant

    Tree bug grasshopper frog eagle

  • Tertiary consumerSecondary consumerPrimary consumerProducer A food web in marine ecosistem (rantaian makanan di ekosistem laut)

  • A food chain also shows the energy transfer from one organisms to another.

    The main source energy is sunlight which helps plants to produce food, through photosynthesis process.

    -A balance number of organisms are important because it will effect the equilibrium of entire ecosystem.

  • Conservation is the wise use of natural resources with the least disturbance to the living things and the environment. This includes the protection, management and renewal of natural resources.Memulihara: Menggunakan secara bijak sumber semulajadi dengan sedikit kerosakan kepada benda hidup dan alam sekitar.

    Preservation refers to measures or steps taken to maintain living things and the environment in its natural balanced state.Memelihara: Langkah mengekalkan keseimbangan benda hidup dan alam sekitar.


    PENGURUSAN HUTAN kebakaran hutan, pembalakan haram, pene