Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

Embed Size (px)

Text of Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

  • 7/22/2019 Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

    1/26

    DN HTRTHNG MI A BIN II(MUTRAP II)

    BThng mi phi hp cng y ban chu u thc hin

    CC HIPNH TBT V SPS: QUYN LI,NGHA VV NGHA QUN L

    XUT VVIC THC HIN TBT V SPS TIVIT NAM

  • 7/22/2019 Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

    2/26

    1. CC HIPNH TBT V SPS:QUYN LI, NGHA VV NGHA QUN L

    GII THIU

    Li gii thiu

    Bi trnh by sau y phn ln c da trn Ti liu o to do Ban Thk WTOchun bcho cc hot ng hp tc kthut ca tchc ny. Tuy nhin, c thmtsphn skhng c trong bi trnh by v mt sphn khc c tng cng cthphn nh tt hn phm vi ca bi trnh by v squan tm ca cc thnh vintrong kha o to. Cc thng tin c cung cp di y khng phi l cc vn bnphp l chnh thc.

    Hip nh TBT v Hip nh SPS l g?

    Hip nh TBT l Hip nh vHng ro Kthut i vi Thng mi. Hip nh nyc m phn trong Vng Urugoay v l mt hp phn ca Hip nh WTO. Hipnh SPS l Hip nh vvic p dng cc Bin php Kim dchng thc vt v cngl mt cng cquan trng trong h thng WTO, c p dng cho tt ccc thnhvin WTO tthi im thnh lp WTO (1/1/1995).

    Ti sao li cn c Hip nh TBT v SPS trong WTO?

    Trong nhng nm gn y, s lng quy nh k thut v cc tiu chun kim dchng thc vt m cc nc p dng gia tng ng k. Vic gia tng cc quy nhl do mc sng ca con ngi trn ton thgii cao hn, iu ny lm tng nhucu ca ngi tiu dng vcc sn phm c cht lng cao v an ton. ng thi,vic gia tng cc quy nh cn do pht sinh cc vn v nhim nc, khng kh vt ai, iu ny khuyn khch x hi hin i to ra cc sn phm ha hp vi mitrng. Vic bo vi sng con ngi v ng thc vt cng l mt l do khin choslng cc quy nh gia tng. Hip nh TBT v SPS rt cn thit m bo rngcc quy nh k thut v cc tiu chun SPS c cc thnh vin WTO p dng skhng bp mo hoc gy phn bit i xv cng khng to ra cc ro cn phi thuquan tr hnh trong thng mi.

    Tc ng ca cc quy nh TBT v SPS vi thng mi quc t

    Mc d kh c tha ra don chnh xc vtc ng vic phi tun thcc quy

    nh kthut v cc tiu chun khc nhau i vi thng mi quc t, nhng r rngl cc quy nh v tiu chun ny lm tng ng kcc chi ph m nh sn xut vnh xut khu phi chu. Nhn chung, cc chi ph ny pht sinh tvic bin dch ccquy nh nc ngoi, thu cc chuyn gia k thut gii thch cc quy nh ncngoi v iu chnh cc trang thit bsn xut cho ph hp vi cc yu cu t ra.Bn cnh , cc sn phm xut khu cng cn chng minh rng cc sn phm nyp ng c quy nh ca nc ngoi. Vic gia tng chi ph c thcn trcc nhsn xut trong vic cgng bn hng ha ra nc ngoi. Nu thiu cc nguyn tcquc t, c thny sinh ri ro l cc quy nh v tiu chun kthut c a ra vp dng chbo hcc ngnh sn xut trong nc.

  • 7/22/2019 Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

    3/26

    HIPNH TBT: MT SNH NGHA

    Cc quy nh v tiu chun kthut trong Hip nh TBT

    Cc quy nh v tiu chun kthut t ra nhng tiu ch cthca mt sn phm -chng hn nhkch c, hnh dng, thit k, cc chc nng v cch vn hnh, hoccch dn nhn hoc gi hng trc khi c by bn. Trong nhng trng hp cth, cch thc sn xut hng c ththhin c tnh ca hng ha v nh c thchng minh tnh tng hp ca hng ha so vi cc quy nh v tiu chun kthutxt vphng php chbin v sn xut hng ha hn l vmt c tnh thc chtca hng ha. Hip nh TBT cn cho php tip cn theo hai hng, quy nh kthutv tiu chun kthut (Phlc 1).

    Skhc bit gia quy nh kthut v tiu chun kthut

    Skhc bit gia quy nh k thut v tiu chun k thut l do vic tun th. Victun thcc tiu chun mang tnh tnguyn cn tun thcc quy nh mang tnh bt

    buc. Tiu chun v quy nh cng c nhng tc ng khc nhau vi thng miquc t. Nu mt sn phm nhp khu khng p ng y cc yu cu ca mtquy nh kthut, sn phm ny skhng c a ra by bn. Trong trng hptiu chun, hng nhp khu vn c thc by bn trn thtrng nhng thphnc thbnh hng v ngi tiu dng c ththch cc sn phm p ng c cctiu chun trong nc.

    Thtc nh gi hp chun

    Thtc nh gi hp chun l nhng quy trnh kthut (chng hn nhthnghim,xc thc, kim tra v chng nhn) xc nh rng sn phm p ng y cc yucu vquy nh v tiu chun. Nhn chung, cc nh xut khu chu chi ph, nu c, v

    cc quy trnh. Th tc nh gi hp chun khng minh bch v phn bit i xcth tr thnh mt cng chu hiu trong bo h thng mi hoc phn bit i xtrong thng mi.

    CC MC TIU TBT

    Bo van ton hoc sc khe cho con ngi

    Phn ln cc quy nh v tiu chun kthut c p dng nhm mc tiu bo vanton hoc sc khe con ngi. C tha ra nhiu v dvvic ny. m boan ton cho con ngi, cc quc gia a ra quy nh rng cc loi mt phi c

    trang b tht lng an ton gim thiu thng tn trong trng hp xy ra tai nngiao thng hoc cm phi bo vngi sdng khi sc in. Mt v dvquynh gip bo vsc khe con ngi l trn nhn mc thuc l phi chr rng thucl c hi cho sc khe.

    Bo vng thc vt

    Quy nh vbo vng thc vt rt phbin, trong c quy nh nhm m borng cc c thng thc vt be da bi tnh trng nhim nc, khng kh v t

  • 7/22/2019 Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

    4/26

    skhng btuyt chng. Chng hn nhmt squc gia quy nh rng mt sloi cchc nh bt khi pht trin n mt ln nht nh.

    Bo vmi trng

    Vic ngi tiu dng ngy mt quan tm nhiu hn ti vn mi trng do sgiatng mc nhim nc, khng kh v t khin nhiu chnh phphi p dngcc quy nh nhm bo vmi trng. V d: ti sn xut cc sn phm giy v nhahay mc xca ng cmt.

    Phng nga vic p dng sai tri trn thc t

    Hu ht cc quy nh ny l bo vngi tiu dng thng qua thng tin, chyu ldi hnh thc cc yu cu vnhn mc. Cc quy nh khc bao gm phn loi vnh ngha, yu cu v bao gi v o lng (chng hn nh kch c, trng lng,v.v) trnh vic p dng sai tri trn thc t.

    Cc mc tiu khc

    Cc mc tiu khc ca quy nh l cht lng hng, hi ha ha v k thut, hocthun li ha thng mi n thun. Cc quy nh vcht lng (chng hn nhccquy nh i hi rng rau quphi t n mt kch thc nht nh trc khi ca ra th trng) rt phbin ti mt snc pht trin. Cc quy nh ny nhmmc tiu hi ha ha trong mt s lnh vc, chng hn nh lnh vc vin thng trnmt khu vc hi nhp kinh tln nhCng ng chu u.

  • 7/22/2019 Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

    5/26

    CC NGUYN TC TBT

    Trnh nhng trngi khng cn thit i vi thng mi

    Nguyn nhn ca nhng ro cn kthut i vi thng mi l g?Cc iu khon TBT vquy nh kthutTrnh nhng trngi khng cn thit i vi thng miKhi no th quy nh kthut trthnh trngi khng cn thit i vi thng mi?Cc iu khon TBT vthtc nh gi hp chun

    Khng phn bit i xv i ngquc giaCc quy nh kthutThtc nh gi hp chun

    Hi ha ha

    Nhng li ch thc tinNhng nlc hi ha haTham gia vo cc tchc tiu chun quc t

    i xc bit v khc bitTng ng v cng nhn ln nhau

    Tng ng l nhthno?Chi ph thnghim phc tpCng nhn ln nhau vthtc nh gi hp chun

    Minh bch ha

    Cc yu cu vvic thng boim hi p

    y ban TBTLut p dng trn thc t

    TRNH NHNG TRNGI KHNG CN THITI VI THNG MI

    Nguyn nhn ca nhng ro cn kthut i vi thng mi l g?

    Nhn chung, nhng ro cn k thut i vi thng mi xut pht t vic chun b,thng qua v p dng cc quy nh kthut v thtc nh gi hp chun khc nhau.Skhc bit gia cc nc vquy nh kthut v thtc nh gi hp chun c thxut pht tnhng nguyn nhn hp l, chng hn nhskhc bit vmc thu nhp

    hoc nguyn nhn a l.

    Cc iu khon TBT vquy nh kthutHip nh TBT c tnh n skhc bit vthu nhp, yu ta l v cc nhn tkhcgia cc quc gia. Phn mu ca Hip nh nu r khng quc gia no bcn trthc hin cc bin php cn thit m bo cht lng hng xut khu, hoc bovcon ngi, ng thc vt, mi trng hoc phng nga vic p dng sai tri trnthc tmt mc thch hp. Tuy nhin, slinh hot vquy nh ca cc thnhvin bhn chbi mt yu cu l quy nh kthut khng c dtho, thng qua

  • 7/22/2019 Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

    6/26

    v p dng nhm mc tiu, hoc c nh hng, to nn nhng cn trkhng cn thiti vi thng mi (iu 2.2)

    Trnh nhng cn trkhng cn thit i vi thng mi

    Trnh nhng cn trkhng cn thit i vi thng mi c ngha l khi mt chnh phdnh ban hnh mt quy nh k thut t c mt mc tiu chnh sch nhtnh (bo vsc khe con ngi, san ton, mi trng, v.v), cc cuc thnglng chc cn trthng mi mt mc cn thit p ng y mc tiuphp l. Theo Hip nh TBT, vic c thha, trong chng mc thch hp, cc quynh vsn phm (vtnh nng hn l vkiu dng hoc c trng bn ngoi, chnghn nhchu la chkhng phi l dy ca mt cnh ca) sgip trnh nhngcn trkhng cn thit i vi thng mi (iu 2.8)

    Khi no mt quy nh kthut trthnh ro cn khng cn thit i vi thngmi?

    Ro cn khng cn thit i vi thng mi c thl do (i) quy nh hn chhnmc cn thit t c mc tiu chnh sch ra, hoc (ii) khng p ng y

    mc tiu hp php. Mt quy nh bcoi l hn chhn mc cn thit khi mc tiu theoui c tht c thng qua nhng bin php khc c nh hng hn chthngmi thp hn, c tnh n nhng ri ro xy ra v thc hin khng y mc tiu.iu 2.2 ca Hip nh nu r rng cc mc tiu hp php bao gm, khng knhngiu khc: yu cu van ninh quc gia, ngn nga vic p dng sai tri trn thc t,bo vsc khe hoc an ninh ca con ngi, bo vng thc vt hoc mi trng.

    Cc iu khon TBT vthtc nh gi hp chun

    Ngha vtrnh nhng cn trkhng cn thit i vi thng mi cng c p dngcho thtc nh gi hp chun. Nhng cn trkhng cn thit i vi thng mi cthxut pht tnguyn nhn l cc thtc mt nhiu thi gian hn hoc nghim ngt

    hn mc cn thit nh gi xem mt sn phm c tun thcc quy nh v lut lca nc nhp khu (iu 5.2.3 viu 5.2.6)

  • 7/22/2019 Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

    7/26

    KHNG PHN BITI XVI NGQUC GIA

    Cc quy nh kthut

    Tng tnhnhiu Hip nh ca WTO, Hip nh TBT cng bao gm Quy chTihuquc (MFN) v cc ngha vi ngquc gia ca GATT. iu 2.1 ca Hip nhTBT nu r rng i vi vn quy nh kthut, sn phm c nhp khu tlnhthca bt kthnh vin no cng phi c i xu i khng km nhng u idnh cho sn phm trong nc hoc sn phm nhp khu tbt knc no.

    Thtc nh gi hp chun

    Cc iu khon MFN v i ngquc gia cng c p dng cho th tc nh gihp chun. Cc th tc nh gi tnh hp chun sc p dng cho hng nhpkhu tcc thnh vin khc ca WTO vi nhng u i khng km nhng u idnh cho sn phm trong nc hoc sn phm nhp khu tbt knc no (iu5.1.1). iu ny c ngha l cc sn phm nhp khu phi c p cc mc ph cngbng nh gi tnh hp chun. Tng tnhvy, cc thnh vin WTO phi tntrng tnh bo mt thng tin vkt ququy trnh nh gi hp chun ca sn phm

    nhp khu nhvn p dng cho sn phm ni a bo vli ch thng mi (iu5.2.4 v 5.2.5)

    HI HA HA

    Nhng li ch trn thc t

    Nhng tranh ci vvic hi ha ha cc quy nh kthut trnn ni ting. Vichi ha ha l rt cn thit cho vic kt ni v tng hp cc linh kin ca mt snphm. Mt khc, thiu tnh tng hp vkthut c thgy nn nhng ro cn ivi thng mi quc t. Hi ha ha k thut cng gip tng li ch cho ngi tiu

    dng. Trong mt mi trng m cc quy nh c hi ha ha, vic cnh tranh giacc sn phm sm bo cho ngi tiu dng c nhiu sla chn hn v c thtitkim hn.

    Nhng nlc hi ha ha

    Hip nh TBT khuyn khch cc thnh vin WTO sdng cc tiu chun quc tchocc quy nh quc gia, hoc cho mt phn ca cc quy nh quc gia trphi vic sdng ny khng hiu quhoc khng thch hp p ng nhng mc tiu chnhsch ra. V dnhtrng hp do yu tkh hu hoc a l hoc do cc vn k thut cbn (iu 2.4). Cc quy nh k thut (v th tc nh gi hp chun)cng vi cc tiu chun quc t tng ng khng c to ra nhng tr ngi

    khng cn thit i vi thng mi quc t.

    Tham gia vo cc cquan tiu chun ha quc t

    Vic tham gia rng ri vo cc cquan tiu chun ha quc t chng hn nh Tchc Tiu chun ha Quc t(ISO), y ban Kthut in tQuc t(IEC) hoc Linminh Vin thng Quc t(ITU) c thm bo rng cc tiu chun quc tthhinc cc li ch thng mi v vic sn xut cthca tng quc gia. Hip nh TBTkhuyn khch cc thnh vin WTO tham gia, d ngun lc cn gii hn, vo cc hot

  • 7/22/2019 Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

    8/26

    ng ca cc t chc quc t v vic d tho tiu chun (iu 2.6) v hng dnhoc khuyn nghvthtc nh gi hp chun (iu 5.5)

    i xc bit v khc bit

    Vic thc hin v cng ch thc thi cc tiu chun quc tc thi hi phi cngun lc kthut v ti chnh vt qu khnng ca cc nc ang pht trin. Hipnh TBT quy nh rng, ty theo iu kin kinh tx hi v kthut cth, mt qucgia ang pht trin c thp dng cc quy nh kthut, tiu chun hoc cc phngphp thnghim nhm duy tr cng nghv phng php sn xut v chbin bna cho tng hp vi nhu cu pht trin ca mnh (iu 12.4)

    TNGNG V CNG NHN LN NHAU

    Tng ng l g?

    Qu trnh dn ti vic chun bcho mt tiu chun quc tc thko di v tn km.Khong cch thi gian gia vic thng qua mt tiu chun quc tv vic thc hin

    tiu chun ny ti mt quc gia cng rt quan trng. Cc hng ro k thut i vithng mi quc t c thc xa b nu cc thnh vin WTO chp thun rngnhng quy nh khc nhau ca cc nc khc nhau vn p ng y cc mc tiuchnh sch ra, thm ch nu nhphi thng qua cc phng thc khc nhau. ychnh l vic p dng nguyn tc tng ng trong hi ha ha kthut (iu 2.7)

    Chi ph thnghim phc tp

    Nhng bng chng vvic tun thcc quy nh kthut c thgy cn trthngmi quc t. Cthl nu sn phm c xut khu ti cc thtrng khc nhau thc thphi tin hnh nhng thnghim khc nhau. Nh sn xut c thsgp nhiukh khn m bo cho hng ha ca mnh c chp thun ti th trng nc

    ngoi. Cho d l l do g chng na th vic c qu nhiu th tc v phng phpcng u lm tng chi ph cho nh sn xut - nhng ngi bn sn phm ti nhiu thtrng khc nhau.

    Cng nhn ln nhau vthtc nh gi hp chun

    Trn cstha thun cng nhn ln nhau (MRA), cc nc tn thnh vic chp nhncc kt quca quy trnh nh gi hp chun ca nhau, cho d nhng quy trnh nykhng ging nhau. MRA gip gim ng kcc chi ph thnghim v chng nhncho sn phm. iu 6.3 ca Hip nh TBT rt khuyn khch cc thnh vin WTOtham gia m phn vi cc thnh vin WTO khc vvic cng nhn kt qunh gihp chun ca nhau.

    MINH BCH HA

    Thng bo

    Cc thnh vin WTO phi thng bo trong 2 trng hp: (1) khi khng tn ti tiuchun, hng dn hoc khuyn ngh quc t tng ng; hoc ni dung k thutca quy nh k thut hoc quy trnh k thut c xut hoc c thng quakhng ph hp vi ni dung kthut ca tiu chun quc t, hng dn hoc khuyn

  • 7/22/2019 Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

    9/26

    nghtng ng; v (2) nu quy nh kthut hoc thtc nh gi hp chun cthc tc ng ln ti hot ng thng mi ca cc thnh vin khc (iu 2.9 v5.6)

    D tho quy nh phi c thng bo ln Ban Th k WTO, nu c th, 60 ngytrc khi chnh thc thng qua cc thnh vin WTO khc c thi gian a ra kin. Cc quy nh cng c thc thng bo trc hoc sau nu xy ra cc vn khn cp lin quan n vic bo van ton, sc khe v mi trng (iu 2.10 v5.7). Chnh quyn di cp trung ng cn thng bo nhng quy nh kthut v thtc nh gi hp chun m trc cc cquan cp chnh phtrung ng cha kpthng bo.

    Mi thnh vin WTO cn thng bo cho cc thnh vin khc vnhng bin php angp dng hoc sp p dng m bo vic thc hin v qun l theo tinh thn Hipnh v v bt c thay i cbn no lin quan n cc quy nh ny (iu 15.2).Vn bn ny phi bao gm, nhng cha kcc iu khc, tt ccc b lut c linquan, cc quy nh, cc chthhnh chnh; tn ca cc xut bn phm - dtho haycc quy nh kthut cui cng, cc tiu chun v quy trnh nh gi hp chun cban hnh; thi gian dkin trnh by bng vn bn nhng nhn xt vquy nh k

    thut, tiu chun hoc quy trnh nh gi hp chun; tn v a chca im hi pc thnh lp theoiu 10.

    Theo iu 10.7, mt thnh vin WTO k hip nh vi bt knc no vcc vnc lin quan ti quy nh kthut, tiu chun hoc quy trnh nh gi hp chun cnh hng ln ti thng mi u phi thng bo cho cc thnh vin khc ca WTOthng qua Ban Thk WTO vcc sn phm nm trong danh mc ca hip nh vcung cp bn m tslc vhip nh.

    im hi p

    L mt phn bsung cho ngha vthng bo, mi thnh vin WTO phi thnh lp mt

    im hi p quc gia. y l im m cc thnh vin khc ca WTO c thyu cuv c c thng tin v cc ti liu vquy nh kthut, tiu chun v quy trnh thnghim ca mt thnh vin WTO, nhng ti liu sp c ban hnh hoc cthng qua, v thng tin/ ti liu vvic tham gia cc hip nh song phng hoc aphng lin quan n tiu chun ha, hoc tham gia cc tchc tiu chun ha v hthng nh gi hp chun khu vc (iu 10). Nhn chung, im hi p l mt cquan chnh ph, nhng cng c thgiao cho mt tchc tnhn thc hin chc nngny.

    y ban TBT

    Vic m bo minh bch ha cng c thc thc hin thng qua stn ti ca y

    ban TBT. iu ny cho php cc thnh vin WTO c tham vn vbt kvn gc lin quan ti cc hot ng thuc Hip nh TBT hoc vic mrng cc mc tiuca hip nh. y ban TBT tchc 2 3 cuc hp mi nm v, nu c th, thnh lpcc ban cng tc thc hin cc chc nng cth.

    Lut p dng trn thc t

    Tiu chun ca mt sn phm c thdo cquan tiu chun ha chnh phhoc phichnh phchun b. Trong nhiu nm qua, s lng cc tchc tiu chun ha t

  • 7/22/2019 Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

    10/26

    nhn tng ln nhanh chng. Lut p dng trn thc t, nm trong Phlc 3 ca Hipnh TBT nu r nhng trnh tm chnh ph trung ng v a phng chun b,thng qua v p dng cc tiu chun. Lut ny cng nu ln trnh tm cc tchctiu chun ha khu vc v tchc phi chnh phxy dng cc tiu chun tnguyn.

    Lut ny mang tnh mi vi cc tchc tiu chun ha. Cc cquan tiu chunha ca chnh phphi chp thun v tun thcc iu khon ca Lut. Mt cquantiu chun ha mun tham gia hoc rt khi Lut phi thng bo vvic tham gia/ rtlui khi Lut v sdng mu thng bo thch hp (on C ca Lut). Cc cquantiu chun ha tham gia Lut phi thng bo t nht mt nm 2 ln vcc chngtrnh lm vic ca mnh v lm thno c thbit c cc thng tin chi tit vccchng trnh (on J).

    HIPNH SPS: MT SNH NGHA

    Cc bin php SPS

    Hip nh SPS nh ngha vcc tiu chun kim dch ng thc vt. Hip nh ny

    bao gm tt ccc bin php c nh hng ti thng mi quc tv c p dngbo vcon ngi v ng thc vt khi nhng ri ro bn ngoi. Nhng ri ro nybao gm cc vt gy hi, bnh tt xut pht tng thc vt, nhng ri ro v sckhe tcc loi phgia, cht gy nhim, cht c hoc bnh tt xut pht tthcphm, ung hoc thc n gia sc.

    Bo vsc khe con ngi v ng vt

    Bo vsc khe con ngi v ng vt khi nhng ri ro ny sinh tcc loi phgia,cht gy nhim, cht c hoc bnh tt trong thc phm. Cc ri ro khc cho sckhe con ngi chng hn nhnhng vn vdinh dng, iu trbng thuc hocan ton cho phng tin t khng thuc loi ny. Vic cm nhp khu cam c d

    lng thuc trsu nht nh, hoc quy nh p dng cho cc sn phm sa nhpkhu c cha vi khun samonella l nhng v din hnh vcc bin php SPS.

    Bo vsc khe con ngi khi nhng bnh do ng thc vt truyn nhimMi e da vbnh truyn nhim tng thc vt c thc phn nh thng quacc bin php c a ra ngn nga, chng hn nhsly lan bnh di hay viccm nhp khu tht v cc sn phm tht c ngun gc tcc khu vc ang c dch lmm long mng.

    Bo vth y v cy trng

    V dvvic bo v th y v cy trng khi nhng vt gy hi, cc c thbbnh

    hoc gy bnh l vic cm nhp khu gia sc tcc khu vc bnh hng bi bnhlao phi Bovine. Quy nh ny l mt trong nhng v dvbin php SPS c pdng vi mc tiu trnh vic xut hin v lan rng ca cc loi bnh tt cho gia sctrong nc.

    Phng nga nhng thit hi do sxm nhp, tn ti v lan rng ca cc vt gyhi

  • 7/22/2019 Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

    11/26

    Vic nhp khu khng cn thit cc loi cdi c thgy thit hi cho ng vt trongnc v cc c ththc vt khc do mt sbnh tt. Mt bin php c p dng gip mt quc gia trnh nhng thit hi c thc do sly lan ca cdi sri votrng hp th4 ny.

    Cc loi bin php SPS

    Hip nh SPS p dng cho bt kbin php no c mt trong nhng mc tiu xcnh trn. Cc bin php an ton vsinh c thc nhiu hnh thc, chng hn nhp dng cho mt sn phm c thhoc mt s tiu chun chbin, cc sn phmphi c ngun gc tmt khu vc khng c bnh, quy nh kim dch, thtc chngnhn hoc kim tra, cc yu cu vmu hng hoc th nghim, cc bin php ghinhn hng ha lin quan n sc khe, a ra cc mc gii hn ti a vdlngthuc trsu, hoc cho php sdng mt nh lng nht nh phgia trong thcphm.

    CC MC TIU SPS

    iu XX (b) ca GATT 1994Hip nh SPS bsung thm iu XX (b) ca GATT 1994. Theo iu XX, cc thnhvin WTO c tha ra cc bin php cn thit bo vcon ngi v ng thc vtvi iu kin cc bin php ny khng trthnh mt cng cbp mo hot ngthng mi hoc phn bit i xkhng chnh ng.

    Phm vi ca Hip nh SPS

    Hip nh SPS khng a ra bt cmt bin php SPS cthno. Hip nh chara cc yu cu ni chung vcc quy trnh thtc i vi vic t ra tiu chun v tmkim cc bin php thun li cho qu trnh hi ha ha cc tiu chun trn ton th

    gii. Hip nh SPS nhm m bo rng bt kbin php SPS no cng da trn cskhoa hc v trnh c nhng ri ro thc sti sc khe ng thi khng phi lmt ro cn thng mi phi thuquan tr hnh.

    Thuc cc iu khon ca Hip nh SPS l cc bin php sau: 1) chnh bo vcon ngi hoc ng thc vt; 2) nhm ngn nga nhng ri ro pht sinh t thcphm hoc nhng ri ro tvt gy hi hay lin quan n bnh tt; v 3) trc tip hocgin tip nh hng ti thng mi quc t. Hip nh SPS cn a ra mt danhsch cha ton din vcc bin php thuc phm vi Hip nh: tiu chun ca thnhphm; phng php chbin v sn xut; quy trnh thnghim, kim tra, chng nhnv thng qua; cc bin php kim dch; iu khon vcc bin php thng k tngng; quy trnh ly mu v phng php nh gi ri ro; cc yu cu vbao gi v

    nhn mc c lin quan trc tip ti an ton thc phm.

    Bo vquyn v chquyn ca cc thnh vin WTO

    Hip nh SPS nhn thc r rng v quyn v ch quyn ca cc thnh vin WTOtrong vic a ra cc bin php c thkm hm hot ng thng mi nhm thc hincc blut quc gia vi mc tiu bo vcon ngi v ng thc vt. Theo quy chi ngquc gia v quy chMFN trong GATT, cc bin php p dng cho hng ha

  • 7/22/2019 Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

    12/26

    sn xut trong nc/ nhng quy nh cho cc dch bnh trn ng thc vt trong nccng ging nhhng ha nc ngoi m khng c phn bit i x.

    Gim sty tin

    Mt c trng cbn ca Hip nh SPS l gim sty tin trong quyt nh ca ccchnh ph trong cc bin php kim dch ng thc vt thng qua vic lm sng tnhng nhn tno cn c xem xt khi p dng cc bin php bo vsc khe. Cthl cc bin php c a ra nhm m bo an ton thc phm v an ton ngthc vt nn da trn csphn tch v nh gi cc d liu trn cskhoa hc,khch quan v chnh xc. ng thi, Hip nh SPS khuyn khch vic a ra quytnh mt cch ng bv minh bch vmc thch hp ca vic bo vsc khe.Hip nh i hi rng cc bin php c thgy hn ch thng mi c p dngkhng v mc tiu no khc ngoi mc tiu m bo an ton thc phm v an tonng thc vt v khng gy nn nhng ro cn bt hp l vi thng mi.

    CC NGUYN TC SPS

    Hi ha hanh nghaCc tchc tiu chun quc tSdng cc tiu chun quc tGinh vhp chun

    Tng ng

    Nhng cch thc khc nhau nhm gim ri roBng chngBn cht ca tng ng

    Bng chng khoa hc

    Khoa hc chkhng phi l suy xt vmt php lMin tr

    nh gi ri ro

    Qu trnhSng btrong quyt nh qun l ri roLa chn bin php SPS

    Minh bch ha

    Cquan thng bo quc giaim hi p quc giaQuy trnh thng bo

    Hnh thc

    Mi quan hgia cc bin php TBT v SPS

  • 7/22/2019 Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

    13/26

    Nhng nguyn tc v iu khon chung khc

    Quy trnh kim sot, kim tra v thng quay ban SPSThc hin cp a phngCc nc ang pht trin

    HI HA HA

    nh ngha

    Hip nh SPS nhm mc tiu vt qua nhng ro cn vsc khe trong vic tip cnthtrng thng qua vic khuyn khch thit lp, nhn thc v p dng cc bin phpkim dch ng thc vt ni chung ca cc thnh vin khc nhau. Vic thit lp ccquy nh vkim dch ng thc vt ng bvi cc tiu chun, hng dn v khuynnghquc tc coi l hi ha ha.

    Cc tchc chun ha quc tHip nh SPS c cp ti (tuy nhin, cha cp mt cch ton din) 3 tchcchun ha quc t, cc tchc c hot ng c th lin quan ti cc mc tiu caHip nh SPS: y ban Dinh dng FAO/WHO (FAO Codex) trong lnh vc an tonthc phm, Vn phng quc tvdch ng vt (OEI) trong lnh vc th y, v cc tchc quc tv khu vc c cc hot ng nm trong khun khca chng trnh Canthip Bo vThc vt Quc tFAO (IPPC) trong lnh vc thc vt.

    Vic sdng cc tiu chun quc t

    Mc d cc chun mc ny c thc hin trn cstnguyn song Hip nh SPS

    cn ang gy tranh ci vhiu lc ca cc tiu chun mi. Mt thnh vin WTO pdng cc chun mc ny u c coi l s tun thy Hip nh SPS. Mtthnh vin c thquyt nh a ra mc bo hvt qu tiu chun quc tnunhc bng chng khoa hc hoc nu chng minh c rng tiu chun ca Hipnh SPS khng p ng mc bo hc thchp nhn c. Tuy nhin, trongtrng hp mt thnh vin WTO quyt nh khng sdng mt tiu chun quc t,bin php m nc ny a ra phi da trn nh gi ri ro mt cch chnh xc.

    Ginh vhp chun

    iu 3.2 ca Hip nh SPS nu r rng cc bin php SPS tun thng tiu chun,hng dn hoc khuyn nghquc tphi cho thy scn thit ca vic bo vcon

    ngi, ng thc vt v c coi l ng bvi cc phn cn li ca Hip nh SPS.Trng hp vkin hcmn tht b ca WTO cho thy vic xem xt khniu 3.2.vcbn, cc bin php SPS c thtun thcc quy nh quc ttheo 3 cch v c3 kt qukhc nhau: 1) mt thnh vin WTO c ththng qua cc bin php tun thvi cc tiu chun quc t(c ginh vvic tun thHip nh SPS); 2) mt thnhvin WTO c tha ra cc tiu chun SPS ca mnh da trn cc tiu chun quc ttng ng (khng da trn cshp chun v cc bin php a ra sphthucvo vic nghin cu ca nc thnh vin, c bit l vn liu cc bin php a rac da trn cskhoa hc v nh gi ri ro khng); 3) thnh vin WTO c thb

  • 7/22/2019 Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

    14/26

    qua cc tiu chun quc tv quyt nh mc bo hthch hp (khng da trn cshp chun nhng khng vi phm Hip nh SPS nu cc bin php ny da trncc bng chng khoa hc v nh gi ri ro). Trong v kin hcmn tht b, Cquan chng n ca WTO cho rng v cc thnh vin WTO c quyn ttrthc hincc tiu chun nghim ngt hn nn gnh nng chng minh vn thuc vbn khiukin trong vkin that nhn l v khng tun thtiu chun.

    TNH TNGNG

    Nhng cch thc khc nhau gim ri ro

    Hip nh SPS nhn nh rng c nhiu cch khc nhau m bo an ton lngthc v bo vng thc vt ti cc quc gia, min l cc thnh vin WTO tn thnhcc quy nh ca nhau mc tng ng vi nhng quy nh tng tvbo vconngi v ng thc vt. Do , tha thun cng nhn ln nhau tha nhn tnh tngng trong cc bin php bo vsc khe v m phn vcc hnh thc cng chthi hnh vi cc cch tip cn khc nhau trn cssong phng hoc a phng, vdnh, c thgip vt qua vic thiu i mt stiu chun quc t.

    Gnh nng chng minh

    Trong qu trnh m phn nhng tha thun cng nhn ln nhau nhtrn, nc xutkhu phi chu gnh nng chng minh rng cc yu cu vvsinh ng thc vt trongnc t nht cng tng ng vi nhng yu cu ca nc nhp khu c thbom an ton v sc khe. c th lm c vic ny, nc xut khu phi cungcp cc thng tin c lin quan gip nc nhp khu a ra c cc nh gi, baogm cc thng tin gip tip cn vi cc cquan y t, phng tin, trang thit bv ccthtc khc. Nu cc bin php ca nc xut khu c tnh bo vsc khe tngng, hsc cng nhn l tng ng vi tcch mt i tc thng mi.

    Bn cht ca tnh tng ng

    Nguyn tc tng ng l trung tm ca Hip nh SPS. iu 4 ca Hip nh SPSquy nh rng cc thnh vin WTO phi nht tr rng cc bin php SPS ca cc thnhvin khc trong WTO l mang tnh tng ng cho d nhng bin php ny khc vinhng bin php m nc hang p dng hoc ang c cc nc khc p dngcho cng loi sn phm nu nhxt mt cch khch quan, nc xut khu chngminh c vi nc nhp khu l cc bin php mnh a ra t c mc bo hcn thit ca nc nhp khu. iu 4 cng a ra c cch thc v cchtip cn vi cc hip nh song phng v a phng, tuy nhin, li c mt squanim bt bnh. Cthl mt snc ang pht trin phn nn rng trn thc t, mtsquy nh mang tnh ging nhau hn l tnh tng ng.

    BNG CHNG KHOA HC

    Khoa hc chkhng phi l suy xt vmt php l

    iu 2 ca Hip nh SPS nu r rng cc bin php c a ra khng da trn ccnguyn tc khoa hc skhng c gi trtrong phm vi Hip nh SPS. iu khon nyl mt trong nhng trct cbn ca Hip nh SPS. V d: mc d cc thnh vin

  • 7/22/2019 Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

    15/26

    WTO c thlp tiu chun ri ro bng O cho cc bin php bo hSPS, quyt nhny v bn thn bin php ny vn phi da trn cskhoa hc.

    Min tr

    Mt min trc p dng trong ngha vcbn ny c trnh by trong iu 5.7ca Hip nh SPS (nguyn tc phng nga tm thi). Theo iu 5.7, trong trnghp khng c cc thng tin khoa hc thch hp, nc thnh vin c thtm thi pdng cc bin php kim dch ng thc vt trn cscc thng tin tm thi c c.Trong nhng trng hp nhvy, cc thnh vin c thtm kim nhng thng tin bsung cn thit nhm nh gi khch quan vri ro v r sot cc bin php kim dchng thc vt trong mt qung thi gian hp l.

    NH GI RI RO

    Qu trnh

    Cc thnh vin WTO phi a ra cc bin php SPS trn csnh gi nhng ri ro

    trn thc t. Tiu ch c s dng phn tch ri ro thng c dng l ccthc o van ton c coi nhmt bin php phng nga. Nu mt quc gia longi vd lng thuc trsu trn hoa qunhp khu, nc c 2 s la chn:mt l sdng nhng tiu chun quc tang c ra quyt nh; hai l tthc hinvic nh gi ri ro c thbit c nhng ri ro trong hoa quv nhng hu quc thc. Hip nh SPS khuyn khch vic sdng cch tip cn c h thng nh gi ri ro. Ty theo yu cu, nc ny phi cung cp cho cc nc thnh vinkhc ca WTO thng tin vtt ccc yu tc lin quan cng nhquy trnh v quytnh m nc mnh sdng nh gi nhng ri ro hoc mi e da ti ng thcvt.

    Tnh ng bca cc quyt nh qun l ri ro

    Cc thnh vin WTO c quyn quyt nh vmc thch hp bo vsc khe.Tuy nhin, mc ny phi phn nh c vic bo vsc khe nhng khng phi lbin php bo hcc nh sn xut trong nc trnh khi tnh trng cnh tranh. Cth l nu nhc nhng ri ro tng tvsc khe th cng nn sdng mc bo htng t, nu c khc bit th skhc bit ny sbcoi l bin php phn biti xhoc gy trngi i vi thng mi quc t.

    La chn bin php SPS

    C nhiu cch khc nhau m bo mc chp nhn ri ro. Mt khi chnh phquyt nh mc bo hthch hp trong lnh vc kim dch ng thc vt, quc gia ny

    nn la chn mt bin php cht chv hn chthng mi hn mc cn thit (yutcn i). Vic cm nhp khu hon ton sn phm bt mc th l mt phngthc hn chmc dlng thuc trsu gy nh hng ti sc khe ngi tiudng. Tuy nhin, theo Hip nh SPS, nc nhp khu c ngha vxem xt cc binphp thay th bin php cm nhp khu, khng ch lu n mc tiu bo v sckhe m cn c nhng tc ng tim tng ti thng mi. Vic th nghim ngunhin dlng ti a ti cng nhp hng c thl mt bin php mang tnh hn chthng mi t hn so vi bin php cm nhp khu bt mv nhng sn phm bt mc dlng p ng tiu chun ra c thc phn phi ti thtrng ni a.

  • 7/22/2019 Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

    16/26

    MINH BCH HA

    Cquan thng bo quc gia

    Mi thnh vin WTO phi thnh lp mt cquan cp chnh phtrung ng chu trchnhim thc hin cc quy trnh thng bo. Khi mt chnh phdnh thc thi mt quynh mi v kim dch ng thc vt hoc sa i lut hin hnh c th hn chthng mi hoc c s khc bit so vi cc tiu chun quc t, quc gia ny phithng bo ti Ban Thk WTO. Danh sch cc cquan thng bo quc gia v a chca cc cquan ny sc Ban Thk WTO cp nht thng xuyn.

    im hi p quc gia

    Cc chnh ph cng phi thnh lp cc vn phng, gi l im hi p, chu trchnhim cung cp cho cc i tc thng mi bt k thng tin no c yu cu linquan n vic p dng cc quy nh van ton lng thc v ng thc vt, cc hipnh tng ng ang c p dng hoc thng tin vquy trnh v quyt nh nh

    gi ri ro.Quy trnh thng bo

    Cc thnh vin WTO phi thng bo cho cc i tc thng mi, thng qua Ban Thk WTO, vnhng quy nh vkim dch ng thc vt mi c ban hnh hoc vac sa i, nhng quy nh c thnh hng ti thng mi v c khc bit so vitiu chun quc t. Sau khi nhn c thng bo, Ban Thk WTO sgi thng tinti cc thnh vin khc trong WTO trong thi gian sm nht c th. Nhng thnh vinquan tm c thc vn bn y (xut) vcc quy nh thng qua im hi phoc mt cquan khc chu trch nhim cung cp thng tin nh nu trong vn bnthng bo. Theo khuyn ngh ca y ban SPS, nn gi thng bo ti Ban Th k

    WTO trc ngy quy nh c hiu lc cc tiu chun khc trong WTO c t nht 60ngy trc khi a ra kin ca mnh ti nc ban hnh quy nh. Thtc thng bovn c p dng trong trng hp khn cp.

    Hnh thc

    Thng bo v quy nh kim dch ng thc vt c hnh thc c tiu chun ha.Thng bo cn nu chi tit vcquan c thm quyn v cquan chu trch nhimban hnh quy nh. Cn nu r danh mc sn phm nm trong quy nh. Cc thnhvin WTO phi xc nh r liu c tiu chun quc ttng tkhng, liu bin phpc a ra c da trn tiu chun hay khng, v nu khng, lm thno binphp ny khng i chch hng. Vi mc tiu minh bch ha, thng bo phi nu

    y cc chi tit tham kho v cquan chu trch nhim gii quyt cc kin phbnh (trong trng hp cquan ny khc vi im hi p quc gia).

    Mi quan hgia cc bin php TBT v SPS

    i khi mt quy nh n thun hng n 2 mc tiu khc nhau: mc tiu k thut(chng hn nhcht lng hay vic dn nhn) v mc tiu kim dch ng thc vt.Trong nhng trng hp nhvy, cn phi thng bo 2 ln, sdng mu thng bothch hp ca y ban TBT v y ban SPS.

  • 7/22/2019 Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

    17/26

    NHNG NGUYN TC VIU KHON KHC

    Thtc thm tra v thng quaHip nh SPS quy nh rng khi kim tra tnh hp chun ca cc quy nh SPS trongnc, cc thnh vin WTO phi cng bng, hp l v khng phn bit i x. V dnhtt ccc thtc lin quan n vic thm tra tnh hp chun phi c thc hinv hon thnh m khng c tr hon v cc sn phm trong nc khng chng u i nhiu hn sn phm nhp khu. Cc thnh vin WTO cng phi mbo rng c thtc r sot nhng khiu ni lin quan n vic thc hin cc thtcni trn. Trong thi gian qua, c nhiu kin khiu ni m cc nh xut nhp khua ra vnhng hng ro thng mi tr hnh hoc nhng bin php hn chca ccnc nhp khu vin cl thc hin theo Hip nh SPS. Cthl c bng chng vvic sdng cc bin php SPS v chng nhn SPS nhl nhng quy trnh cp giyphp nhp khu bt hp php v mang tnh phn bit i x.

    y ban SPS

    Mt y ban chuyn trch ca WTO (y ban SPS) c thnh lp htrvic thcthi Hip nh SPS v l mt din n thng xuyn cho cc chuyn gia tvn ca ccthnh vin WTO. Cc thnh vin WTO c trch nhim thng bo ti y ban SPS ttccc bin php SPS mi c p dng v nhng sa i cho cc bin php hinhnh cha ph hp vi tiu chun quc tv c nh hng ti thng mi quc t.y ban SPS c quan hmt thit vi cc tchc quc tc lin quan. Mt chc nngcbn ca y ban SPS l mt din n tho lun v gii quyt cc vn thngmi ny sinh gia cc thnh vin WTO.

    Thc hin cp a phng

    Cc thnh vin WTO chu trch nhim m bo rng tt c cc c quan cp a

    phng u tn trng trit cc iu khon ca Hip nh SPS. Cc thnh vin WTOcng phi a ra cc bin php hp l m bo rng cc cquan phi chnh phtrong lnh thca mnh lun tun thcc iu khon ca Hip nh SPS. Tng t,cc thnh vin WTO c ngha v khng c a ra bt k bin php no khuynkhch cc cquan cp a phng hoc tchc phi chnh phkhng tun thHipnh SPS.

    Cc nc ang pht trin

    iu 9 v iu 10 ca Hip nh SPS bao gm cc iu khon lin quan ti cc ncang pht trin. Mi ngi u nhn thc c rng cc thnh vin km pht trintrong WTO sgp kh khn khi thc hin cc ngha vca Hip nh SPS. C th

    cc nc ang pht trin sc u tin mt giai on di hn tun thcc nghavSPS. Tng t, nhng ty theo yu cu, cng c thc mt sngoi lv thigian p dng i vi mt sngha vcth.

  • 7/22/2019 Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

    18/26

    2. CCIU KHON MINH BCH HA CA HIPNH SPS:

    PHN TCH CHI TIT, CC VNTHC TIN V KHUYN NGHBANU VVIC THC HIN TBT V SPS CA VIT NAM

    GII THIU

    Li gii thiu

    Mc tiu cbn ca bi trnh by th2 ny l cung cp thm cc yu thng dnthnh lp v a vo hot ng cc cquan thng bo v im hi p nhm mctiu gip Vit Nam thc hin chai Hip nh TBT v SPS. C tht c mc tiuny thng qua vic xem xt chi tit hn cc ngha v, yu cu vmt hnh chnh vc cu ca cc c quan thng bo v im hi p theo tinh thn Hip nh SPS.Ngoi ra cn c ti liu tham kho cho c3 lnh vc minh bch ha: xut bn cc quynh, cc thng bo v trli cc cu hi.

    Trnh by trong phm vi dnSc phn phlc chi tit vcc vn thc tin v kinh nghim ca cc nc ECv cc thnh vin WTO khc. Tng t, bi trnh by cng a ra mt skhuyn nghban u c ththo lun. Bo co cui cng sa ra khuyn nghcui cng vcc phng n la chn v mt hnh chnh cng vi bn tm tt nhng cng ctng tca WTO, cc ti liu o to v ti liu trnh by.

    Hip nh SPS

    Theo Hip nh SPS, mi quc gia thnh vin WTO c rt nhiu ngha vminh bchha. Cc thnh vin WTO c yu cu cng btt cnhng bin php kim dch

    ng thc vt v thng bo nhng thay i vcc bin php ny. Trong qu trnhthc hin Hip nh SPS, cc thnh vin WTO c yu cu phi thnh lp mt cquan thng bo cp chnh phtrung ng chu trch nhim thc hin cc yu cu vthng bo theo quy nh ca Hip nh SPS (c quan thng bo). ng thi, ccthnh vin WTO cn phi thnh lp mt im hi p chu trch nhim trli cc cuhi ca cc nc khc vcc bin php SPS v cc vn c lin quan (im hip).

    Khi nim minh bch ha

    Mc d khi nim minh bch ha thng c WTO sdng song vn cha nhngha cthc khi nim ny. Vcbn, khi nim minh bch ha trong WTO l

    mt trong nhng nguyn tc cbn ca hip nh ny: mc tiu l r rng hn, ddon hn v c c thng tin vcc chnh sch, nguyn tc v quy nh thng mica cc thnh vin.

    THNH LP CQUAN THNG BO SPS

    Cc trch nhim ca cquan thng bo SPS

  • 7/22/2019 Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

    19/26

    Theo Hip nh SPS, cc thnh vin WTO phi thnh lp mt cquan thng bo cpchnh phtrung ng chu trch nhim thc hin, cp quc gia, nhng yu cu vthng bo theo Hip nh SPS. y l cquan thng bo SPS. Cquan thng bochu trch nhim: m bo rng cc quy nh c cng bsm cc nc kp ara kin bng cc mu thng bo thch hp; cung cp bn sao ca cc quy nh theoyu cu; v m bo gii quyt chnh xc nhng kin ph bnh.

    La chn cquan

    Nhim vthnh lp cquan thng bo khng phi l mt nhim vqu phc tp. Huht cc quc gia u c cc cquan chnh phhoc cc ngnh chu trch nhimtrong cc lnh vc lin quan n Hip nh SPS (cc bin php an ton lng thc, thy v thc vt) hoc chu trch nhim tuyn truyn cc thng tin ca chnh ph. Mttrong nhng ngnh ny c thc chnh phchnh m nhim ngha vthngbo. Cquan thng bo phi l mt bphn ca chnh phtrung ng, v vy chcnng ny khng thc thc hin ti cp a phng.

    n gin vmt hnh chnh

    Hu ht cc nc u thy sthun tin hn nu cquan thng bo l mt cquanchnh phchu trch nhim vcc vn c lin quan ti Hip nh SPS (ngha l anton lng thc, th y v thc vt). Thm ch nu c nhiu cquan chnh phcngchu trch nhim thc hin chc nng ny th cng chnn c mt cquan thng boSPS.

    Ccu hnh chnh

    Cquan thng bo nn c quan hvi nhng chuyn gia kthut trong lnh vc kimdch ng thc vt, nhng ngi chu trch nhim vit cc quy nh (trong tng lai lcc bin php SPS). Tuy nhin, cc chuyn gia ny khng nht thit phi cng tc ticquan thng bo. Vai tr cbn ca cquan thng bo l theo di qu trnh thng

    bo v kim tra klng nhng thng bo c a ra, m bo rng nhng thngbo ny hon ton chnh xc v ton din.

    THNH LPIM HIP SPS

    Trch nhim ca im hi p SPS

    im hi p chu trch nhim trli tt ccc cu hi hp l v cung cp nhng tiliu c lin quan n: bt kbin php kim dch ng thc vt c thng qua hocc xut trong nc; bt kquy trnh kim tra, bin php sn xut v kim dch,

    quy trnh nh gi d lng thuc v phgia trong nc; quy trnh nh gi ri ro,nhng yu tc xem xt v quyt nh vmc bo m vsinh an ton; cc tchc v h thng kim dch ng thc vt quc tv khu vc m nc mnh/ hoccc cquan trong nc tham gia hoc l thnh vin; cc hip nh v tha thun songphng v a phng m nc mnh tham gia hoc l thnh vin trong phm vi Hipnh SPS v vn bn cc hip nh v tha thun.

    Nhng trch nhim khc bit so vi Cquan thng bo

  • 7/22/2019 Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

    20/26

    Cquan thng bo c th gii quyt nhng cu hi vd tho ca cc bin php,im hi p chu trch nhim tr li cc cu hi v cc bin php SPS hin angc p dng (thm ch cnhng bin php tn ti trc khi WTO v Hip nh SPSc hiu lc).

    La chn cquan

    Hthng tchc ca im hi p phi c ccu sao cho cc quc gia c thddng c c thng tin vSPS v cc vn c lin quan m khng cn phi tmkim v lin htrc tip vi cquan chc nng cth. im hi p l im lin hduy nht nu cu hi. im hi p c trch nhim thu thp cu trli tcc cquan chc nng trong nc v trli cho quc gia t cu hi.

    n gin vmt hnh chnh

    Nhim vthnh lp mt im hi p khng c g kh. Hu ht cc nc u c cccquan chnh phhoc cc ngnh chu trch nhim vcc lnh vc c quy nhtrong Hip nh SPS, cc bin php kim dch ng thc vt hoc tuyn truyn thngtin ca chnh ph. im hi p phi c quan hvi cc chuyn gia trong lnh vc an

    ton lng thc, th y v thc vt c thnhanh chng thu thp c cu trli.Phi hp vmt hnh chnh

    Mt squc gia thy rng sthun li hn nu chc mt cquan chu trch nhimca ccquan thng bo v ca cim hi p. Li ch chnh ca vic ny l gimn mc thp nht tc ng ca cc ngun ti chnh v vt cht v xy dng chnhsch thng mi c chuyn mn trong lnh vc ny. Ngoi ra, vic ny cn gip loitrnhu cu phi hp gia cquan thng bo v im hi p.

    Ccu hnh chnh

    Thng c 2 cch la chn mt cquan l im hi p SPS: mt cquan thng tinvtiu chun ang hot ng; hoc mt cquan chnh phchu trch nhim vnhiuvn trong Hip nh SPS (ngha l an ton lng thc, th y v thc vt). im hip khng nht thit phi l mt cquan chnh phm c thl mt cquan c lp.im hi p cng khng nht thit phi c cc chuyn vin chu trch nhim tr lithc mc ca cc nc khc. Vai tr cbn ca im hi p l kim sot mt phnca qu trnh minh bch ha, l: thu thp cu trli tnhng cquan chc nngca chnh phcng nhanh cng tt v sau gi nhng cu trli ti cc nc tcu hi. Hoc cquan chnh phc thm quyn cthcng c thtrc tip tr linc t cu hi, nhng im hi p vn chu trch nhim gim st vmt hnhchnh v vn minh bch ha trong WTO.

    QUN LIU HNH MT CQUAN THNG BO SPS

    Nhng nhim vcbn vmt hnh chnh

    Nhng nhim vcbn m cquan thng bo phi thng xuyn thc hin l: quytnh liu c cn thng bo khng; khi no sthng bo; vit bn thng bo; trli cuhi vcc ti liu thng bo; theo di thng bo ca cc nc khc; a ra quytnh v bnh lun.

  • 7/22/2019 Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

    21/26

    Thng bo trc

    Hip nh SPS yu cu phi thng bo trc vcc bin php SPS c xut pdng. u im cbn ca hthng thng bo ny l c c stham vn ca quctthng qua vic cho php cc nc khc bnh lun vcc bin php c xut.R rng l mt quc gia khng c hthng tham vn, vic p ng v tun thccyu cu thng bo ca WTO sgp phn tng cng sminh bch ha trong nc.

    Yu cu minh bch ha

    Bt kmt thnh vin WTO no dnh a ra mt bin php SPS mi nht thitphi: trnh thng bo qua Ban Thk WTO khi a ra mt bin php mi hoc thayi mt bin php c; c mt khong thi gian cc nc khc a ra bnh lunbng vn bn; tho lun vcc bnh lun ty theo yu cu; xem xt bnh lun v cckt qu tho lun; gii thch cho nc nu bnh lun v vic nc mnh sdnhxem xt cc bnh lun nhthno; nu c th, cung cp thm thng tin vbin phpSPS c xut; cung cp cho nc yu cu bn copy cc quy nh SPS cthng qua hoc thng tin vcc bin php SPS sc a vo p dng trong thi

    gian ti.

    RA THNG BO SPS

    Cn thng bo g?

    Hip nh SPS quy nh rng cc thnh vin WTO nn thng bo nhng thay i vcc bin php SPS. Cc bin php SPS l nhng bin php c p dng : bo vng thc vt khi nhng ri ro ny sinh tcc cht phgia, cht gy nhim, chtc hoc bnh tt trong thc phm, ung hoc thc n gia sc; bo v conngi khi nhng ri ro pht sinh tnhng bnh tt do ng vt, thc vt hoc nhng

    sn phm do sxm nhp, xut hin hoc ly lan ca vt gy hi; bo vngthc vt khi nhng ri ro pht sinh tvic xm nhp, xut hin hoc ly lan ca vtgy hi, bnh tt, c thmang bnh hoc gy bnh; bo vhoc hn chnhngthit hi do sxm nhp, xut hin hoc ly lan ca vt gy hi.

    Thno l mt bin php hoc quy nh SPS?

    Hip nh SPS quy nh rng: cc bin php kim dch ng thc vt bao gm tt ccc lut, nghnh, quy nh, yu cu v th tc, bao gm nhng khng kn cctiu chun vthnh phm; phng php chbin v sn xut; quy trnh thnghim,kim tra v thng qua; cc bin php kim dch bao gm yu cu vvic vn chuynng thc vt, hoc nhng yu tm bo qu trnh chuyn ch; cc iu khon v

    phng php thng k, quy trnh ly mu v cc phng php nh gi ri ro; cc yucu vbao gi v dn nhn c lin quan trc tip ti an ton lng thc. Trong Phlc B ca Hip nh SPS, thut ngquy nh cng c sdng. Phm vi ca khinim quy nh kh rng. Cc quy nh SPS c nh ngha l cc bin php kimdch ng thc vt nhlut, nghnh hoc thng tc p dng ni chung.

    Yu cu minh bch ho

  • 7/22/2019 Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

    22/26

    Hip nh SPS i hi cc nc phi thng bo cho WTO vnhng bin php kimdch ng thc vt mi hoc c sa i trong trng hp: a ra mt bin phpmi hoc thay i mt bin php c; c mt khong thi gian cc nc khc ara bnh lun bng vn bn; tho lun vcc bnh lun ty theo yu cu; xem xt bnhlun v cc kt qutho lun; gii thch cho nc nu bnh lun vvic nc mnh sdnh xem xt cc bnh lun nh thno; nu c th, cung cp thm thng tin vbin php SPS c xut; cung cp cho nc yu cu bn copy cc quy nh SPSc thng qua hoc thng tin vcc bin php SPS sc a vo p dng trongthi gian ti.

    KHA CNH THC T

    Ai svit thng bo?

    Thng bo nn do mt ngi vit (hoc t nht xem xt cn thn) l tc gica cc tiliu c thng bo hoc c kin thc vng vng vbin php c thng bo. ykhng nht thit phi l ngi lm vic ti cquan thng bo. Chng hn nhngiin vo mu thng bo c thl ngi ang cng tc ti cquan lp tiu chun cp

    quc gia chu trch nhim a ra quy nh. Trong bt ktrng hp no, cn cvomt bin php SPS, cquan thng bo vn phi chu trch nhim m bo rng thngbo c a ra l hon ton chnh xc v c gi ti WTO. Tt ccc thng bogi ti Ban Thk WTO u phi lm bng ting Anh, ting Php hoc ting Ty BanNha. y ban SPS a ra cc mu vn bn c sdng thng xuyn v trongtrng hp khn cp. Cc thng bo ny lun c sn ti Ban Thk WTO.

    Trli cu hi ca cc thnh vin WTO khc

    Khi mt quc gia thng bo vmt bin php SPS, quc gia ny phi cung cp bncopy quy nh c xut ty theo yu cu. Cquan thng bo phi m bo rngmnh c trong tay cc ti liu trc khi thng bo. Yu cu vti liu thng bothng c a ra thng qua cquan thng bo hoc im hi p ca mt ncv Ban Thk WTO c ngha vphp l trli nhng vn ny. Tuy nhin, tht ltng nu cc nc c thtrli tt ccc ti liu thng bo, trong c thc yucu ca cc c nhn hoc cc ngnh cng nghip. Nn p ng yu cu trong vng 5ngy lm vic; nu khng, nn gi thng bo nhn c yu cu bng fax hocemail v nu r thi gian dtnh schm trli.

    Gii p kin ca cc thnh vin khc trong WTO

    Mc tiu cbn ca vic thng bo cc quy nh c xut l cc nc c tha ra kin tham vn trong qu trnh dtho. Khi cc nc nu kin vmt bin

    php SPS c thng bo, nc thng bo phi thc hin mt sngha vnht nh.Trch nhim ca ngnh hoc ni nhn thng bo l: thng bo l nhn c kinbnh lun; tho lun v kin nu cn; tr li nhng cu hi c a ra; gii thchnhng kin c (khng c) xem xt nh thno; cung cp thng tin thm vbin php nu c yu cu; v, trong tt ccc trng hp, gi bn copy bin phpSPS cui cng c thng qua, hoc thng bo rng skhng p dng bin php notrong thi gian nht nh.

    QUN LIU HNH MTIM HIP SPS

  • 7/22/2019 Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

    23/26

    Cc trch nhim

    im hi p SPS l cquan duy nht ca chnh phchu trch nhim cung cp cutr li cho tt ccc cu hi hp l tnhng nc quan tm cng nhiu khonca cc ti liu c lin quan n: bt kquy nh kim dch ng thc vt no cthng qua hoc xut trong nc; bt k th tc thm tra no, cc bin php snxut v kim dch, quy trnh nh gi d lng thuc trsu v phgia thc phmc p dng trong nc; quy trnh nh gi ri ro, cc yu tc xem xt cngnhquyt nh vmc bo m vsinh an ton; cc tchc v hthng kim dchng thc vt quc tv khu vc m nc mnh/ hoc cc cquan trong nc thamgia hoc l thnh vin; cc hip nh v tha thun song phng v a phng mnc mnh tham gia hoc l thnh vin trong phm vi Hip nh SPS v vn bn cchip nh v tha thun.

    Yu cu vthng tin

    Cc ngnh khc ca chnh phc thm quyn vcc vn SPS c thtip tc nhnc nhng yu cu trc tip vcc vn lin quan n trch nhim ca im hi

    p SPS. Cc ngnh ny nn c tip tc tr li cu hi. Nhng cu hi gi ncho nhng c nhn ca cc cquan chnh ph (ngha l khng thng qua im hip) c thc tr li trc tip v khng nht thit phi c x l thng qua hthng im hi p. Tuy nhin, im hi p nm trong danh sch ca WTO c trchnhim ny v phi trli bt kcu hi no c gi ti cho im hi p.

    Phm vi ca ngha vminh bch ha

    Yu cu gi ti im hi p c th xut pht tim hi p ca cc nc khchoc tcc bn quan tm (chng hn nhcc ngnh cng nghip) ti cc nc vcc nc cha phi thnh vin WTO. Mc d ngha vvmt php l ch l tr li

    cc cu hi ca thnh vin WTO, ngi ta vn khuyn khch im hi p trli tt ccc cu hi mt cch bnh ng vcc bin php SPS. Cch tt nht l tr li trctip ngi t cu hi, nhng htrhthng im hi p, nn gi bn copy cutrli (v cc ti liu c cung cp) ti im hi p ca nc t cu hi. Yu cuvthng tin c lu (ton bhoc mt phn) ti mt cquan nn c chuyn ticquan thch hp.

    Gi v thu ph

    Nn gi ti liu bng phng thc nhanh nht c th. Nu c th, nn gi ti liu quaemail hoc fax. Ngoi ra, c th gi ti liu thng qua phi on ngoi giao hocphng n cui cng l gi qua ng bu in. Chc ththu ph cc nc khc

    mc ph tng ng vi mc thu trong nc cng thm ph gi ti liu.

    NHNG KIN NGHBANU

    im hi p SPS v cquan thng bo nn tp trung mt cquan.

    Nu khng cng mt cquan th gia im hi p SPS v cquan thng bo nnc mi lin hcht ch. Vic phi hp l yu tcbn.

  • 7/22/2019 Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

    24/26

    Vic phi hp l yu tchcht gia im hi p SPS, cquan thng bo v cc cquan lp tiu chun v cc bc thm quyn cp trung ng hoc a phng.

    Vic phi hp cng l yu tchcht gia im hi p, cquan thng bo TBT vim hi p, cquan thng bo SPS, nh cc bin php thuc phm vi ca c2hip nh c thc thng bo kp thi trn cscc cam kt minh bch ha.

    im hi p v cquan thng bo SPS nn c quan hcht chvi cc ngnh vlnh vc khc ca nn kinh t(ngha l nh xut khu, nh sn xut, nh nhp khu vngi tiu dng) v vi phi on ngoi giao Vit Nam ti Geneve trong tng lai (vvi i din ngoi giao ca cc thnh vin WTO khc).

    im hi p v cquan thng bo SPS nn thng xuyn lin hvi nhng cquanv b c thm quyn lp tiu chun. Nn tng cng trao i thng tin qua ccphng tin in thoc tng hiu quca vic trao i thng tin nhthny. Cngnn xem xt vic lp trang web ca im hi p v cquan thng bo SPS.

    Ccu hnh chnh ca im hi p v cquan thng bo SPS trong tng lai nn

    c i din ca cc cquan lp tiu chun, nh thng tin v thng bo ca ccthnh vin WTO c thc nhanh chng xem xt v c cc chuyn gia gii quyt.

    Mt nh ngha n gin c th l: mt vn phng, mt snhn vin thng xuyn,tp hp y chuyn mn v thm quyn, tnh iu phi cao, mng li thng tinhin i v m bo, thc c yu cu minh bch ha ca Hip nh TBT/SPSkhng phi m mt gnh nng vhnh chnh m cn l mt chi ln tng cngvic hi nhp thng mi thgii ca Vit Nam.

  • 7/22/2019 Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

    25/26

    BNng nghip

    &Pht trin Nngthn

    BXy dng

    BVn ha Thng tin

    BThy sn

    B Ti nguyn vMi trng

    BCng nghip

    B Bu chnh Vinthng

    BKhoa hc v Cng

    ngh

    BGiao thng

    BNng nghip

    &Pht trin Nngthn

    BThy sn

    BThy sn

    BCng nghip

    BKhoa hc v Cng

    ngh

    Vn phng trung tmTBT

    Vn phng trung tmSPS

    Cc c quan a phng, tnh, khu vc hay cp cc vi cc cp hu quan T

    Ph lc IIIS t chc TBT v SPS

    Cc cp a phng, tnh, khu vc hay cp c v cc c quan hu quanSPS

    Cc i tng hngli Cng nghip v

    Phi chnh ph

    .

  • 7/22/2019 Cac Hiep Dinh TBT Va SPS

    26/26

    .