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  • Slide 1
  • Carbon Credits https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 2
  • Clean technology 1 Environmental finance is a method by which new clean technology projects that has proven that they are "additional" or "beyond business as usual" can obtain financing through the generation of carbon credits https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 3
  • Social networking service - Finance applications 1 Hub Culture operates a virtual currency Ven (currency)|Ven used for global transactions among members, product sales and financial trades in commodities and carbon credits.[ http://blog.americancarbonregistry.org/redd/a merican-carbon-registry-offsets-retired-ven- carbon-transaction/ blog.americancarbonregistry.org] In May 2010, Carbon pricing contracts were introduced to the weighted basket of currencies and commodities that determine the floating exchange value of Ven https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 4
  • Social network service - Finance applications 1 Hub Culture operates a virtual currency Ven (currency)|Ven used for global transactions among members, product sales and financial trades in commodities and carbon credits.[ http://blog.americancarbonregistry.org/redd/americ an-carbon-registry-offsets-retired-ven-carbon- transaction/ blog.americancarbonregistry.org] In May 2010, Carbon pricing contracts were introduced to the weighted basket of currencies and commodities that determine the floating exchange value of Ven https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 5
  • Energy resources - Environmental impact 1 Government regulations to internalize these externality|externalities form an increasing part of doing business, and the trading of carbon credits and pollution credits on the free market may also result in energy-saving and pollution-control measures becoming even more important to energy providers. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 6
  • Carbon offset 1 The Kyoto Protocol has sanctioned offsets as a way for governments and private companies to earn carbon credits that can be traded on a marketplace https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 7
  • Carbon offset - E.U. market 1 The global carbon market is dominated by the European Union, where companies that emit greenhouse gases are required to cut their emissions or buy pollution allowances or carbon credits from the market, under the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 8
  • Carbon offset - U.S. market 1 A component of California's own Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006, kicked off in early 2013, requires high-emissions industries to purchase carbon credits to cover emissions in excess of 25,000 CO2 metric tons. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 9
  • Carbon offset - Voluntary market 1 ; Retail : Multiple players in the retail market have offerings that enable consumers and businesses to calculate their carbon footprint, most commonly through a web-based interface including a calculator or questionnaire, and sell them offsets in the amount of that footprint.For a list of commercial offset retailers, refer to In addition many companies selling products and services, especially carbon-intensive ones such as airline travel,[http://www.britishairways.com/travel/csr-your- footprint/public/en_gb British Airways Carbon Offset Program][http://www.continental.com/web/en- US/content/company/globalcitizenship/offset.aspx Continental Airlines Carbon Offset Program] offer options to bundle a proportional offsetting amount of carbon credits with each transaction. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 10
  • Carbon offset - Purchase of carbon allowances from emissions trading schemes 1 Also, as easy carbon credits are coming to an end,[http://www.altenergymag.com/news_ detail.php?pr_id=5079] The latest analysis from New Carbon Finance confirms that many of the low hanging fruit of cheap carbon credits in the developing world have now been harvested https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 11
  • Carbon offset - UK Government Quality Assurance Scheme for Carbon Offsetting 1 * Use of good quality carbon credits i.e. initially those that are Kyoto compliant https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 12
  • Carbon offset - UK Government Quality Assurance Scheme for Carbon Offsetting 1 * Cancellation of carbon credits within a year of the consumers purchase of the offset https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 13
  • Carbon offset - Project-offsetting 1 and based on UN data reported that typically 28p goes to the set up and maintenance costs of an environmental project. 34p goes to the company that takes on the risk that the project may fail. The project's investors take 19p, with smaller amounts of money being distributed between organisations involved in brokering and auditing the carbon credits. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 14
  • Carbon offset - Additionality and lack of regulation in the voluntary market 1 *Industrial companies profiting from doing very little or from gaining carbon credits on the basis of efficiency gains from which they have already benefited substantially. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 15
  • Carbon offset - Additionality and lack of regulation in the voluntary market 1 *A shortage of verification, making it difficult for buyers to assess the true value of carbon credits. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 16
  • Spark spread - Clean spread 1 Let S: spark spread, E: electricity price, G: gas cost, Ng: number of carbon credits necessary to cover gas operation, Pcc: price of a carbon credit. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 17
  • Spark spread - Clean spread 1 Let D: dark spread, E: electricity price, C: coal cost, Nc: number of carbon credits necessary to cover coal operation (22.5x that of gas), Pcc: price of a carbon credit. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 18
  • Spark spread - Clean spread 1 If the price of marginal internal abatement is lower than the price of carbon credits, the firm will choose internal abatement https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 19
  • Carbon-neutral 1 'Carbon neutral', or having a 'net zero carbon footprint', refers to achieving net zero carbon emissions by balancing a measured amount of carbon released with an equivalent amount sequestered or offset, or buying enough carbon credits to make up the difference. It is used in the context of carbon dioxide releasing processes associated with transportation, energy production, and industrial processes such as production of carbon neutral fuel. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 20
  • Carbon-neutral 1 *Carbon offsetting by paying others to remove or sequester 100% of the carbon dioxide emitted from the atmosphere[http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/29/w eekinreview/29revkin.html?ex=1335499200en=d9 e2407e4f1a20f0ei=5124 Carbon-Neutral Is Hip, but Is It Green?], New York Times, published 2007-04-29, accessed 2007-08-03 for example by forestation|planting trees or by funding 'carbon projects' that should lead to the prevention of future greenhouse gas emissions, or by buying carbon credits to remove (or 'retire') them through emissions trading|carbon trading https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 21
  • Carbon-neutral - Offsetting 1 The use of Carbon offsets aims to neutralize a certain volume of GHG emissions by funding projects which should cause an equivalent reduction of GHG emissions somewhere else, such as tree planting. Under the premise First reduce what you can, then offset the remainder, offsetting can be done by supporting a responsible carbon project, or by buying carbon offsets or carbon credits. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 22
  • Subway (rail) - Environmental impacts 1 It is also the first railway project in the world to earn carbon credits after being registered with the United Nations under the Clean Development Mechanism, and has so far earned more than 400,000 carbon credits by saving energy through the use of regenerative braking systems on its trains https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 23
  • Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation 1 The carbon credits generated by these projects could then be used by industrialised governments and corporations to meet their targets and/or to be traded within the carbon markets https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 24
  • Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation - Concerns 1 IF REDD+ becomes a source of carbon credits https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 25
  • Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation - Concerns 1 *The availability of a large supply of potentially cheap carbon credits could provide an avenue for companies in the developed world to simply purchase REDD credits without providing meaningful emission reductions at home. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 26
  • Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation - Concerns 1 *Large number of carbon credits could swamp developing carbon markets. However, they could also facilitate ambitious emissions targets in a post- Kyoto agreement. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 27
  • Briquette - Biomass briquettes 1 Lanxess India and a few other large companies are supposedly using biomass briquettes for earning Carbon Credits by switching their boiler fuel https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 28
  • Emissions trading 1 Firms are required to hold a number of permits (or allowances or carbon credits) equivalent to their emissions https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 29
  • Emissions trading - Emission markets 1 Other names for emissions permits are carbon credits, Kyoto units, assigned amount units, and Certified Emission Reduction units (CER) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 30
  • Emissions trading - Emission markets 1 Carbon credits at Commodity Exchange Bratislava are traded at special platform - Carbon place.http://www.carbonplace.eu https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 31
  • Arnold Schwarzenegger - Environmental record 1 Any power plants that exceed emissions for the amount of carbon credits will have to purchase more credits to cover the difference https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 32
  • Climate change in New Zealand 1 An New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme|emissions trading scheme has been established and from 1 July 2010, the energy and liquid fossil fuel sectors have obligations to report emissions and to obtain and surrender emissions units (carbon credits). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 33
  • Individual and political action on climate change - Contraction and Convergence 1 A trading regime, whereby which countries in excess of these figures (from example the Greenhouse gas emissions by the United States|US at 20 tonnes per capita), purchase carbon credits from a country using less than its allocation (e.g https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 34
  • Clean Development Mechanism - Outline 1 If a project is registered and implemented, the EB issues credits, called Certified Emission Reductions (CERs, commonly known as carbon credits, where each unit is equivalent to the reduction of one metric tonne of CO2e, e.g https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 35
  • Clean Development Mechanism - Financial issues 1 The seller could get a very good price if it agrees to bear the risk that the project's baseline and monitoring methodology is rejected; that the host country rejects the project; that the CDM Executive Board rejects the project; that the project for some reason produces fewer credits than planned; or that the buyer doesn't get CERs at the agreed time if the international transaction log (the technical infrastructure ensuring international transfer of carbon credits) is not in place by then https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 36
  • Clean Development Mechanism - Coal thermal power generation in India and China 1 In September 2012, the Executive Board of the Clean Development Mechanism adopted rules confirming that new coal thermal power generation plants could be registered as CDM projects and could use the simplified rules called 'Programmes of Activities'. The organisation CDM-Watch described the decision as inconsistent with the objective of the CDM as it subsidised the construction of new coal power plants. CDM-Watch described the CERs that would be issued as non-additional dirty carbon credits. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 37
  • Water footprint - Criticism 1 Water Credit for conserving water: Nagpur based innovator Shripad Vaidya's idea of giving water credit's, much like carbon credits, to those who save and conserve water is gaining ground https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 38
  • Carbon credit 1 Carbon credits and carbon markets are a component of national and international attempts to mitigate the growth in concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs). One carbon credit is equal to one metric tonne of carbon dioxide, or in some markets, carbon dioxide equivalent gases. Carbon trading is an application of an emissions trading approach. Greenhouse gas emissions are capped and then markets are used to allocate the emissions among the group of regulated sources. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 39
  • Carbon credit 1 Buyers and sellers can also use an exchange platform to trade, such as the Carbon Trade Exchange, which is like a stock exchange for carbon credits https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 40
  • Carbon credit - Background 1 The concept of carbon credits came into existence as a result of increasing awareness of the need for controlling emissions. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) has observed https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 41
  • Carbon credit - Emission allowances 1 Operators that have not used up their quotas can sell their unused allowances as carbon credits, while businesses that are about to exceed their quotas can buy the extra allowances as credits, privately or on the open market. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 42
  • Carbon credit - Emission markets 1 Carbon credits at Commodity Exchange Bratislava are traded at special platform - Carbon place.http://www.carbonplace.eu https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 43
  • Carbon credit - Setting a market price for carbon 1 Unchecked, energy use and hence emission levels are predicted to keep rising over time. Thus the number of companies needing to buy credits will increase, and the rules of supply and demand will Elasticity (economics)|push up the market price, encouraging more groups to undertake environmentally friendly activities that create carbon credits to sell. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 44
  • Carbon credit - How buying carbon credits can reduce emissions 1 Carbon credits create a market for reducing greenhouse emissions by giving a monetary value to the cost of polluting the air. Emissions become an internal cost of doing business and are visible on the balance sheet alongside raw materials and other liabilities or assets. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 45
  • Carbon credit - How buying carbon credits can reduce emissions 1 Instead it may choose to buy carbon credits on the open market from organizations that have been approved as being able to sell legitimate carbon credits. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 46
  • Carbon credit - Credits versus taxes 1 Carbon credits and carbon taxes each have their advantages and disadvantages https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
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  • Carbon credit - Creating real carbon credits 1 Many criticisms of carbon credits stem from the fact that establishing that an emission of CO2-equivalent greenhouse gas has truly been reduced involves a complex process https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 48
  • Carbon credit - Additionality and its importance 1 Carbon projects that yield strong financial returns even in the absence of revenue from carbon credits; or that are compelled by regulations; or that represent common practice in an industry are usually not considered additional, although a full determination of additionality requires specialist review. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 49
  • Biomass briquettes - Use in developing world 1 The major use of biomass briquettes in India, is in industrial applications usually to produce steam. A lot of conversions of boilers from FO to biomass briquettes have happened over the past decade. A vast majority of those projects are registered under CDM (Kyoto Protocol), which allows for users to get carbon credits.http://agrofuelindia.com https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 50
  • Biomass briquettes - Use in developing world 1 The use of biomass briquettes is strongly encouraged by issuing carbon credits https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 51
  • Renewable energy in Africa - Potential funding sources 1 It has been proposed that for every unit of African origin carbon consumed by the European market, a predetermined amount green credits or carbon credits would be yielded.[http://www.terradaily.com/reports/ Britain_Urges_Global_Carbon_Trading_To _Spur_Eco_Healthy_Growth.html Britain Urges Global Carbon Trading To Spur Eco-Healthy Growth], Aziakou G https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 52
  • Payment for ecosystem services - Additional examples 1 Carbon credits are generated by planting native trees to capture, or Carbon sequestration|sequester, carbon dioxide https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 53
  • Carbon emission trading - Voluntary surrender of units 1 The British organization Climakind accepts donations and uses them to buy and cancel European Allowances, the carbon credits traded in the European Union Emission Trading System. It is argued that this removes the credits from the carbon market so they cannot be used to allow the emission of carbon and that this reduces the 'cap' on emissions by reducing the number of credits available to emitters. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 54
  • Carbon emission trading - Voluntary surrender of units 1 The British organisation Sandbag (non- profit organisation)|Sandbag promotes cancelling carbon credits in order to lower emissions trading caps. As of August 2010, Sandbag states that it has cancelled carbon credits equivalent to 2145 tonnes of. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 55
  • Carbon emission trading - Voluntary surrender of units 1 British activist Merrick Godhaven has criticised Sandbag's approach of voluntarily cancelling carbon credits because it would require millions of pounds to be effective and because it signals acceptance of carbon trading, a system designed by polluters https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 56
  • Carbon emission trading - Criticisms 1 In China some companies started artificial production of greenhouse gases with sole purpose of their recycling and gaining carbon credits. Similar practices happened in India. Earned credit were then sold to companies in US and Europe.[http://www.scientificamerican.com/art icle.cfm?id=carbon-credits-system-tarnished- wikileaks Carbon-Credits System Tarnished by WikiLeaks Revelation][http://euobserver.com/884/31347 Imminent EU proposals to clamp down on fridge gas scam] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 57
  • Personal carbon trading - Proposals 1 Individuals who exceed their allocation (i.e. those who want to use more emissions credits than they have been given) would be able to purchase additional credits from those who use less, so individuals that are under allocation would profit from their small carbon footprint. There are two types of carbon credits, Certified Emission Reduction credits EUAs and CERs and Verified Carbon Credits. [http://advancedglobaltrading.com/carbon- credits/ Types of Carbon Credits] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 58
  • GreenQloud - Founding 1 Most hosting companies buy carbon credits|carbon offset credits as a green marketing measure, and host data at multiple data centers on different continents as the solution for international sites https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 59
  • Synfuel - CTL/CBTL/BTL economics 1 According to a December 2007 study, a medium scale (30,000 BPD) coal-to-liquids plant (CTL) sited in the US using bituminous coal, is expected to be competitive with oil down to roughly $5256/bbl crude-oil equivalent. Adding carbon capture and sequestration to the project was expected to add an additional $10/BBL to the required selling price, though this may be offset by revenues from enhanced oil recovery, or by tax credits, or the eventual sale of carbon credits. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 60
  • Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group - General Facts 1 Reliance power has become the first Indian company to earn Carbon credits, United Nations registered Reliance Powers Sasan power project to earn as many as 22.5 million credits in the next 10 years, the UN Clean Development Mechanism, the worlds second- biggest greenhouse gas market issues tradable credits to emission-busting projects in developing countries. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 61
  • Halomethane - Hydrofluoro compounds (HFC) 1 Thornton says that many countries are needlessly producing these chemicals just to get the carbon credits https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 62
  • Social networking website - Finance applications 1 Hub Culture operates a virtual currency Ven (currency)|Ven used for global transactions among members, product sales and financial trades in commodities and carbon credits.[http://blog.americancarbonregistry.or g/redd/american-carbon-registry-offsets- retired-ven-carbon-transaction/ blog.americancarbonregistry.org] In May 2010, Carbon pricing contracts were introduced to the weighted basket of currencies and commodities that determine the floating exchange value of Ven https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 63
  • Institute of Certified Management Accountants 1 In June 2008, ICMA introduces THE INSTITUTE OF CERTIFIED CARBON ANALYSTS AND AUDITORS (ICCAA). The principal object of the ICCAA is therefore, to advance, promote, measure, regulate and provide assurance certification of carbon credits for the effective implementation of emissions trading systems aimed at encouraging participation in carbon credit markets by its members to improve environmental sustainability and provide solutions to reducing the greenhouse effect and resultant climate change. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 64
  • Alternative investments 1 [http://www.webcitation.org/5tLYC0QUt Archived here.] and some financial assets such as commodities, private equity, distressed securities, hedge funds, carbon credits,[http://www.cdmgoldstandard.org/freq uently-asked-questions/carbon-market CER's as investment] venture capital, film production[http://www.cnbc.com/id/39342145/ Investing_In_The_Big_Screen_Can_Be_A_P rofitable_Story Investing In The Big Screen Can Be A Profitable Story by Shelly Schwartz] CNBC, 18 October 2010 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 65
  • NHL Players' Association - Paul Kelly era (20072009) 1 On December 7, 2007, the NHLPA and the David Suzuki Foundation decided to create a pact, led by Boston Bruins defenceman Andrew Ference, which had over 500 NHL players signed up to donate $290 annually to purchase carbon credits in order to offset their regular season travel. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 66
  • Mechanical biological treatment - Biological processing 1 *Carbon credits additional revenues https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 67
  • Climate engineering - Governance 1 A small number carbon offsetting firms have in the past attempted to set up unregulated and unsupervised geoengineering projects. In the long-run such firms may aim to sell carbon credits to individuals, firms or countries. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 68
  • Environmental impact of meat production - Animal waste 1 The US EPA estimates that as of July 2010, 157 manure digester systems for biogas energy were in operation on commercial- scale US livestock facilities.http://www.epa.gov/agstar/document s/digester_status_report2010.pdf System cost is substantial, relative to US energy values, which may be a deterrent to more widespread use, although additional factors, such as odor control and carbon credits, may improve benefit /cost ratios.NRCS https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 69
  • Online shopping rewards - A Typology 1 Instead of cash back or loyalty program|points these websites offer carbon credits (also known as carbon offsets) or green gadgets to encourage consumers to shop with particular retailers or make changes to their lifestyle. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 70
  • No-till farming - Profit, economics, yield 1 Some large energy corporations which are among the greatest generators of fossil- fuel-related pollution may purchase carbon credits, which can encourage farmers to engage in conservation tillage.[http://www.extension.umn.edu/exte nsionnews/2005/carboncredits07.html ] Under such schemes, the farmers' land is legally redefined as a carbon sink for the power generators' emissions https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 71
  • CDM Gold Standard 1 Its objective is to add branding, a label to existing and new Carbon Credits generated by projects which can then be bought and traded by countries that have a binding legal commitment according to the Kyoto Protocol. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 72
  • CDM Gold Standard - Scholarly Recognition Critique 1 Existing evidence suggests that the Gold Standard does not always achieve to police effectively companies' misuse of the standard's label (making it difficult to know whether actually carbon credits associated with the standard through Gold Standard labels have actually undergone the Gold Standard certification process).Lippert, I https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 73
  • Certified Emission Reduction 1 'Certified Emission Reductions' (CERs) are a type of emissions unit (or carbon credits) issued by the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Executive Board for emission reductions achieved by CDM projects and verified by a DOE under the rules of the Kyoto Protocol. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 74
  • European Union Emission Trading Scheme 1 The price of EU ETS carbon credits has been lower than intended, with a large surplus of allowances, in part because of the impact of the recent Great Recession in Europe|economic crisis on demand https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 75
  • European Union Emission Trading Scheme - Mechanisms 1 Like the Kyoto trading scheme, EU ETS allows a regulated operator to use carbon credits in the form of Emission Reduction Units (ERU) to comply with its obligations https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 76
  • Flexible mechanisms - Project-based mechanisms 1 The project-based mechanisms allow Annex I countries with efficient, low GHG-emitting industries, and high prevailing environmental standards to purchase carbon credits on the world market instead of reducing greenhouse gas emissions domestically. Annex I countries typically will want to acquire carbon credits as cheaply as possible, while non- Annex I countries want to maximize the value of carbon credits generated from their domestic greenhouse gas reducing projects. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 77
  • Flexible mechanisms - Carbon market 1 Since allowances and carbon credits are tradeable instruments with a transparent price, financial investors can buy them on the spot market for speculation purposes, or link them to futures contracts https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 78
  • Flexible mechanisms - Carbon market 1 The CDM allows the creation of new carbon credits by developing emission reduction projects in non-annex I countries, while JI allows project-specific credits to be converted from existing credits within annex I countries https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 79
  • Flexible mechanisms - Carbon market 1 The fact that some of these initiatives have similar approaches to certifying their credits makes it possible that carbon credits in one market may in the long run be tradeable in other schemes https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 80
  • Convention Centre Dublin - Construction 1 It is the first carbon-neutral convention centre in the world because of its use of low-carbon cement and the offsetting of unavoidable carbon emissions by purchasing carbon credits in accordance with the Voluntary Carbon Standard. It also features a Heat exchanger|thermal- wheel heat-recovery system and an Thermal energy storage#Air conditioning|ice-storage thermal unit to provide air conditioning for the building. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 81
  • Climate Care - LifeStraw Carbon for Water Project 1 ClimateCare partnered with health company Vestergaard Frandsen to develop this project that uses carbon finance to fund provision of safe water to 4.5million people in Western Kenya. The project was the first in the world to link carbon credits with water provision at scale and has won awards including the Carbon Finance Transaction of the Year award 2012.http://climatecare.org/climatecare- supported-project-wins-carbon-finance- transaction-of-the-year/ https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 82
  • Climate Care - AquaClara Project 1 Funds generated through the sale of carbon credits make this project possible and, as a result, 18,750 families will have safe water by May 2017 cutting an expected 50,000 tonnes of CO2 every year. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 83
  • Supplementarity 1 Emissions trading basically refers to the trading of emissions allowances (carbon credits) between one regulated entity and a less pollutive entity. This trading of permits results in a marginal economic disincentive to the buyer and a marginal economic incentive the abater. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 84
  • Gas flare - Impacts of waste flaring associated gas from oil drilling sites and other facilities 1 That may seem to be insignificant, but in perspective it is more than half of the Certified Emissions Reductions (a type of carbon credits) that have been issued under the rules and mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol as of June 2011.[http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/E XTERNAL/NEWS/0,,contentMDK:2103248 7~menuPK:34480~pagePK:64257043~piP K:437376~theSitePK:4607,00.html Global Gas Flaring Reduction] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 85
  • Kyoto Protocol and government action - New Zealand 1 New Zealand may meet this target by 'either' reducing emissions 'or' by obtaining carbon credits from the international market or from domestic carbon sinks https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 86
  • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative - Carbon auctions start in 2008 1 The Memorandum of Understanding commits states to invest 25% of revenue from carbon credits to energy efficiency and strategic energy schemes.[http://www.rggi.org/about/history /mou] This revenue is received by auctioning credits from the state budget to compliance entities https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 87
  • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative - Carbon auctions start in 2008 1 RGGI sold carbon credits on Thursday, September 25, 2008, in the first of a series of quarterly online auctions https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 88
  • BlueNext - China 1 This information is to be sourced from the China Beijing Environmental Exchange.[http://online.wsj.com/article/SB12 4528865769526163.html BlueNext, China Exchange Partner on Carbon Credits][http://www.exchange- handbook.co.uk/index.cfm?section=newsacti on=detailid=83357 World's Biggest Carbon Offset Exchange Comes One Step Closer To Reality As NYSEs BlueNext And China- Beijing Environmental Exchange Sign China Partnership] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 89
  • Tree credits 1 'Tree credits' is concept of community-based agroforestry whereby the tree planting|tree planter/ caretaker is rewarded during several years for her/his ecological services|climate services. The system has been developed in response to the need for a simple way to get carbon credits to the individual planter with a minimum of overheads. And to simplify implementation and monitoring of such projects by using for-profit methods, much like microfinance. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 90
  • Carbon project - Operation 1 The second option is to purchase carbon credits within an emissions trading scheme https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 91
  • Bank of New Zealand - Sustainability 1 In July 2010 Bank of New Zealand became the first bank in New Zealand to become carbon neutral. The achievement was announced in September 2010 after a three-year initiative to reduce emissions through greater energy and vehicle efficiency, encouraging changed behaviour by employees at work and at home and through offsetting of unavoidable emissions by purchasing quality carbon credits. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 92
  • Picsearch - Environmental policy 1 # Picsearch buys carbon credits equivalent to all the energy that Picsearch consumes.[http://about.picsearch.com/p_r eleases/the-worlds-first-carbon-free- search-engine/ The worlds first search engine, Picsearch]. March 22, 2007. Retrieved on July 11, 2007. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 93
  • Dedicated Freight Corridor Corporation of India - Need for Dedicated Freight Corridor Project 1 Carbon emission reduction may help DFCCIL to claim carbon credits. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 94
  • Pizza Fusion - Green building methods 1 The chain offsets 100% of the power consumption in its locations by using purchasing carbon credits and using environmentally sustainable building practices. The restaurant delivery drivers use hybrid electric vehicles. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 95
  • Delhi Metro Rail Corporation - History 1 DMRC has made it compulsory to wear safety helmets on construction sites. It also earns carbon credits with rainwater harvesting at metro stations and runs an HIV/AIDS programme for workers.http://blogs.ft.com/beyond- brics/2012/09/26/india-showing-jakarta- how-metros-are-done/ https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 96
  • Low carbon - Rationale and aims 1 EU emission trading system allows companies to buy international carbon credits, thus the companies can channel clean technologies to promote other countries to adopt low-carbon developments. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 97
  • Chicago Climate Exchange - Climate Exchange PLC 1 In November 2010, the Climate Exchange stated that it would cease trading carbon credits at the end of 2010, although carbon exchanges will still be facilitated. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 98
  • Chicago Climate Exchange - Components of the Trading System 1 Farmers Union had earned approval from the Chicago Climate Exchange to aggregate carbon credits https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 99
  • Free Press Summer Fest - Helping The Environment 1 A recycling plan (with assistance from Little Joy Recycling) is implemented to sort aluminum, plastic, paper and glass. A free bottle of water is given to anyone who recycles 10 plastic bottles. All carbon output is balanced by Carbon credits|carbon offset credits. Carpooling and bicycling to the festival are encouraged. Over 2000 attendees biked to the 2009 festival. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 100
  • Jungle Island - Environmental efforts 1 In addition to avoiding the use of artificial fertilizers and pesticides, Jungle Island purchases carbon credits to offset special events.[http://miami.going.com/event- 744621;Earth_Miami_on_Jungle_Island Earth Miami On Jungle Island] Jungle Island also plays host to a number of large environmental conferences and events - including the annual Gateway To Green,[http://www.miamigov.com/cms/comm/1724_59 96.asp City of Miami Gateway To Green] Energy Smart Florida,[http://articles.sun-sentinel.com/2010- 07-30/business/fl-business-networking-0802- 20100730_1_martini-networking-npi-delray-mornings- work-e-mail-ssabra-kahaneandassociates Sun Sentinel Business Networking In South Florida] and Earth Miami. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 101
  • First Rudd Government - Environment and energy management 1 In October 2007, the then Prime Minister John Howard said that Labor's policy on climate change negotiations had no significant differences to the Liberals' policy. At the time, econometric research suggested that providers of carbon credits which had been accredited under the voluntary Australian Greenhouse Office trading scheme were capable of stabilising emissions, such was the demand from households for carbon- neutral products. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 102
  • Live Earth (2007 concert) - Background 1 The event was claimed to be carbon neutral, and organisers said they would purchase carbon credits to offset the environmental impact of the flights associated with the events. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 103
  • Jagat Prakash Nadda - Political Career as Minister of different Portfolios 1 He along with other sr. leaders visited Costa Rica to learn about carbon neutrality. Under his leadership Himachal became the first state in country to demand carbon credits in lieu of green house gases being absorbed by the states green cover. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 104
  • Biofuel in the United Kingdom - Asia 1 One salient feature of the policy is to create an environment conducive to investments through the provision of the following incentives: (a) duty-free importation of renewable energy (RE) machinery, equipment and materials over the initial 10 years through the issuance of certifications to RE developers; (b) duty-free importation of farm machinery and agricultural inputs during the initial 10 years from the effectivity of the Renewable Energy law; (c) income tax holidays over the first seven years of commercial operation; (d) accelerated depreciation if an RE fails to receive an ITH before full operation; (e) cash incentives from RE Developers for Missionary Electrification, i.e., 50% of the universal charge for power needed to service missionary areas; (f) corporate tax rates of 10% on its net taxable income after the initial seven-year ITH period; (g) tax exemptions for carbon credits; (h) special realty tax rates of not more than 1.5% on equipment and machinery, civil works, and other improvements; and (i) net operating loss carry-over (NOLCO) during the first three years of commercial operation will be deductible from gross income over the next seven years of operation https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 105
  • REDD - Not REDD+ 1 CCBA, VCS) and with carbon credits traded on the international voluntary carbon market https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 106
  • REDD - REDD+ in the carbon market 1 This would require Annex I countries to agree to deeper cuts in emissions of greenhouse gases in order to create a market for the carbon credits from REDD+, which is unlikely to happen soon given the current state of negotiations in the COP, but even then there is the fear that the market will be flooded with carbon credits, depressing the price to levels where REDD+ is no longer an economically viable option https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 107
  • Social and environmental impact of palm oil - Carbon credit programs 1 Oil palm producers are eligible to take part in Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) programs in which developed nations invest in clean energy projects in developing nations to earn carbon credits to offset their own greenhouse gas emissions and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 108
  • Emissions cap system 1 Firms are required to hold a number of permits (or allowances or carbon credits) equivalent to their emissions https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 109
  • Conservation in New Zealand - Deforestation 1 Perhaps due to the government's initial control over REDD and the trade in carbon credits there was initially an increase in deforestation and it was not until private forestry owners gained access to the trading scheme and to carbon credits that the scheme started to produce reductions in deforestation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 110
  • Bonobo Conservation Initiative 1 Under the Bonobo Conservation Initiative, a reforestation project is planned for the Maringa-Lopori-Wamba Landscape around the Luo Scientific Reserve in an attempt to counter the destruction of bonobo habitat and increase areas where the bonobo are protected. will be replanted, forming corridors to link existing patches of forest, with the project funded by sale of carbon credits. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 111
  • Deforestation in Nigeria 1 In REDD the countries are able to receive much more money in the form of carbon credits which can be spent on more environmentally safe practices.http://news.mongabay.com/2009/ 0629- niles_new_idea_to_save_forests.html https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 112
  • Climate Change Act 2008 - Environmental groups 1 The UK arm of World Wide Fund for Nature|WWF supported the Bill, but launched its Get on Board campaign for the 2050 carbon reduction target to be raised to at least 80%, including the UK share of emissions from international aviation shipping. In addition, WWF-UK called for retention of the House of Lords' amendment that at least 70% of the UK's reduction should be achieved domestically (limiting to 30% the proportion of the reduction that can be achieved through purchasing 'carbon credits'). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 113
  • Climate Change Act 2008 - Environmental groups 1 They also considered that the Bill should include annual 3% reduction targets, cover aviation and shipping within its scope, and ban the purchase of carbon credits from overseas, a practice which they believe exports the emissions problem elsewhere. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 114
  • Climate Change Act 2008 - Environmental groups 1 The Joint Public Issues Team of the Baptist Union of Great Britain|Baptist, Methodist Church of Great Britain|Methodist, and United Reformed Church|United Reformed churches called for an 80% reduction in carbon emissions [by 2050], for not ignoring the contribution of air and sea travel, and for reductions of the United Kingdoms own emissions rather than relying on buying carbon credits from other countries.[http://jointpublicissues.org.uk/jpitenviron ment.htm Joint Public Issues Team of the churches: briefing on the Climate Change Bill (December 2007)] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 115
  • Shangri-La (novel) - Ishida Finance 1 MEDUSA is originally believed to be the only program in the world that can perform these manipulations of Carbon Credits, but it seems that there are other programs similar to it operating across the globe https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 116
  • Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited 1 The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation has been certified by the United Nations as the first metro rail and rail-based system in the world to get carbon credits for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and helping in reducing pollution levels in the city by 630,000 tonnes every year.[http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/ Delhi/article2486634.ece Cities / Delhi : Delhi Metro gets UN certification] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 117
  • Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited - Environment and aesthetics 1 It is also the first railway project in the world to earn carbon credits after being registered with the United Nations under the Clean Development Mechanism, and has so far earned 400,000 carbon credits by saving energy through the use of regenerative braking systems on its trains https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 118
  • Peat swamp forest - The Problem 1 Rather than reducing deforestation - in terms of claiming carbon credits from REDD initiatives - peatland conservation and rehabilitation are more efficient undertakings, due to the much larger reduced emissions achievable per unit area and the much lower opportunity costs involved.Mathai, J https://store.theartofservice.com/the-carbon-credits-toolkit.html
  • Slide 119
  • For More Information, Visit: https://store.theartofservice.co m/the-carbon-credits- toolkit.html https://store.theartofservice.co m/the-carbon-credits- toolkit.html The Art of Service https://store.theartofservice.com