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Carbon Credits PPT

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Carbon Credits

IntroductionWhat are GHGs? What is Carbon Trading? Why are GHGs traded? What are UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol? What is CDM? What is CER? What are Emission Allowances?

GHGs regulated by KP

Carbon dioxide Equivalents (CO2e) Global Warming Potential (GWP) What is one unit of GWP?


Annex I Parties: OECD countries+ EIT countries, including the Russian Federation, the Baltic states and several Central and Eastern European States. Annex II Parties: OECD members of Annex I excluding the EIT parties.

required to provide financial resources to enable developing countries to undertake emission reduction activities and to help them adapt to adverse effects of climate change

Non Annex I: Developing countries India and China is a part of non-Annex I.

They are usually the net sellers of emission offsets.

International Carbon Map

Highlights: USA: Biggest Emitter Australia changed position The EU and Japan ratified it: Biggest Buyers

Kyoto Mechanism

The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

Earn and Trade Covers developing countries CERs

The Joint Implementation (JI)

Earn and Trade Covers developed countries ERUs

International Emissions Trading

Cap and Trade Only for developed countries AAUs

Types of Transactions

Allowance Based

AAUs, EUAs prevalent under a cap and trade system

Project Based

Projects are funded, conceptualized by companies in developed countries and implemented in developing countries or financially more viable countries Is covered by CDM and JI.

Trading in Theory

Tradable products under UNFCCC

Comparison between EUA, ERU and CER

Allowances v/s Credits


Only 10% of excess emissions can be covered under EU ETS


The Process (Allowances)

Cap and Trade

Cap = Limit on emissions Trade = trade for deficit/surplus and ensure you are under Cap Trading Options:

Buy from fellow compliance participants having surplus Buy from offset projects (ie CDM)


In EU fine of Euro 100 per tonne of CO2e that is above the cap In addition to this the exceeded emissions need to be covered up in the subsequent year.

The Process (Credits)

Earn and trade

Earn = Reduce carbon emissions through more efficient projects and get it certified by UNFCCC Trade = Sell these certified reductions with buyers in need.

Principle of Additionality

Around the World

Who is Selling?

Sub Saharan AfrBy Volume (ktCO2e 2012)

Source: Point Carbon

Expected annual CERs from registered Projects (By Country)


No. of Projects (By country)


India has 32.42% of total projects but generates 14.37% of total CERs Korea which is No. 4 in terms of total CERs generated, lies at No.7 in terms of total number of registered projects. Chinese projects are the most efficient. 198 projects generate 107,128,288 CERs.

Top Buyers

RWE, ENEL and EDF Trading are compliance buyers

Rest of the buyers are Carbon Credits intermediaries/ aggregators

Composition of Buyers (By Country)

Source: State of the Carbon Market

Macroeconomic Price Determinants

Upward Price Pressures

Japanese buying from 07 to 08 EU demand Australian demand post ratification

Downward Price Pressures

Canadian govt. rejection Increased registration of CER projects Major non CO2 mega projects (e.g $1 bn Chinese HFC projects) Corporations with excess allocations not trading yet

Price Signals

Demand Side Signals

Gas Coal Price Spread Oil Prices (Weak correlation) Weather Conditions Regulatory Conditions (case of EU) Economic Growth Rate

Supply Side Signals

CER Supply

Long Term Indicators

Potential supply of surplus AAUs from EIT countries

AAU prices in turn affects CER prices

EU allocation issues will be the biggest driver (Compliance levels from 10% to 5%)

EUA already a benchmark for domestic prices


Prices influenced by COP

Provides positive or negative signals through their decision

Development of internal ETS akin to EU ETS Prices of CERs at different stages of the project life cycle.

Indian Markets

Introduced on the two leading commodity exchanges MCX NCDEX MCX CFI Futures Contract was introduced in the Indian markets on Jan 21, 2008 The NCDEX CER Futures Contract (CERNCDEX) in carbon credits was introduced on Apr 10, 2008.

Contract Specifications

1 MCX EUA Futures Contract = 200 tonnes of CO2e = 200 EUAs Underlying asset: EUAs

1 NCDEX contract = 500 tonnes of CO2e = 500 CERs Underlying asset: CERs

Prices and Volume (Before Apr 2008)

Prices and Volumes (NCDEX Contract)

Prices and Volumes (after Apr 2008)


Only Dec contract has been considered because:

Only Dec contracts have significant liquidity.

Both on the Indian as well as international markets

CERs traded only on the NCDEX.

No contract for EUA


MCX drives volumes upto 76000 tonnes of CO2e or 76000 EUAs NCDEX although a late starter managed to drive up the same volume in just 2 days. After the launch of the NCDEX contract, MCX managed to trade just 5600 tonnes of carbon offsets from 10th April to 5th May. During the same period NCDEX oversaw trading of 2,370,200 tonnes of carbon credits


Low volumes implies low volatility. Unable to fulfill aim Difference due to different underlying assets

EUA cannot be used, produced or held by Indians Basis Risk, Hedging and Arbitrage opportunities


Over-allocation of Allowances

Excess allowances meant target easily achieved Volatility lead to speculation and profit trading

Regulatory impediments and hurdles Lack of liquidity Post 2012 uncertainty