CASE STUDY Methodology Brad Sterner, Heather Lesoine, Kathy Swantner, Terri Lewis EDL 720: Orientation to Doctoral Research 14 December 2009 Brad Sterner,

  • View
    214

  • Download
    2

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

  • CASE STUDY MethodologyBrad Sterner, Heather Lesoine, Kathy Swantner, Terri LewisEDL 720: Orientation to Doctoral Research14 December 2009

  • Agree or Disagree???The purpose of a case study is to test a theory.Researchers in a case study should report all information shared by the participants during observations or interviews.Case studies include both qualitative and quantitative methods.A case study reports on one individual.Case studies are not usually generalizable.

  • CASE STUDY defined:Involves the study of an issue explored through one or more cases within a bounded system (i.e. setting or context) (Cresswell, 2007) (cited in Ryan, 2009)Studies focusing on society and culture in a group, a program, process, or an organization typically espouse some form of case study as a strategy Method of learning about a complex instance through description and contextual analysis

  • CASE STUDY defined:Takes the reader into the setting with a vividness and detail not typically present in more analytic reporting formats (Marshall & Rossman, 2006, p. 164)Analyze an existing real-life situation in all its complexity, exploring it as close to the people concerned as possible, and finally explaining the findings in a clear and comprehensible way Consists of a comprehensive research strategy including qualitative and quantitative methods informed by a distinct theoretical background

  • Purpose of a Case StudyCase studies are most commonly conducted within an interpretive (naturalistic or constructive) paradigm of inquiry.Not to test a theoryConcerned with illuminating the sense that participants make of their experiencesEnable in-depth information to be revealed about the specific context as well as the intentions, organization and process surrounding a group, etc.

    Focuses on the unique understandings and experiences of the individuals involvedInclude analysis of any patterns or themes that emerge from the participants descriptions and explanation.Researchers should be sensitive to their own personal experiences and understandings as they decide which what parts of the participants stories will be told

  • CASE STUDY methodology compared to other methodsCase study research objects are complex social situations with a large number of variables which cannot be controlled and cannot even be perceived and recognized in all dimensions.

    Will ask:Will not ask:Why?Who?What?How many?How?

  • CASE STUDY methodology compared to other methodsCase studies do not rely on a controlled or artificial environmentCase studies analyze an existing, real-life situation and describe that situation in as much detail as possibleCase studies use QUALITATIVE and QUANTITATIVE methods or strategies.

  • Types of Case Studies:Descriptive: describes a caseExplorative: goes beyond description and tries to provide an understanding of the case against the background of its context, uses fieldwork and data collection. Often considered as prelude to social research.Explanatory-causal: tries to interpret phenomena to the point of answering questions of why on a theoretical basis

    Intrinsic: learn about a unique phenomenon which the study focuses on. Researcher needs to be able to define the uniqueness of this phenomenon which distinguishes it from all others.Instrumental: provide a general understanding of a phenomenon using a particular case.Collective: done to provide a general understanding using a number of instrumental case studies that either occur on the same site or come from multiple sites.

    Case Study Simulations

  • Audiences for a case study can be:Individual researcherTeam of researchersInternal participantsCollaboration of non-participant(s) with participant(s)

    Researched participantsNon-participant or participant researchersReaders of the caseCase Studies can be conducted by:

  • Role of Theory:Stake (1995) theory can be absent from studies which focus on describing a case and its issuesYin (1995) theory can be used to guide the case study in an exploratory wayCreswell (1994) theory is employed toward the end of the study providing a theory-after perspective in which other theories are compared and contrasted with the theory developed in the case study

  • CASE STUDY CONCERNS:Argument over the nature of both the concept of a case or what constitutes a case study, BUT agreement that case studies do draw on a variety of data collection sources and techniques (TRIANGULATION).

    Observations, interviews, document analysis are used to assemble a detailed or rich account of a singe or multiple cases of an individual students, classroom group, program, or institution.Can vary from relatively simple (vignette of an individual in a single episode or event or complete (multiple cases of longitudinal studies of a programs or organization).

  • Concerns for case studies:Problems with clearly defining the meaning of the termLack of a basis for generalizabilityGeneral lack of quality or rigor in their research

  • Does case study methodology lack rigour?(Kyburz-Braber, 2004) Case studies seem to allow research to be conducted with a minimum of effort, but they also allow the results to be communicated much more easily and directly to the people concerned (p. 53)Case-study research is a method which goes beyond the mere thick description (Geertz, 2000) of a situation. It can be fully recognized as a scientific method if certain quality criteria which follow the general criteria of objectivity, reliability, and validity are fulfilled (see Yin, 1994):a theoretical basis including research questions is describedtriangulation is ensured by using multiple sources of evidencea chain of evidence is designed with traceable reasons and argumentsthe case-study research is fully documentedthe case-study report is compiled through an iterative review and rewriting process (p. 58)

  • CASE STUDY design:Determine & define the research ?sSelect the case(s) & determine data gathering & analysis techniquesPrepare to collect the dataCollect data in the fieldEvaluate & analyze the dataPrepare the reportDesign the case studyConduct the case studyAnalyze the case study evidenceDevelop conclusions, recommendations, and implications

  • Agree or Disagree???The purpose of a case study is to test a theory.Researchers in a case study should report all information shared by the participants during observations or interviews.Case studies include both qualitative and quantitative methods.A case study reports on one individual.Case studies are not usually generalizable.

  • WIKI Resources:http://edl720-casestudy.wikispaces.com/

  • Sources for further exploration:

    Benjamin F. Crabtree and William L. Miller, 1999--Second Edition, Doing Qualitative Research, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California John Creswell, 1994 Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California John Creswell, 1998 Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Traditions, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California Alan E. Kazolin, 1982, Single Case Research Design: Methods for Clinical and Applied Settings, Oxford University Press, New York William Naumes and Margaret Naumes, 1999 The Art and Craft of Case Writing, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California Robert E. Stake, 1995 The Art of Case Study Research, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California Robert K. Yin, 1994--Second Edition Case Study Research: Design and Method, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California

  • REFERENCESCorcoran, P., Walker, K., & Wals, A. (2004). Case studies, make-your-case studies, and case stories: a critique of case -study methodology in sustainability in higher education. Environmental Education Research, 10(1), 7-21. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.

    Harling, K., Dr. (2002, July). An Overview of case study. Retrieved December 2, 2009, from Farm Foundation website: www.farmfoundation.org/news/articlefiles/284-1_harling.pdf

    Kyburz-Graber, R. (2004). Does case-study methodology lack rigour? The need for quality criteria for sound case-study research, as illustrated by a recent case in secondary and higher education. Environmental Education Research, 10(1), 53-65. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.

    Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. B. (2006). Designing qualitative research (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

    Stevenson, R. (2004). Constructing knowledge of educational practices from case studies. Environmental Education Research, 10(1), 39-51. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.