Causes of Latin American Revolutions 1.Inspired by Enlightenment ideas 2.Creole discontent 3.Motivated by the “successfulâ€‌ American and French Revolutions

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Slide 2 Causes of Latin American Revolutions 1.Inspired by Enlightenment ideas 2.Creole discontent 3.Motivated by the successful American and French Revolutions. 4.Napoleonic Wars Preoccupy Spain & Portugal in fighting in war in Europe 5.Taken advantage of by Europeans via economic policies which benefited Europe at the expense of the native Latin Americans Slide 3 Latin American Revolutions! Slide 4 First Colony to revoltHaiti Home Country: French colony Date of Independence: 1804 Independence Leaders: - Toussiant-Louverture (former slave) - Jean-Jaques Dessalines (Toussaints general) Haitian Independence: 1791= slave revolt 1801= Toussaint seized 2/3 of Haiti (frees slaves) 1802= French troops arrive & agreement made to stop revolution 1804= Dessalines starts revolution again and declares independence Slide 5 Home Country: Spanish colony Date of Independence: 1816 Independence Leaders: - Jose de San Martin (Spanish military officer) Argentiaian Independence: 1816= Creole colonist rebel & seize government in a bloodless revolution 1816= Martin declares Argentina independent!Argentina Slide 6 The Muscle of the Revolution Bolivar coming from the North. Jos de St. Martn and Bernard OHiggins cross the Andes Mountains. Slide 7 Home Country: Spanish colony Date of Independence: 1817 Independence Leaders: - Jose de San Martin (Spanish military officer) - Bernard OHiggins (military officer) Chile Independence: 1817= San Martin leads his army across the Andes and spreads revolution into Chile 1817= Joins forces with OHiggins & defeat Spanish; declares Chile independent!Chile Slide 8 Simn Bolivar: The Brains of the Revolution Creole leader of the revolutions in Venezuela. Spent time in Europe and the newly-independent United States. Slide 9 Home Country: Spanish colony Date of Independence: 1821/1822 Independence Leaders: - Simon Bolivar (Venezulan Creole /military general) Gran Columbia Independence: 1811= Venezuela declares independence! 1811-1821= Revolution vs. Spain 1821= Bolivar wins independence! 1821= Revolution spreads to Columbia & Ecuador 1822= Bolivar elected president; the new nation called Gran Columbia established Venezuela, Columbia, and Ecuador Slide 10 Bolivars Accomplishment Slide 11 Simn Bolivar & Jos de San Martin Join Forces! Slide 12 Home Country: Spanish colony Date of Independence: 1824 Independence Leaders: - Jose de San Martin (Spanish military officer) - Simon Bolivar (Venezuelan Creole/military general) Peruvian Independence: 1821= San Martin takes revolution to Spanish in Peru 1822= San Martin & Bolivar join forces to fight Spanish 1822= San Martin leaves for Europe 1822= Bolivar defeats Spanish at Battle of AyacuchoPeru Slide 13 Home Country: Spanish colony Date of Independence: 1825 Independence Leaders: - Simon Bolivar (Venezuelan Creole/milit. general) Bolivian Independence: 1824= Bolivar continues revolution by driving out the remaining Spanish from Peru 1825= Upper & Lower Peru separate; Lower Peru named Bolivia (after Bolivar) Bolivia Slide 14 Home Country: Portuguese colony Date of Independence: 1822 Independence Leaders: - Dom Joao aka King John (King of Portugal) - Dom Pedro (son of King John) Brazillian Independence: 1807= King John flees to Brazil to escape Napoleon 1815= Napoleon defeated; King John heads back 1822= Brazilian creoles seek independence 1822= Brazilian creoles request Dom Pedro take over Brazil as ruler; King John agrees!Brazil Slide 15 Home Country: Spanish colony Date of Independence: 1821 Independence Leaders: - Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (priest; leader of revolution) - Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon (priest & rebel leader) - General Augustin de Ituribe (Creole officer) - Venustiano Carranza (1 st President of Mexico) Mexican Independence: 1810= Costilla starts rebellion against Spanish 1811= Costilla defeated, captured, and executed 1811= Pavon leads Mexican Revolution (next 4 years) 1815= Ituribe helps Spanish defeat Pavon 1821= Ituribe turns on Spanish & makes peace with Pavon & declares Mexican independence!Mexico Slide 16 Slide 17 No Unity! Failure of Bolivars dream for a united South America = $Civil wars erupt in many newly independent countries. Geographic barriers (mts., the Amazon, etc.) and vast distances between lands Cultural differences defeated attempts at unification Geographic & Cultural Issues Slide 18 Independence Brought Poverty! The wars disrupted trade. The wars devastated the cities and the countryside. Slide 19 Caudillos take Over! WHO WERE THEY?: $military dictators who seize power via coup $Mostly wealthy creole aristocrats. $Followed the fight for independence. $Posed as reformers. $BUTonce in power overthrew govt. & took away basic human rights. $Attempted improvements, but most just cared about themselves,their families and their friends [nepotism]. Slide 20 Dependence on Foreign Nations Foreign nations needed for investments and capital Slide 21 What is the Message?