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THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR Doing Good Well: The Ethical Conduct of Clinical Psychology Celia B. Fisher, Ph.D. Marie Ward Doty University Chair & Professor of Psychology Director, Center for Ethics Educa<on Director, HIV & Drug Abuse Preven<on Research Ethics Training Ins<tute [email protected] www.fordham.edu/ethics THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR

CBFisher ABCT ClinEthics 1 30 15REV

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CBFisher_ABCT_ClinEthics_1_30_15REV.pptxTHE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Doing  Good  Well:  The  Ethical  Conduct   of  Clinical  Psychology  
Celia  B.  Fisher,  Ph.D.   Marie  Ward  Doty  University  Chair  &  Professor  of  Psychology   Director,  Center  for  Ethics  Educa<on   Director,  HIV  &  Drug  Abuse  Preven<on  Research  Ethics   Training  Ins<tute   [email protected]    www.fordham.edu/ethics  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Disclosures  
I  have  no  conflicts  of  interest  to  disclose  and   have  not  received  any  funding  from  any   commercial  en66es  that  may  be  men6oned  or   discussed  in  this  presenta6on.    
All  informa6on  and  opinions  shared  are  those   of  the  presenter  only.  
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THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Major  Topics  
• Applying  the  APA  Ethics  Code  to   everyday  clinical  prac<ce  
• Informed  consent  for  diverse   treatment  modali<es  and  popula<ons  
• Client  sensi<ve  confiden<ality  and   disclosure  policies  
• Avoiding  harm  and  maintaining   boundaries  
• Respec<ng  Client  Diversity   3
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Applying  the  APA  Ethics  Code   APA  2010  
  Aspira<onal  Principles    
 
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Applying  the  APA  Ethics  Code  
Enforceable  Standards    
• 6  General/4  Area  Specific   • Behavioral  Rules  provided  Due  No<ce   • Use  of  modifiers:    “Feasible”  “Reasonable”   • APA  specialty  guidelines  
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THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
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• Suicidal  pa<ents    
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Informed  Consent:     Building  the  TherapeuKc  Alliance  
Standards  3.05,  10.01  
• Client-­centered  language  
• Limits  of  confiden<ality:  What  will  be  shared  with  insurers  
• Risks  and  alterna<ves  for  new  or  emerging  treatments  
• As  early  as  feasible  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Need  to  Know  
 
 
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Nature  and  AnKcipated  Course  of  Therapy    
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• Number  of  sessions  given  current  knowledge  of  presen<ng   problem  
• Re-­consent  when  ini<al  goals  are  met  or  modified  based  on   revised  diagnosis  
• Do  not  assume  client  is  familiar  with  psychotherapy!    
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Fees   Standard  6.04;  4:04  
• Payment  schedule  and  type  of  payment  accepted  
• Health  care  plan:  Limita<ons  on  sessions  
• Missed  appointments    
• Late  payment,  collec<on  agencies    
 “minimum  necessary”  Standard  4.04      Inclusion  in  No<ce  of  Privacy  Prac<ces  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Need  to  Know:     When  Insurers  Refuse  Extended  Coverage  
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Did  you  take  reasonable  steps  to:    
• Learn  about  and  communicate  to  client  about  an<cipated   number  of  covered  sessions  at  outset?  
• Communicate  with  insurer  when  need  for  con<nuing   treatment  became  apparent?  
• Be  prepared  to  handle  client’s  response  to  termina<on  of   coverage?  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Health  Literacy  &  Medical  Mistrust  
• Lack  of  health  literacy   opportuni<es  
• Those  experiencing  health   care  dispari<es      
CONSENT  CHALLENGE    
• Medical  Mistrust  
 
• Lack  of  familiarity  with  terms   and  concepts  of  voluntary   choice  and  other  client  rights  
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THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Health  Literacy  &  Medical  Mistrust  
INFORMED  CONSENT  ETHICAL  PRACTICE     • Include  educa<onal  components  during  informed  consent  
• Be  aware  that  language  preferences  do  not  always  indicate   language  proficiency  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Use  of  Interpreters     Standard  2.05  
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Select  trained  interpreters  and  Ini<ate  pre-­and  post  session   training  to  ensure  that  the  interpreter  has  competencies  to:   • Interpret  consent  relevant  concepts    
• Cultural  meanings  not  just  word  for  word  transla<ons  
• Iden<fy  when  clients  are  confused  or  concerned  about   consent  relevant  informa<on  
• Facilitate  client-­psychologist  discussion  of  ques<ons  
• Refrain  from  reframing  informa<on  in  a  misguided  but  well-­ inten<oned  desire  to  avoid  culture  embarrassment    
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Informed  Consent  with  Suicidal  Clients   Rudd,  Joiner  et  al  (2009)  
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• Assists  clients  (&  families)  in  understanding  suicide  risk  during  treatment  
• Establishes  prac<<oner/client/family  shared  responsibility  to  reduce  its   likelihood  
• Helps  clarify  importance  of  treatment  compliance  &  crises  management  
• Provides  opportunity  to  emphasize  need  for  effec<ve  self-­management   during  out-­pa<ent  care  
• Helps  psychologist  iden<fy  &  target  skill  deficits  that  limit  client   willingness/ability  to  access  emergency  services  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Child/Adolescent  Therapy  
• HIPAA  rules  on  “personal  representa<ve”  
• Developmental  data  on  children’s  understanding  of  therapy,  mental   health  disorders,  and  treatment  rights  (Standard  2.04)  
• Scien<fic  and  clinical  knowledge  on  rela<onship  between  diagnoses  and   cogni<ve  and  emo<onal  capacity  to  consent  (Standard  2.04)  
• Individual  evalua<on  of  client’s  apprecia<on  of  mental  health  needs  and   history  of  health  care  decision-­making    
• NEVER  ASK  A  CHILD  TO  CONSENT  IF  THEIR  REFUSAL  WILL  NOT  BE   RESPECTED  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Family  and  Couples  Therapy   Standard  10.02  
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• Secret  sharing  policies  
• State  laws  governing  privilege  in  case  of  child  custody,  divorce  or  other   legal  proceedings  
• Mandated  repor<ng  requirements  
• Be  aware  of  signs  of  child  abuse,  elder  abuse,  and  IPV    (see  relevant  APA   Guidelines  in  references)  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Group  Therapy     Standard  10.03  
• Confiden<ality:  Therapist  and  member  obliga<ons  
• Clients  responsibili<es  in  acceptance  of  diverse  opinions,   abusive  language,  coercive  or  aggressive  behaviors,  member   scapegoa<ng  
• Termina<on  policies  and  voluntary  withdrawal  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Concurrent  Single/Group  Therapy   Brabender  &  Fallon,  2009  
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• Concerns  about  cost  and  <me  
• Differences  in  exclusivity  of  therapist’s  aien<on  vs  aien<on   to  group  dynamics  
• Confiden<ality  across  modali<es    
 
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Informed  Consent:   Electronic  CommunicaKon  Policy  
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• SOCIAL  MEDIA  POLICY:  Friending,  fanning;  following  twiier   or  blog  posts;  cancelling  uninten<onal  online  rela<onship  
• EMAIL/TEXTING  POLICIES:  Billing,  appointments,   administra<ve—policy  on  responding  to  clinical  ques<ons  
• PROFESSIONAL  WEBSITE  POLICY:  be  mindful  of  client  access   to  personal  informa<on  on  Internet  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
E-­Therapy  
• Cyber  security  a  2-­way  street    
• Limits  of  insurance  coverage-­-­Submiied  claims  must  clearly   iden<fy  services  as  electronic  with  specific  IDs  
• Ini<al  and  con<nuing  verifica<on  of  iden<ty,  age,  state,   contact  informa<on,  support  contacts  
• Know  state  laws  on  e-­therapy  involving  minors  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
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•  Implica<ons  of   HIPAA    
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
ConfidenKality:  General  Requirements     Standards  4.01,  4.02  
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• Ins<tu<onal  Cyber  security  
• Keep  progress  notes  separate  from  Protected  Health   Informa<on  (PHI:  HIPAA)  
• When  electronically  transmiong  PHI  encrypt  when   appropriate  and  ensure  receiver  is  HIPAA  compliant  
• Avoid  when  possible  and  develop  confiden<ality  protec<on   procedures  for  telephone  or  other  electronic  messages  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Need  to  Know:   Under  HIPAA  
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Insurers  do  not  have  access  to  psychotherapy  notes      
 
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Client  Request  for  Disclosure     of  ConfidenKal  InformaKon    
Standard  4.05  &  HIPAA  
• Time  limita<ons    
• Nature  of  informa<on  disclosed  
Psychologists  may  decline  request  if:   • They  believe  it  will  cause  harm  client,  but…  
• HIPAA  defines  harm  as  physical  endangerment  or  life-­threatening  AND   permits  appeal  by  licensed  health  professional  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Need  to  Know  
26
• Clients  do  not  have  access  to  psychotherapy/ process  notes  as  long  as  they  are  filed   separately  from  PHI  
• When  working  for  or  receiving  informa<on   from  an  ins<tu<on  or  aiorney  confirm   appropriate  consent/authoriza<on  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Disclosures  w/out  Client  Consent:     Duty  to  Protect  
Standard  4.05b  
• Special  Rela<onship  
• Established  scien<fic  or  clinical  basis  for  predic<ng  violence   and  immediacy  of  threat;    
• Iden<fiable  vic<m*  
• *Some  courts  have  broadened  requirement  to  iden<fiable   popula<on  of  vic<ms  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Disclosures:  Suicidal  Intent   Jobes,  Rudd,  Overholser  &  Joiner,  2008  
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COMPETENCIES    
• Prior  iden<fica<on  of  social  support  and  community   resources  
• Knowledge  of  legal  principles  and  ins<tu<onal  policies   regarding  voluntary  or  involuntary  commitment  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Disclosures:  Suicidal  Intent    
• Draw  on  consulta<ve  rela<onships  with  other  professionals    
• Evaluate  client’s  support  systems  and  ability  to  access   emergency  services  
• Involve  client  to  the  extent  possible  in  disclosure  procedure  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
 
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• Dis<nguish  NSSI  from  suicidal  behavior  (e.g.  cuong  on  extremi<es)  
• Recognize  NSSI  and  suicidality  can  co-­occur  
• Be  familiar  with  gender  differences  in  age  of  onset,  degree  of  medical   injury  and  NSSI  methods  
• Be  able  to  dis<nguish  peer  (body  piercing)  vs.  pathology  related  self-­ injury  (face,  eyes,  genitals)  
• Recognize  when  NSSI  requires  medical  aien<on  and  know  in  advance   local  emergency  services  
• When  disclosing  self-­injury  to  parents,  help  dis<nguish  NSSI  from   suicidality  as  well  as  possibility  of  future  suicidal  behaviors  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
ConfidenKality  &  Disclosure  in  Child/ Adolescent  Treatment  
 
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
1.  The  Consent  Conference      
• Establish  a  trus<ng  rela<onship  with  child  and  parent(s)  
• Describe  ethical  and  legal  responsibili<es  
• Discuss  developmentally  appropriate  confiden<ality  and   informa<on  sharing  
• Obtain  feedback    
• Establish  confiden<ality  policy  consistent  with  professional   standards,  child’s  clinical  needs  and  cultural  and  familial   context    
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
2.  Parental  Requests  for  InformaKon  
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• Avoid  turning  request  into  power  struggle  
• Guard  against  taking  on  parental  counseling  role  
• Help  parents  reframe  confiden<ality:  Child’s  developing   autonomy;  Maintaining  therapeu<c  trust  
• Consider  clinically  appropriate  child/parent  sharing  processes  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
3.  Determine  if  Disclosure  May  be  Warranted  
34
• Is  incident  isolated?  A  con<nuing  paiern?  Escala<ng?  
• Assess  child’s  ability  to  terminate  risk  behaviors  
• Conduct  appropriate  risk  reduc<on  interven<ons;  monitor   behavior  
• Weigh  therapeu<c,  social,  health,  and  legal  consequences  
• An<cipate  parents’  response  to  disclosure  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
4.  Work  with  Client  to  Disclose  
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• Evaluate  willingness  of  child  to  disclose  to  parents    
• Avoid  entering  into  a  clinically  contraindicated  “secrecy  pact”  
• Be  wary  of  assump<ons  regarding  client’s  desire  for   confiden<ality  
 
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
5.  Disclosing  to  Parent  
• Frame  within  the  context  of  ongoing  treatment  
• Focus  on  posi<ve  ac<ons  child  and  parent  can  take  
• Provide  appropriate  referrals    
• Schedule  follow-­up  mee<ngs  with  parents  and  client  to   monitor  reac<ons  and  provide  addi<onal  guidance  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
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• Referrals from clients
• Avoiding Harm: Psychotherapy
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Sefng  Appropriate  Boundaries   Standards  3.05,  3.06,  3.08  
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Boundaries  protect  against  a  blurring  of  personal  and   professional  domains  that  could:    
• Impair  the  psychologist’s  objec<vity,  competence,  or   effec<veness  to  deliver  services  
• Jeopardize  clients’  confidence  that  psychologists  will  act  in   their  best  interests.    
• Risks  client  exploita<on  or  harm  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Nonsexual  Physical  Contact  
• How  will  client  perceive  contact?  
• Does  contact  serve  needs  of  psychologist?  
• Is  contact  a  subs<tute  for  more  professionally  appropriate   behavior?  
• Is  contact  part  of  a  con<nuing  paiern  of  behavior  that  may   reflect  psychologist’s  personal  problems  or  conflicts?  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Referrals  from  Clients   Standard  3.05;  Shapiro  &  Ginsberg,  2003  
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EVALUATE  
 
• Is  a  former  referring  client  likely  to  need  the  psychologist’s   services  in  the  future?  
• Can  referral  impair  the  psychologist’s  objec<vity?  Treatment   effec<veness?  
• Does  the  psychologist’s  current  financial  situa<on  risk  client   exploita<on?  
• Has  psychologist  explicitly  or  implicitly  encouraged  referrals?  
 
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Referrals  from  Clients   Standards  3.05  
41
PRECAUTIONS  
• Provide  professional  referral  in  case  of  emergency    
UNAVOIDABLE  MULTIPLE  RELATIONSHIPS:  REFERRALS  IN   UNDER-­SERVED  POPULATIONS   • Consult  with  colleagues  to  ensure  objec<vity  
• Take  extra  steps  to  protect  confiden<ality  
• Engage  clients  in  discussion  of  ethical  challenges  and  steps  psychologist   will  take  to  mi<gate  risk  
• Encourage  clients  to  alert  psychologist  to  instances  that  might  jeopardize   his/her  effec<veness  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Avoiding  Harm:  Exposure  &  Aversion  Therapies  
42
• Is  there  evidence  of  treatment  effec<veness  for  individuals  similar  to   client  in  diagnosis,  age,  physical  health,  gender,  culture?  
• Have  empirically/clinically  validated  alterna<ve  treatments  been   considered?  
• Has  the  nature  of  the  treatment  and  an<cipated  emo<onal/physical   responses  been  adequately  explained  during  ini<al  informed  consent  and   at  the  beginning  of  each  subsequent  treatment?  
• Is  there  a  well-­developed  monitoring  plan  to:  Minimize  anxiety,    avoid   precipitous  termina<on  or  ineffec<ve  con<nua<on  of  treatment?  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Can  Behavioral  and  CogniKve  Therapy     Cause  Harm?  
43
• Treatments  powerful  enough  to  change  cogni<on  and   behavior  have  the  poten<al  for  iatrogenic  effects  
• Fluctua<on  of  nega<ve  symptoms  and  mental  health  needs   are  a  natural  course  of  evidence-­based  therapy  
• Harmful  psychotherapies  produce  outcomes  worse  than   what  would  have  occurred  without  treatment  (Dimidjian  &   Hollon,  2010)  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Avoiding  Psychotherapy  Harms     Barlow,  2010;  Beutler  et  al,  2006;  Castonguay  et  al,  2010;  Lilienfeld,  2007  
44
• Obtain  training  in  flexible  use  of  interven<ons    
• Avoid  premature  clinical  interpreta<ons  and  over/under  diagnosis  
• Determine  whether  client  characteris<cs  and  treatment  seong  match  those   reported  for  specific  EBP  
• Monitor  change  sugges<ng  deteriora<on  or  lack  of  improvement  
• Con<nuously  evaluate  what  works  or  interferes  with  posi<ve  change  
• Aiend  to  and  use  client  disclosures  of  frustra<on  with  treatment  to   evaluate  and  modify  diagnosis,  adjust  treatment,  and  strengthen   therapeu<c  alliance  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
TerminaKng  Therapy     Standard  10.10  
45
WHEN   • Client  pa<ent  no  longer  needs  service,  not  likely  to  benefit,  
or  is  being  harmed  
• Psychologist  is  threatened  or  endangered  by  client  or  person   w/  whom  the  client  has  a  rela<onship  
HOW   • Conduct  pre-­termina<on  counseling  and  suggest  alterna<ve  
services  
• Avoid  persistence  in  contac<ng  client  who  abruptly  drops  out   of  treatment  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
What  is  Abandonment?  
46
When  client  in  imminent  need  of  treatment  is   harmed  by  termina<on  of  services  in  the  
absence  of  a  clinically  and  ethically  appropriate   process  (Younggren  et  al,  2011).  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Avoiding  Abandonment  
47
• Develop  termina<on  plan  at  outset  of  treatment  and  discuss   during  IC  along  with  nature  and  an<cipated  course  of  therapy  
• Develop  well  conceptualized  ra<onale  for  termina<on  based   on  clinical,  rela<onal,  and  situa<onal  factors    
• Consult  with  client  as  early  as  feasible  
• Construct  termina<on  <meline  and  be  responsive  to  client   reac<on  
• Provide  appropriate  referrals  if  appropriate  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
NEED  TO  KNOW:   AVOIDING  ABANDONMENT  
48
• Avoid  unnecessary  follow-­up  
• Create  record  document  key  components  of   termina<on  ra<onale  and  process  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
49
• Ethical pluralism
• Goodness-of-Fit Ethics
• Diagnostic pluralism
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Competence  
50
Competence  is  the  lynchpin  of  the  discipline   enabling  psychologists  to  fulfill  all  other  ethical  
obliga<ons.  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Competence  &  Ethical  Pluralism     Standard  2.01b  
51
• Psychologists  draw  on  established  scien<fic  and  professional   knowledge  
• To  appropriately  iden<fy  factors  associated  with  age,  gender,   gender  iden<ty,  race,  ethnicity,  culture,  na<onal  origin,     religion,  sexual  orienta<on,  disability,  language,  or   socioeconomic  status    
• Essen<al  for  effec<ve  services  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Goodness-­of-­Fit  Ethics   Fisher,  2003;  2013;  2014;  Fisher  &  Ragsdale,  2006;  Masty  &  Fisher,  2008  
52
• What  life  circumstances  render  client  more  suscep<ble  to  the  benefits  or   risks  of  the  intended  psychological  assessment  or  treatment?    
• Are  there  aspects  of  the  treatment  or  seong  that  are  “misfiied”  to  client   competencies,  values,  fears  and  hopes?    
• Does  client  have  different  concep<ons  of  treatment  goals?    
• How  can  psychologist  engage  client  in  mutually  respecrul  dialogue  to   illuminate  the  lens  through  which  each  view  the  psychologist’s  work?  
• How  can  psychologists  draw  on  such  dialogue  to  best  harmonize  their   procedures  to  reflect  the  values  and  merit  the  trust  of  those  they  serve?  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
DiagnosKc  Pluralism   Korchin  (1980,  p.  264)    
53
• Lacks  voluntary  control,  ego  strength,  flexibility,  and   adaptability  
• Has  only  a  weak  sense  of  personal  iden<ty  
• Feels  driven  by  powerful  and  painful  impulses  and  nega<ve   affects  
• At  the  extreme,  reveals  disturbances  of  basic  psychological   func<ons  (percep<on,  learning,  memory)…”  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Avoiding  Misdiagnosis   Standard  2.04,  9.02  
54
• Have  EBP  or  DSM  criteria  has  been  validated  on  client  popula<on?  
• Have  compara<ve  or  deficit  approaches  led  to  inappropriate  or  overuse   of  certain  diagnoses?  
• Are  posi<ve  mental  health  criteria  based  on  majority  group  aotudes  or   behaviors?  
• Can  I  recognize  the  meaning  func<on  of  par<cular  behaviors/symptoms   within  the  client’s  par<cular  cultural  context?  
 
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
PopulaKon  SensiKvity  vs.  Stereotype  
 
• Grouping  clients  into  social  categories  that  may  not  reflect   how  they  see  themselves  
• Over-­  or  under-­es<ma<ng  the  role  of  cultural,  gender,  and   other  characteris<cs  on  the  presen<ng  problem?  
• Failing  to  recognize  the  fluid,  evolving  and  mul<faceted   nature  of  iden<ty  
• Precipitously  separa<ng  medical  condi<ons  from   psychosocial  and  physiological  and  cumula<ve  effects  of   discrimina<on  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Religion  and  Spirituality  in  Therapy   Bartoli,  2007;  Fisher,  2013;  Plante,  2007  
56
• Understand  how  religion  presents  itself  in  mental  health  and   psychopathology    
• Be  able  to  iden<fy  when  a  mental  health  problem  is  related  to  religious   beliefs  
• Do  not  confuse  religious  values  with  mental  health  problems  
• Become  familiar  with  techniques  to  assess  and  treat  clinically  relevant   religious/spiritual  beliefs  and  emo<onal  reac<ons    
• Obtain  knowledge  of  EBP  on  the  use  of  religious  imagery,  prayer,  or  other   religious  techniques  
• Be  familiar  with  appropriate  role  of  tradi<onal  medicines,  clergy  and   cultural  healers  as  conjunc<ve  services  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Need  to  Know  
57
• Shared  faith  beliefs  do  not  equal  competence  to  provide   religion  sensi<ve  psychotherapy  
• When  appropriate  discuss  your  approach  to  the  role  of   religion  in  treatment  during  informed  consent  
• Be  aware  of  personal  religious  bias  that  may  interfere  with   your  objec<vity  
• Know  boundaries  between  discussing  treatment  relevant   responses  to  religious  doctrine  vs.  religious  counseling  or   imposing  religious  values    
 
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Religion  and  Therapy  with  LGBTQ  Clients   Magaldi-­Dopman  &  Park-­Taylor,  2010;  Maihews  et  al.,  2012;  Sherry,  2010  
58
internalized  homophobia  
• Emo<ons  associated  with  loss,  grief,  anger,  reconcilia<on,  or   change  in    religious  or  spiritual  iden<ty  
• Skills  clients  may  need  to  separate  spirituality  from  religion  and  to   explore  diversity  of  opinion  within  their  faith  community  
• The  liabili<es  and  benefits  of  coming  out  to  family  members  and   others  who  endorse  LGBTQ  religious  biases  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
NEED  TO  KNOW:   RELIGION  AND  THERAPY  WITH  LGBTQ  CLIENTS  
59
• Rejec<on  by  one’s  religious  ins<tu<on  does   not  mean  LGBTQ  clients  are  not  deeply   religious,  spiritual  or  seeking  to  be!  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION
CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
Doing  Good  Well  
60
• Psychologists  are  not  technocrats  working  their  way  through   a  maze  of  ethical  rules  
• The  APA  Code  provides  aspira<ons  and  general  rules  of   conduct  that  must  be  interpreted  and  applied  to  the  unique   roles  and  rela<onships  of  clinical  prac<ce  
• Good  and  justly  implemented  professional  prac<ce  relies  on   a  concep<on  of  psychologists  as  ac<ve  moral  agents   commiied  to  doing  what  is  right  because  it  is  right.    
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
QuesKons/further  discussion  
THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
References  
• Fisher,  C.  B.  (2013).  Decoding  the  ethics  code:  A  prac6cal  guide  for  psychologists.   Thousand  Oaks,  CA:  Sage  Publica<ons.  
• American  Psychological  Associa<on  (2010).  Ethical  principles  of  psychologists  and   code  of  conduct.  hBp://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx  
• APA  (1994).  Guidelines  for  child  custody  evalua<ons  in  divorce  proceedings.   American  Psychologist,  49,  677-­680.  
• APA  (1999).  Guidelines  for  psychological  evalua<ons  in  child  protec<on  maiers.   American  Psychologist,  54,  586-­93  
• APA  (2000).  Guidelines  for  psychotherapy  with  lesbian,  gay  &  bisexual  clients.   American  Psychologist,  55,  1440-­1451.  
• APA  (2003).  Guidelines  on  mul<cultural  educa<on,  training,  research,  prac<ce,  and   organiza<onal  change  for  psychologists.  American  Psychologist,  58,  377-­402.  
• APA  (2004).  Guidelines  for  Psychological  Prac<ce  with  Older  Adults.  American   Psychologist,  59,  236-­260.    
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THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
References  
• APA  (2007)  Guidelines  for  Psychological  Prac<ce  With  Girls  and  Women.  American   Psychologist,  62.  949-­979.  
• Andover,  M.S.,  Primack,  J.M.,  Gibb,  B.E.,  &  Pepper,  C.M.  (2010).  An  examina<on  of   non-­suicidal  self-­injury  in  men:  Do  men  differ  from  women  in  basic  NSSI   characteris<cs?  Archives  of  Suicide  Research,  14(1),  79-­88.  
• Barlow,  D.H.  (2010).  Nega<ve  effects  from  psychological  treatments:  A   perspec<ve.  American  Psychologist,  65(1),  13-­20.  
• Bartoli,  E.  (2007).  Religious  and  spiritual  issues  in  psychotherapy  prac<ce:  Training   the  trainer.  Psychotherapy:  Theory,  Research,  Prac6ce,  Training,  44,  54-­65.  
• Beutler,  L.  E.,  Blai,  S.J.,  Alimohamed,  S.,  Levy,  K.N.,  &  Angtuaco,  L.  (2006).   Par<cipant  factors  in  trea<ng  dysphoric  disorders.  In  L.G.  Castonguay  &  L.E.   Beutler  (Eds.),  Principles  of  therapeu6c  change  that  work  (pp.  13-­63).  New  York,   NY:  Oxford  University  Press.  
• Brabender,  V,  &  Fallon,  A.  (2009).  Group  development  in  prac6ce:  Guidance  for   clinicians  and  researchers  on  stages  and  dynamics  of  change.  Washington,  D.C.:   American  Psychological  Associa<on.  
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THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
References  
• Castonguay,  L.G.,  Boswell,  J.F.,  Constan<no,  M.J.,  Goldfried,  M.R.,  &  Hill,  C.E.   (2010).  Training  implica<ons  of  harmful  effects  of  psychological  treatments.   American  Psychologist,  65(1),  34-­49.  
• Fisher,  C.  B.  (2003).  A  goodness-­of-­fit  ethic  for  informed  consent  to  research   involving  persons  with  mental  retarda<on  and  developmental  disabili<es.  Mental   Retarda6on  and  Developmental  Disabili6es  Research  Reviews,  9,  27–31.  PMID:   12587135.    
• Fisher,  C.  B.  (2014).  Mul<cultural  Ethics  in  Professional  Psychology  Prac<ce,   Consul<ng,  and  Training.  In  Frederick  T.L.  Leong  (Ed.),  APA  Handbook  of   Mul6cultural  Psychology.  Vol.  2.  (pp.  35-­57).  Washington,  D.C.:  APA  Books.  
• Fisher,  C.  B.,  &  Ragsdale,  K.  (2006).  A  goodness-­of-­fit  ethics  for  mul<cultural   research.  In  J.  Trimble  and  C.  B.  Fisher  (Eds.),  The  handbook  of  ethical  research   with  ethnocultural  popula6ons  and  communi6es  (pp.  3–26).  Thousand  Oaks,  CA:   Sage.  
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THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
References  
• Jobes,  D.A.,  Rudd,  M.,  Overholser,  J.C.,  &  Joiner,  T.E.  (2008).  Ethical  and  competent   care  of  suicidal  pa<ents:  Contemporary  challenges,  new  developments,  and   considera<ons  for  clinical  prac<ce.  Professional  Psychology:  Research  and   Prac6ces,  39(4),  405-­413.  
• Korchin,  S.  J.  (1980).  Clinical  psychology  and  minority  problems.  American   Psychologist,  35,  262-­269.  
• Lieberman,  R.,  Toste,  J.R.,  &  Heath,  N.L.  (2008).  Preven<on  and  interven<on  in  the   schools.  In  M.K.  Nixon  &  N.  Heath  (Eds.),  Self  injury  in  youth:  The  essen6al  guide  to   assessment  and  interven6on.  New  York,  NY:  Routledge.  
• Lilienfeld,  S.O.  (2007).  Psychology  treatments  that  cause  harm.  Perspec6ves  on   Psychological  Science,  2,  53-­70.  
• Magaldi-­Dopman,  D.  &  Park-­Taylor,  J.  (2010).  Sacred  adolescence:  Prac<cal   sugges<ons  for  psychologists  working  with  adolescents'  religious  and  spiritual   iden<ty.  Professional  Psychology  Research  and  Prac6ce,  41(5):382-­390.  
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THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
References  
• Masty,  J.,  &  Fisher,  C.  B.  (2008).  A  goodness  of  fit  approach  to  parent  permission   and  child  assent  pediatric  interven<on  research.  Ethics  &  Behavior,  13,  139–160.  
• Maihews,  Cynthia  H.;  Salazar,  Carmen  F.  (2012).  An  integra<ve,  empowerment   model  for  helping  lesbian  gay  &  Bisexual  youth  nego<ate  the  coming=out  process.   Journal  of  LGBT  Issues  in  Counseling.  2012,  Vol.  6  Issue  2,  p96-­117.  
• Nock,  M.K.,  Joiner,  T.E.,  Gordon,  K.H.,  Lloyd-­Richardson,  E.,  &  Prinstein,  M.J.   (2006).  Nonsuicidal  self-­injury  among  adolescents:  Diagnos<c  correla<ons  and   rela<on  to  suicide  aiempts.  Psychiatry  Research,  144(1),  165-­172.  
• Plante,  T.G.  (2007).  Integra<ng  spirituality  and  psychotherapy:  Ethical  issues  and   principles  to  consider.  Journal  of  Clinical  Psychology,  63,  891-­902.  
• Rudd,  M.D.,  Joiner,  T.,  Brown,  G.K.,  Cukowicz,  K.,  Jobes,  D.A.,  Silverman,  M.,  &   Cordero,  L.  (2009).  Informed  consent  with  suicidal  pa<ents:  Rethinking  risk  in  (and   out  of)  treatment.  Psychotherapy  46(4),  459-­468.  
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THE CENTER FOR ETHICS EDUCATION CELIA B. FISHER, PH.D., DIRECTOR
References  
• Shapiro,  E.  L.  &  Ginzberg,  R.  (2003).  To  accept  or  not  to  accept:  Referrals  and  the   maintenance  of  boundaries.  Professional  Psychology:  Research  &  Prac6ce,  34,   258-­263.    
• Sherry,  Alissa;  Adelman,  Andrew;  Whilde,  Margaret  R.  (2010).  Quick,  Daniel.   Compe<ng  selves:  Nego<a<ng  the  intersec<on  of  spiritual  and  sexual  iden<<es.   Professional  Psychology:  Research  &  Prac<ce.  Apr2010,  Vol.  41  Issue  2,  p112-­119.  
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