This is a biology Cell City Project describing the different parts of a cell and making analogies of these parts to a car.
Cell City ProjectAnimal Cell Compared To a Car
Cole Brownsberger Luke Patterson
1. Cell Membrane and Exterior of the Car
The structure of a cell membrane has a phospholipid bilayer with proteins, carbohydrates, and other lipids embedded. The phospholipid bilayer consists of two layers that face each. Each layer has an outside polar, hydrophilic, glycerol head, that can come into contact with water, whereas the inside of the layer has a fatty acid tail that cannot come into contact with water because it is hydrophobic and non-polar. Cholesterol is found in between closely related phospholipids. Integral proteins are embedded into the membrane and they stick out both sides and Peripheral proteins are only embedded into one side of the cell membrane. Glycoproteins are carbohydrates attached to membrane proteins or lipids and can be found on the extracellular surface only. The extracellular matrix is referred to as the face of the cell or the extracellular surface. It is composed of all the cell membrane parts and is also different for each type of cell. The structure of a cell membrane is composed of a lot of organelles, but what is the function of these parts? Well, the phospholipid bilayer provides the overall support, shape, and protection for the cell. The cholesterol found in between the phospholipids helps increase stability by preventing the phospholipids from being too fluid. The integral proteins act as regulatory channels for membrane transport, and the peripheral proteins provide support because they attach to the cytoskeleton of the cell. The peripheral proteins can also act as enzymes and also receptor sites for channels. The glycolipids are part of the cell to cell adhesion
Page 2 (tissue integrity), and cell to cell recognition and communication. The extracellular matrix helps identify the cell and it also interacts with neighboring cells to communicate. The cell membrane is an important part of the cell because it provides the shape and protection for the cell, as well as give it support. That is why the exterior of a car is just like the cell membrane of a cell. The exterior of a car gives a car its shape and support, and it also protects everything inside it. The integral proteins of the exterior of a car would be the doors, windows, and grille. Each car has a different type of exterior and the outside frame of a car helps identify what kind it is just like the extracellular matrix does a cell. The peripheral proteins attach to the axis of a car just like they attach to the cytoskeleton of a cell. The phospholipid bilayer of a car is the actual exterior itself. The outside layer is hydrophilic and can come into contact with water like the outside layer of a phospholipid in a cell. The cell membrane is one of the most important parts of a cell, and the exterior of a car is very important to the car itself.
2. Nucleus and Driver
The Nucleus is generally the large, central part of the cell. There is only one nucleus in a cell. The nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear envelope and membrane. It is also composed of nuclear sap found in the nucleoplasm, and has a nuclear matrix that provides the support to the nucleus. Chromatin is found inside the nucleus and the chromatin contains DNA. The nucleolus is also found inside the nucleus and so is RNA. The Nucleus is the central control room that protects the genetic material. The DNA found in chromatin is too large to leave the nucleus, so the nucleus has to protect it. The nucleus uses the DNA as a blueprint on how to build and operate all the cell parts. Without it, the cell membrane would not be able to function properly. The importance of the nucleus of the cell is just like the driver of a car. The drivers brain is just like a cells DNA because the driver contains all of the knowledge of how to control and operate the car, and without him, the car would not be able to function properly. The driver is the central control room of a car, and there can only be one driver just like there can only be one nucleus in a cell.
3. Nucleolus and the Drivers Head
The nucleolus is the area containing RNA and proteins. It is not membrane bound so it is really just a more dense part of the nucleus. It does not take up the whole part of a nucleus but it does take up about a fourth of space. The nucleolus function is to produce ribosomes. The ribosomes function is to produce proteins so that whole process starts in the nucleolus. Using rRNA, the nucleolus builds these ribosomes and then ships them out of the nucleus. The nucleolus of a car would be the head of the driver. The driver sees and hears his surroundings and has to make decisions based on his senses. He has to create thoughts and send them down to his muscles so they can make reactions. An important part of the car is the driver because he operates and controls it. The nucleolus is important in a nucleus, just like the drivers head is important to the driver and the car.
4. Chromatin and a Drivers Brain
The chromatin of cell is found within the nucleus. Chromatin contains DNA that is bound around histones and wrapped around protein. It is too big to leave the nucleus, and it is the nucleuss job to protect it. If all the DNA, found in the nucleus, was put together into one strand, that strand would be almost six feet long. As you can tell, there is a lot of DNA in chromatin. Chromatins function in a cell is to provide genetic information on how to build and operate all cell parts. One strand of DNA in chromatin has 46 unique parts that hold the information on how operate the cell parts. Without chromatin in the nucleus, the cell would not be able to function. The brain of a driver is very similar to chromatin. The brain of a driver processes and reacts to what the five senses of our body tell us. The brain can tell our body how to operate all of our parts, just like the DNA in chromatin. The brain is also too big to leave the body, and chromatin is too big to leave the nucleus.
5. Cytoplasm and the Interior of the Car
The cytoplasm is the region within the cell between the cell membrane and nuclear membrane. The endoplasm is anything within the cytoplasm and the ectoplasm is anything outside if the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm contains the organelles and parts within the cell. Within the cytoplasm is cytosol, a clear liquid gel made up of water, ions, salts, organic compounds, and pigments. The function of the cytoplasm is to keep fluidity in the cell. Without the cytoplasm, the organelles and parts would have a tough time staying in place because they would be suspended in air. The cytoplasm is an area where the organelles and parts can move around or stay in place. The interior of a car and the cytoplasm of a cell are alike in many ways. The interior of a car contains the parts within a car. The cytosol of a car would just be air. Air is a clear substance that contains oxygen, minerals, and ions.
6. Mitochondria and Pistons of an Engine
The Mitochondria may have been its own cell at one point because of its structure. It has an outer membrane that surrounds the organelle. An inner membrane called the cristae is found inside the out membrane. The space between the outer membrane and the inner membrane is known as the inter-membrane space. The mitochondria matrix is found within the inner membrane, and also inside the inner membrane is DNA. The mitochondrias DNA actually came from the mothers ovum, making the mitochondria have its own DNA. The function of the mitochondria is cellular respiration, which produces ATP. ATP is the energy for the cell. The mitochondria are also part of regulating a cells metabolism. Through the process of producing ATP, they can speed up metabolism or if production is low, slow it down. For the cell to have any energy, mitochondria will have to produce it. The pistons of an engine in a car are very similar to the mitochondria in a cell. The pistons produces energy for the car just like the mitochondria produces energy for the cell. An engine uses gasoline in the combustion chamber to move the pistons up and down which in return turns the axel of the car. When the pistons move up and down, the friction produces a lot of heat and energy that the car parts can also use. Without the pistons of an engine, a car would not be functional, like a cell without its mitochondria.
7. Golgi Complex and the Carburetor
The Golgi complex, also known as the Golgi apparatus, is a very complicated organelle. It is a series of folded membranes found on the inside of a cell, and it looks like a stack of pancakes. The actual folded parts of the membrane are called the cisternae. The Golgi complex has three faces. The receiving part is called the cis, the enzymatic work area is called the medial, and the shipping dock is called the trans. Proteins first go to the cis, then they go through the cisternae until they enter the medial, and then they go out of the Golgi complex through the trans. The function of the Golgi complex is to modify, sort, store, and ship proteins and lipids. The Golgi apparatus can receive proteins from the Rough ER, modify it, and then ship them to other places in the cell like the vacuoles. The Golgi apparatus can also receive food outside the cell, process it, and then send it to the smooth ER. The carburetor in a car is a device that blends air and fuel so the internal combustion engine can use it. The carburetor receives fuel from the fuel vapor hose, and it also receives air from outside the car through the grille. The carburetor has to measure the airflow of the engine, deliver the correct amount of fuel to keep the fuel/air mixture in the proper range so the combustion chamber can safely use it (adjusting for factors such as temperature), and final