Cell Inquiry: A 5e Learning Cycle Lesson

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<ul><li><p>This article was downloaded by: [Nipissing University]On: 18 October 2014, At: 00:43Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House,37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK</p><p>Science Activities: Classroom Projects and CurriculumIdeasPublication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/vsca20</p><p>Cell Inquiry: A 5e Learning Cycle LessonMelinda Wilder a &amp; Phyllis Shuttleworth aa Eastern Kentucky University Richmond, Kentuckyb Kentucky Department of EducationPublished online: 07 Aug 2010.</p><p>To cite this article: Melinda Wilder &amp; Phyllis Shuttleworth (2005) Cell Inquiry: A 5e Learning Cycle Lesson, Science Activities:Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 41:4, 37-43, DOI: 10.3200/SATS.41.4.37-43</p><p>To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/SATS.41.4.37-43</p><p>PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE</p><p>Taylor &amp; Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the Content) containedin the publications on our platform. However, Taylor &amp; Francis, our agents, and our licensors make norepresentations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of theContent. Any opinions and views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors, andare not the views of or endorsed by Taylor &amp; Francis. The accuracy of the Content should not be relied upon andshould be independently verified with primary sources of information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable forany losses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoeveror howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to or arising out of the use ofthe Content.</p><p>This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematicreproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in anyform to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms &amp; Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions</p><p>http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/vsca20http://www.tandfonline.com/action/showCitFormats?doi=10.3200/SATS.41.4.37-43http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/SATS.41.4.37-43http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditionshttp://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions</p></li><li><p>CELL INQUIRY:</p><p>A 5E LEARNING</p><p>CYCLE LESSON</p><p>MELINDA WILDER and PHYLLIS SHUTTLEWORTH</p><p>Abstract. One dilemma science teachers face every day isbalancing the content demands of state and federal testingrequirements while providing opportunities for inquiry.Using the 5E learning cycle is a realistic, constructivist wayto address this dilemma. The 5E learning cycle leads stu-dents through a sequence of learning in which they becomeengaged in a topic, explore that topic, are given an explana-tion for their experiences, elaborate on their learning, andare evaluated. This article outlines a 5E learning cycle intro-ducing middle/high school students to the cell.</p><p>Key words: biology, cell, constructivism, inquiry, learningcycle</p><p>ne dilemma that science teachers face everydayis, How do I balance helping my students learnall the content they are required to know while</p><p>providing them opportunities for inquiry? All the recent lit-erature on learning verifies that students learn by beinginvolved in meaningful inquiry experiences. But do theylearn enough content to be successful on the state mandatedtests? Using the 5E learning cycle is an effective, realisticway to address this dilemma. This instructional sequencestructures inquiry while addressing specific content.</p><p>MELINDA WILDER is currently teaching middle and secondaryscience methods at Eastern Kentucky University in Richmond,Kentucky. She regularly serves as a guest teacher in local middleschool science classes. Her research interests include construc-tivist science teacher education and inquiry-based science teach-ing.</p><p>PHYLLIS SHUTTLEWORTH is currently a consultant for theKentucky Department of Education. She previously taught middleand high school science for 18 years. Her research interestsinclude brain-based teaching and assessment. </p><p>Background </p><p>The learning cycle approach has its origin in an elemen-tary curriculum project sponsored by the National ScienceFoundation in the 1960s (Karplus and Their 1967). As itwas first developed, the learning cycle involved threestages: Exploration, Concept Introduction, and ConceptApplication, which simulate the quest for science knowl-edge. Research over the past four decades has documentedthe effectiveness of this teaching approach (Beisenherz andDantonio 1996; Colburn and Clough 1997; Marek and Cav-allo 1997; Marek and Methven 1991; Musheno and Lawson1999). The learning cycle sequence is also compatible withresearch on how students learn (Lawson 1988; Odom andKelly 1998). </p><p>The Exploration stage of the learning cycle activityinvolves students in concrete experiences allowing them toconstruct knowledge. During the Concept Introduction stage,the concepts that underlie the exploration are formally intro-duced and given a name. Students then apply this knowledgein the Concept Application stage. Colburn and Clough(1997, p. 33) state that Research supports the learning cycleas an effective way to help students enjoy science, under-stand content, and apply scientific processes and concepts toauthentic situations.</p><p>As the learning cycle has been used, researched, andrefined over the years, some practitioners have extended thethree stages into five, known as the 5E learning cycle:Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Extension, andEvaluation (Trowbridge et al. 2000). The Engagementphase is used to motivate students by creating some mentaldisequilibrium or tapping into familiar reallife situations.The interest generated leads students into the Explorationstage in which they use direct concrete experiences to makeobservations, collect data, test predictions, and refinehypotheses. This information enables them to begin</p><p>37</p><p>O</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Nip</p><p>issi</p><p>ng U</p><p>nive</p><p>rsity</p><p>] at</p><p> 00:</p><p>43 1</p><p>8 O</p><p>ctob</p><p>er 2</p><p>014 </p></li><li><p>answering questions initiated in the Engagement phase.During the Exploration stage, the teacher should facilitatesafe, guided or open inquiry experiences and questioning sostudents might uncover their misconceptions about the con-cept. During the Explanation stage, the teacher uses stu-dents observations and data to create a scientific explana-tion for their results. At this time, appropriate scientificvocabulary is introduced and is related to the studentsexperiences. The Elaboration stage is designed to give stu-dents additional problems, which allow them to apply theirnew knowledge, propose solutions, make decisions and/ordraw reasonable conclusions. This is often in the form ofanother inquiry activity or extension of the Explorationphase activity. The Evaluation stage is essential to deter-mine if students obtained a scientifically correct under-standing of the concept and if they were able to generalizeto other contexts. This may be done formally or informally.</p><p>The following activity uses the 5E learning cycle to pre-sent an introductory lesson on cells. This lesson has beenconducted in a high school Biology I class in an eighty-minute block format. It could easily be broken down intostages to conform to shorter teaching periods. The lessonaddresses the National Science Education Standards (NRC1996) in two areas: teaching and content. Teaching StandardA states that teachers of science plan an inquirybased sci-ence program for their students (NRC 1996, p. 30). BothContent Standard A and C are targeted. Content Standard Arequires that students develop the skills to do scientificinquiry. Content Standard C states that as a result of theiractivities, all students should develop an understanding ofthe cell (NRC 1996, p. 181).</p><p>Objectives</p><p>1. Students will be able to define the basic building block oflife as the cell. </p><p>2. Students will be able to describe the differences betweenplant and animal cells.</p><p>3. Students will be able to identify plant and animal cells. </p><p>Materials (2 per group for microscopic work and4 per group for discussion and sharing):</p><p> Blob (see Teacher Resources) 2 slides per student 2 cover slips per student Toothpicks (1or 2 per student) Slivers of onionskin Dropper (1 per student) Water Prepared specimen slides showing plant and animal cells Drawing paper Drawing pencils</p><p>Procedure</p><p>Engagement</p><p>1. Give each group of students a blob. These are commer-cially available from ETA Cuisenaire (refer to TeacherResources) or you can make your own (directions areprovided at the end of the article). Allow students 57minutes to manipulate it and to individually hypothesizewhat this blob represents. Students should record theirhypothesis and then share it with their group. </p><p>2. Have groups share their hypotheses with the class andrecord these on the board.</p><p>3. Collect the blobs for observation later since they couldprovide considerable distraction during the remainderof the lesson.</p><p>4. Inform the students that they will engage in a laboratoryactivity to help them test their hypotheses. </p><p>38 SCIENCE ACTIVITIES Vol. 41, No. 4</p><p>Students study the blobs during the engagement stage.</p><p>The blobs provide a source of confusion to stir students curiousity during the engagement stage.</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Nip</p><p>issi</p><p>ng U</p><p>nive</p><p>rsity</p><p>] at</p><p> 00:</p><p>43 1</p><p>8 O</p><p>ctob</p><p>er 2</p><p>014 </p></li><li><p>Exploration</p><p>Students need the prerequisite skills of preparing a wetmount and using a compound microscope. See Figure 1 foractivity sheet used to record observations.</p><p>5. Using the slides, cover slips, and toothpicks, have stu-dents individually make a wet mount of their cheekcells by lightly scraping the inside of their cheek (seeDiscussion and Findings for safety precautions). Theyshould observe this slide under the microscope andmake a detailed drawing of their observations. Theteacher should not use the term cell at this point in thelearning cycle.</p><p>6. Next, students should make a wet mount of a small, thinpiece of onionskin. Direct students to make carefulobservations and detailed drawings of this slide. </p><p>7. In their small groups, students should then prepare a listof any similarities and differences in the two slides.</p><p>8. Students should clean up their work areas before goingon to the next stage.</p><p>Explanation</p><p>9. Ask the students: Did your observations of the samplesgive you any clues to what the mystery blob may repre-sent? Elicit the response cell from the students. </p><p>10. Have the students describe their observations from theExploration activity by using the term cell.</p><p>11. Provide the definition of cell as the basic building blockof life.</p><p>12. Have the groups share their observations of the twoslides by having them draw on the board or post theirdrawings in the room. Ask students to determine howother groups drawings are similar or different fromtheir own. Discuss the reasons for potential differencesin the drawings. </p><p>13. Then ask the groups to share the list of similarities anddifferences between the cells that they prepared in theExploration stage. Lead a discussion to determine whythe two types of cells look different.</p><p>14. Explain that they were looking at different types ofcells. Detail the differences in plant and animal cells.Plants cells have a roughly rectangular shape due to thecell wall and are arranged in an orderly pattern or row.Plant cells include greenish chloroplasts and containlarge vacuoles. Animal cells are irregularly shaped,often clumped. They do not have the greenish chloro-plasts or large vacuoles. Both plant and animal cellshave a cell membrane, although the cell membrane onthe plant cell is difficult to see due to the cell wall. Bothplant and animal cells have observable nuclei and endo-plasmic reticulum. Although plant and animal cellsshare other similar organelles, they probably wont beobservable with a compound microscope.</p><p>15. Now ask the students if they would classify the blobas a plant or animal cell. Ask them to give reasons fortheir answers. </p><p>16. Explain that the next activity will help them applytheir knowledge of plant and animal cells to other realspecimens.</p><p>Elaboration</p><p>This next activity can be structured as a challenge inquiry inwhich the groups (not individuals) compete against eachother to correctly identify slide specimens. </p><p>17. Have students examine unidentified prepared slidesshowing various plant and animal cells. The specimensshould be from familiar organisms. As students examineeach slide, instruct them to classify each sample as plantor animal. </p><p>18. After all students have examined six to eight differentslides, have them discuss their classifications withgroup members and come to a consensus on the classi-fication. Classification should be based on the differ-ences between plant and animal cells outlined in theExplanation stage. </p><p>19. Then have groups share their results. At this point, theteacher verifies their results and determines the winnerof the challenge.</p><p>Evaluation</p><p>To complete this evaluation effectively, students must knowthe procedure to produce concept maps.</p><p>20. Have students individually construct a concept mapusing the words cell, plant, animal, irregular shape,chloroplasts, nucleus, cell membrane, and cell wall (seeFigure 2).</p><p>Discussion and Findings</p><p>The one safety issue that needs to be considered is the useof live cheek cells. The following safety precautions shouldbe used to alleviate some of the concerns:</p><p> Students handle only their cells throughout the entireactivityscraping, viewing of slide, cleanup, and dispos-al of specimen.</p><p> During cleanup, the cover slips are disposed as a biohaz-ard. Slides are sterilized before re-use. </p><p> The workspace and microscope stage are cleaned with anantiseptic compound such as diluted bleach solution.</p><p> All students should wash their hands thoroughly beforeand after collecting the specimen. </p><p>As with all learning experiences, this lesson has somestrengths and weaknesses. A consistent problem is studentskills in using the microscope. In order for effective learning</p><p>Winter 2005 SCIENCE ACTIVITIES 39</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Nip</p><p>issi</p><p>ng U</p><p>nive</p><p>rsity</p><p>] at</p><p> 00:</p><p>43 1</p><p>8 O</p><p>ctob</p><p>er 2</p><p>014 </p></li><li><p>40 SCIENCE ACTIVITIES Vol. 41, No. 4</p><p>Are There Similarities and Differences in Plant and Animal Cells?</p><p>Complete the following activity and questions to answer the question above.</p><p>1. Take a piece of the thin onionskin smaller than your fingernail and place it on a microscope slide with a drop of water on it.</p><p>2. Put the cover slip over the onionskincarefully!</p><p>3. Look at your slide through the microscope. Get a bright field in your microscope. Get a dark field in your microscope. Do some parts of the specimen stay light and shiny more than others?</p><p>4. In the circle, sketch what your specimen looks like.</p><p>a. How would you describe the shape of the things you see?</p><p>b. Are the blocks all exactly the same?</p><p>c. Are they about the same size?</p><p>d. Are they all exactly the same...</p></li></ul>

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