Cell Inquiry: A5E Learning Cycle Lesson

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<ul><li><p>This article was downloaded by: [The University of Manchester Library]On: 21 November 2014, At: 11:02Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House,37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK</p><p>Science Activities: Classroom Projects and CurriculumIdeasPublication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/vsca20</p><p>Cell Inquiry: A5E Learning Cycle LessonMelinda Wilder a &amp; Phyllis Shuttleworth ba Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, Kentuckyb Kentucky Department of EducationPublished online: 07 Aug 2010.</p><p>To cite this article: Melinda Wilder &amp; Phyllis Shuttleworth (2004) Cell Inquiry: A5E Learning Cycle Lesson, Science Activities:Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 41:1, 25-31, DOI: 10.3200/SATS.41.1.25-32</p><p>To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/SATS.41.1.25-32</p><p>PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE</p><p>Taylor &amp; Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the Content) containedin the publications on our platform. However, Taylor &amp; Francis, our agents, and our licensors make norepresentations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of theContent. Any opinions and views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors, andare not the views of or endorsed by Taylor &amp; Francis. The accuracy of the Content should not be relied upon andshould be independently verified with primary sources of information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable forany losses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoeveror howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to or arising out of the use ofthe Content.</p><p>This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematicreproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in anyform to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms &amp; Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions</p><p>http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/vsca20http://www.tandfonline.com/action/showCitFormats?doi=10.3200/SATS.41.1.25-32http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/SATS.41.1.25-32http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditionshttp://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions</p></li><li><p>sl,,0 CtrLLINQUI RV</p><p>A'r LtrARNINGCYCLtr LtrssON</p><p>DR. MELINDA WILDER and PHYLLTS SHUTTLEWORTH</p><p>Abstract. One dilemma science teachers face every day isbalancing the content demands of state and federal testingrequirements while providing oppor.tunities for inquiry.Using the 5E learning cycle is a realistic, constructivist wayto address this dilemma. The 5E learning cycle leads stu-dents through a sequence of lear.ning in which they becomeengaged in a topic, explole that topic, are given an explana-tion for their experiences, elaborate on their lear.ning, andare evaluated. This alticle outlines a 5E learning cycle intr.o-ducing middle/high school students to the cell.</p><p>Key words: biology, cell, constructivism, inquiry, learningcycle</p><p>ne dilemma that science teachers face everydayis, "How do I balance helping my students learnall the content they are required to know while</p><p>providing them opportunities for inquiry?" All the recent lir-erature on learning verifies that students learn by beinginvolved in meaningful inquiry experiences. But do theylearn enough content to be successful on the state mandatedtests? Using the 5E learning cycle is an effective, realisticway to address this dilemma. This instructional sequencestructures inquiry while addressing specific content.</p><p>DR. MELINDA WILDER is currently teaching midrJle and sec-ondary science methods at Eastern Kentuc [Jniversify in Rich-mond, Kentucxr\. She regularly serves as a guest teacher in localmiddle school science classes. Her research interests inclttde con-strucivist science teacher education and inquiry-based scienceteachng.</p><p>PHYLLIS SHUTTLEWOBTH s currcntly a consultant for theKentuc, Department of Education. She previously raught mid(tteand high school science for lB ),ears. Her research interestsinc lude b rain - bas e d te achins a nd as s e s stne nt.</p><p>Background</p><p>The lealning cycle approach has its origin in an elemen-tary curriculum project sponsored by the National ScienceFoundation in the 1960's (Karplus and Their 1967). As itwas first developed, the learning cycle involved threestages: Exploration, Concept Introduction, and ConceptApplication, which simulate the quest for science knowl-edge. Research over the past four decades has docurrentedthe effectiveness of this teaching approach (Beisenherz andDantonio 1996; Colburn and Clough 1997;Marek and Cav-allo 1991; Marek and Methven 1991 ; Musheno and Lawson1999). The learning cycle sequence is also compatible witht'eseaLch on how students learn (Lawson 1988; Odom andKelly 1998).</p><p>The Exploration stage of the lealning cycle activityinvolves students in concrete experiences allowing them toconstruct knowledge. During the Concept Introduction stage,the concepts that underlie the exploration ale formally intro-duced and given a name. Students then apply this knowledgein the Concept Application stage. Colburn and Clough(1997 , p.33) state that "Research supports the leanring cycleas an effective way to help students enjoy science, under-stand content, and apply scientific processes and concepts toauthentic situations."</p><p>As the learning cycle has been used, researched, andrefined over the years, some practitioners have extended thethree stages into f,ive, known as the 5E lealning cycle:Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Extension, andEvaluation (Trowbridge et al. 2000). The Engagementphase is used to motivate students by creating some mentaldisequilibrium or tapping into familiar real-life situations.The interest generated leads students into the Explorationstage in which they use direct concrete experiences to makeobservations, collect data, test predictions, and refinehypotheses. This information enables them to begin</p><p>25</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>The</p><p> Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity o</p><p>f M</p><p>anch</p><p>este</p><p>r L</p><p>ibra</p><p>ry] </p><p>at 1</p><p>1:02</p><p> 21 </p><p>Nov</p><p>embe</p><p>r 20</p><p>14 </p></li><li><p>30 SCIENCE ACTIVITIESVol.41. No.1</p><p>Cell Membrane Nucleus</p><p>Cell WallsChloroplasts</p><p>lnegular Shape</p><p>Figure 2. ExamPle of a concePt maP.</p><p>to occur in both the Exploration and Elaboration stages' it is</p><p>very important that students can accurately focus the micro-</p><p>scope to observe the different cell structures clearly' Conse-</p><p>quently, these skills may need to be taught, refreshed, and/or</p><p>reviewed before starting this lesson.There are several strengths to this lesson. The primary</p><p>strength lies in the fact that a traditional laboratory activity</p><p>sequence is rearranged to structure inquiry and construc-tivist lear-ning. The "blobs" are very effective in creatingdisequilibrium. Most students have no idea what they rep-</p><p>resent. By not telling the students what the blobs are and by</p><p>directing them to do the Exploration activity to help them</p><p>find out, you provide motivation for students to completethe activity well. Many students, especially those strong in</p><p>the visual/spatial multiple intelligence, enjoy recordingtheir data through drawings. The challenge aspect of theElaboration activity again helps motivate students to find</p><p>conect answers rather than convenient answers. The con-</p><p>cept map as an evaluation allows you to determine if stu-dents really understand the difference between plant and</p><p>animal cells. Odom and Kelly (1998) suggested that thiscombination of the learning cycle and concept mapping is</p><p>required for meaningful learning to take place.</p><p>Cross-Gurricular APPlications -. Alts and Humanities-students record their data through</p><p>drawings. Collaboration with the art teacher could pro-</p><p>vide pointers on effective drawing, examples of famousscientihc drawings, etc.</p><p>. Mathematics-Size of each of the cell specimens couldbe determined to reinforce the concept of ratio and pro-</p><p>portion. Students could then determine if cell size is cor-related with the different types of cells.</p><p>. Technology-The concept map may be drawn usingappropriate software such as Inspiration' During the</p><p>explanation phase, a video microscope can be used to</p><p>point out structures evident in cheek and onion cells'</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>By restructuring traditional learning activities into a 5E</p><p>learning cycle e motivated to answerquestions orig ment stage' The chal-lnge activity ge provides additionalmotivation for r knowledge correctly'This 5E sequence automatically structures constructivist,</p><p>inquiry-based learning while addressing content required</p><p>by high school students.</p><p>Blob Construction</p><p>To make a "blob," use a small white or clear balloon' Fill itwith a clear, viscous liquid such as unflavored gelatin orcorn syrup until the balloon is about two inches in diame-</p><p>ter. Ten insert into the liquid various small objects thatle, You can includeplastic lacings for</p><p>tr s for mitochondria'</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>The</p><p> Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity o</p><p>f M</p><p>anch</p><p>este</p><p>r L</p><p>ibra</p><p>ry] </p><p>at 1</p><p>1:02</p><p> 21 </p><p>Nov</p><p>embe</p><p>r 20</p><p>14 </p></li><li><p>\--Spring 2004 ? SCIENCE ACTIVITIES 31Teacher Resource</p><p>Cells: The Buildng Blobs of Life. ETA Cuisenaire, htp://www.etacuisenaire.com. (Directions for making yoilr own blob.)</p><p>" '' </p><p>.:,</p><p>References</p><p>Beisenherz, P., and M. Dantonio. 1996. Using the learnlhg cycleto teach physical science. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.</p><p>Colburn, 4., and M. Clough. 1997. Implemenring the learningcycle. The Science Teacher 64:30-33.</p><p>Karplus, R., and H. Their. 1967. A new look at elementary schoolscience. Chicago: Rand McNalty.</p><p>Lawson, A. 1988. A better way to teach biology. The AmericanB io lo gy Te ache r 50: 266--27 8.</p><p>Marek, E., and A. Cavallo. l99j. The Learning cycle: Elementaryschool science and beyond. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.</p><p>Marek, E., and S. Methven. 1991. Effects of the learning cycleupon student and classroom teachet performance. Journal ofResearch in Science Teaching 23: 4l-53.</p><p>Musheno, 8., 1999. Effects of the learning cycleand traditio prehension of science concepts bystudents at ing levets. Journal of Research inScience Tea</p><p>National Research Council. '1996. </p><p>National scence educaionstandards. Washington, DC: National Academy press.</p><p>Od_om, L., and P. Kelly. 1998. Making learning-meaningful. TheScience Teacher 65l. 33-3..</p><p>Trowbridge, L., R. Bybee, and J. powell. 2000. Teachinp Sec-ondary School Science: Strategies for Developing Scienrific Lit-eracy. Columbus, OH: Merrill.</p><p>Subscribe to Science Activities</p><p>ers ond preservice teochers o vorietyos. Written by teochers ond otheis who</p><p>cs in lhe biologicol, physicol, environmentol,the octivities torgef students in grodes 4-8,</p><p>mony octivities con be exlended to the high school or college level, ond some issuesol ond high school students. The usuolly inexpensive, honds_onexciting, recl-world experiences for students. Regulor deportmenls</p><p>s, visuol oids, teocher ond student contests), corputer news,</p><p>Subscribe todoy!</p><p>rndividuor Rote g45 . ,n,,,,,f,ili'I 3 3ii,'; ror posrose ourside rhe U SHeldref publicqrions</p><p>1319 Eighteenlh Street, NW, Woshingon, DC 2OO3 lBO2 . Phone: IBOO)365g753 . Fox: (20212936130www.heldref.org</p><p>Librories moy order through subscription ogents</p><p>HEI.DRET PU BI.ICATIONSGood rhnkinq.</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>The</p><p> Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity o</p><p>f M</p><p>anch</p><p>este</p><p>r L</p><p>ibra</p><p>ry] </p><p>at 1</p><p>1:02</p><p> 21 </p><p>Nov</p><p>embe</p><p>r 20</p><p>14 </p></li></ul>