Cells. Video They Might Be Giants Since every living thing is made of cells, does that mean bigger organisms (like whales or elephants) have bigger cells?

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Cells Slide 2 Video They Might Be Giants Slide 3 Since every living thing is made of cells, does that mean bigger organisms (like whales or elephants) have bigger cells? Not really! All organisms, no matter how tiny or how large are composed of cells. There are different TYPES of cells (ex. Skin, bone, muscle, nerve), but all cells of a particular type are essentially the same size. Therefore, the difference in cells in large vs. small organisms is the NUMBER of cells, not the SIZE! Slide 4 How Were Cells Discovered? New technologies lead to new discoveries Robert Hooke - invented the first microscope and was the first to observe and name the small units that make up organisms. He called those small units cells because of the appearance of the structures in the dead cork he observed. Slide 5 How Were Cells Discovered? Anton van Leeuwenhoek - improved the microscope and procedures for observing cells. He was able to clearly see living cells when observing the scrapings from his teeth. Slide 6 Fill It In Cells observed by Hooke: Leeuwenhoek: Slide 7 The Cell Theory Through the cooperative efforts of many individual scientists, a unifying cell theory developed: 1.All organisms are made of cells 2.Cells are the structural & functional units of organisms 3.Cells come from pre-existing cells Slide 8 The Cell Theory Slide 9 Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic Cells Are all cells alike? Two main types of cells . Slide 10 1. Prokaryotic Cells a.Simplest type of cell b.Includes only bacteria. c.Structure of a prokaryotic cell i.No nucleus ii.No membrane-bound organelles iii.Includes: circular chromosome (DNA), plasmids (smaller rings of DNA, and ribosomes Slide 11 Prokaryotic Cells- MYP Thought to have a symbiotic relationship with Eukaryotic Cells Nucleus Mitochondria Chloroplasts Slide 12 2. Eukaryotic Cells a.More complex than prokaryotic cells b.Includes protist cells, fungi cells, plant cells, and animal cells (i.e. - everything EXCEPT bacteria cells) c.Structure of a eukaryotic cell i.Chromosomes contained within a nucleus ii.In addition to ribosomes contains membrane-bound organelles Cells :) Slide 13 Fill It In ProkaryoticEukaryotic Slide 14 Check Yourself! 1.Who first to observed dead cells? Who first to observed living cells? 2.What are the two main types of cells? 3.How is the location of the DNA different in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? Slide 15 Check Yourself! 1.Who first to observed dead cells? HOOKE Who first to observed living cells? LEEUWENHOEK Slide 16 Check Yourself! 1.Who first to observed dead cells? HOOKE Who first to observed living cells? LEEUWENHOEK 2.What are the two main types of cells? PROKARYOTIC & EUKARYOTIC Slide 17 Check Yourself! 1.Who first to observed dead cells? HOOKE Who first to observed living cells? LEEUWENHOEK 2.What are the two main types of cells? PROKARYOTIC & EUKARYOTIC 3.How is the location of the DNA different in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? EUKARYOTIC CELLS KEEP THE DNA INSIDE A NUCLEUS Slide 18 What do cells share? Structures found in ALL cells Slide 19 DNA/Chromosome(s) 1.DNA organized as chromosome(s). DNA directs cell activity Slide 20 Cytoplasm 2. Cytoplasm is the filling of the cell and is made of up to 90% water. Water provides the necessary environment for all the chemical reactions the cell needs Slide 21 Ribosomes 3. Ribosomes are organelles that are the site of protein synthesis. Proteins are essential for enzymes, structure, and communication Uses DNA code to synthesize proteins Slide 22 4. Cell Membrane Also called the Plasma Membrane Slide 23 Fill It In 4 structures found in ALL cells: 1. 2. 3. 4. Slide 24 Cell Membrane a.Composed of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins. The fluid mosaic model describes the structure of the cell membrane Slide 25 Cell Membrane i.Fluid - individual phospholipids and proteins can move past each other; they are not fixed in one position ii.Mosaic - the membrane has more than one type of molecule (phospholipids & proteins) Slide 26 Cell Membrane- MYP Flexible/strong barrier Some proteins from channel or pumps to allow things to go in and out of the cell Carbohydrates are attached to membrane These are used as chemical identification markers for the cell Slide 27 b. Functions of the Cell Membrane i.Selectively permeable - regulates what enters and leaves the cell. This helps maintain homeostasis ii.Gives the cell (cytoplasm) shape Slide 28 Fill It In The cell membrane is also called And is S____________ P_____________ Slide 29 B. Structures (organelles) found in EUKARYOTIC cells Slide 30 Fill It In Organelle means tiny organ specialized structure inside a cell that performs a specific function Slide 31 1. Nucleus Nucleus - surrounds the chromosomes for additional protection; is made of a phospholipid bilayer Slide 32 Nucleus- MYP Surrounded by nuclear envelope (lipid bilayer) Nuclear pores Chromatin- DNA bound to proteins Chromosomes are condensed chromatin Nucleolus- dense region where ribosomes are synthesized Slide 33 2. Mitochondria Mitochondria - site of cellular respiration which produces cell energy (ATP) Active cells (muscle) -> hundreds of mitochondria Inactive cells (fat) -> few mitochondria Structure contains folded membranes which increases surface area allowing more space for more reactions (MYP)-inherited through the ovum Slide 34 Vacuoles - store food, waste or water to be used inside the cell or excreted from the cell. Size differs in plant vs. animal cells Much, much larger in plant cells why? 3. Vacuole Slide 35 Lysosomes - contain digestive enzymes which digest food contained in vacuoles as well as old or damaged cell parts (contain lipid bilayer) 4. Lysosomes Slide 36 5. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) ER - a series of interconnected folded membranes that function in modifying (changing) proteins, detoxification of alcohols, and communication Slide 37 ER (MYP) Lipid components of the cell membrane are made here Proteins and other material are exported or inserted into the cell membrane Slide 38 Two Types of ER Rough ER Covered in ribosomes Modify proteins Slide 39 Two Types of ER Smooth ER Lacks ribosomes Detoxification Slide 40 Golgi Complex - packages materials for export from cells (MYP)- Modify, Sort, and Package finishing touches 6. Golgi Complex Slide 41 Plant Cell versus Animal Cell Slide 42 1.Chloroplasts - organelles full of chlorophyll that are the site of photosynthesis which produces sugars (C6H12O6) Composed of folded membranes for more surface area Structures found ONLY in plant and plant-like cells Slide 43 2. Cell Wall - provides extra support, protection, and shape for the cell Found outside the cell membrane and made of cellulose Structures found ONLY in plant and plant-like cells Slide 44 Centrioles - organelle that helps with cell division in animal cells Structure found ONLY in animal cells Slide 45 Cytoskeleton (MYP) Protein filaments to help maintain shape May help with movement (amoeba) Microtubules help with cell division (pulling the chromosomes) Slide 46 Slide 47 Fill It In Summary of structure/function: Nucleus - Mitochondria - Vacuole - Lysosome - ER - Golgi - Chloroplast - Slide 48 Fill It In Plant onlyAnimal only Slide 49 Check Yourself! 1.What four structures are found in all cells? 2.What is the function of the mitochondria? 3.What is the function of the ribosome? 4.What term refers to small cell structures? 5.What two structures are found in plant and plant-like cells? Slide 50 Check Yourself! 1.What four structures are found in all cells? DNA, CYTOPLASM, RIBOSOMES, CELL MEMBRANE 2.What is the function of the mitochondria? 3.What is the function of the ribosome? 4.What term refers to small cell structures? 5.What two structures are found in plant and plant-like cells? Slide 51 Check Yourself! 1.What four structures are found in all cells? DNA, CYTOPLASM, RIBOSOMES, CELL MEMBRANE 2.What is the function of the mitochondria? CELLULAR RESPIRATION/MAKE ENERGY FOR THE CELL 3.What is the function of the ribosome? 4.What term refers to small cell structures? 5.What two structures are found in plant and plant-like cells? Slide 52 Check Yourself! 1.What four structures are found in all cells? DNA, CYTOPLASM, RIBOSOMES, CELL MEMBRANE 2.What is the function of the mitochondria? CELLULAR RESPIRATION/MAKE ENERGY FOR THE CELL 3.What is the function of the ribosome? PROTEIN SYNTHESIS 4.What term refers to small cell structures? 5.What two structures are found in plant and plant-like cells? Slide 53 Check Yourself! 1.What four structures are found in all cells? DNA, CYTOPLASM, RIBOSOMES, CELL MEMBRANE 2.What is the function of the mitochondria? CELLULAR RESPIRATION/MAKE ENERGY FOR THE CELL 3.What is the function of the ribosome? PROTEIN SYNTHESIS 4.What term refers to small cell structures? ORGANELLES 5.What two structures are found in plant and plant-like cells? Slide 54 Check Yourself! 1.What four structures are found in all cells? DNA, CYTOPLASM, RIBOSOMES, CELL MEMBRANE 2.What is the function of the mitochondria? CELLULAR RESPIRATION/MAKE ENERGY FOR THE CELL 3.What is the function of the ribosome? PROTEIN SYNTHESIS 4.What term refers to small cell structures? ORGANELLES 5.What two structures are found in plant and plant-like cells? CHLOROPLAST & CELL WALL