Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis. ATP Adenosine Triphosphate Main energy source for animal cells Energy is stored in the bonds between phosphate

  • Published on

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)


  • Cellular RespirationandPhotosynthesis

  • ATPAdenosine Triphosphate

    Main energy source for animal cells

    Energy is stored in the bonds between phosphate atomsGive off LOTS of energy when broken!

  • ATPATP is made from ADPA new phosphate gets added to ADP to make ATP

    Enzymes catalyze these reactionsATPase: breaks down ATPATP synthase: makes ATP from ADP

    The ATP and ADP molecules get reused over and over again BUT energy does NOT get reused.

  • Cell Respiration Energy stored in glucose is released through a process called Cell Respiration. This occurs in all living organisms.

    Two types of Cell Respiration:Aerobic requires O2Anaerobic Does not require O2

  • Cellular RespirationThe process of transferring the energy in carbohydrates into a useable form of energy for the cell (ATP)

    Occurs in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of Autotrophs and Heterotrophs

    C6H12O6 + O2 CO2 + H2O + ATP + Heat

  • Cellular RespirationThree phasesGlycolysisAnaerobic

    Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle)Aerobic

    Electron Transport ChainAerobic

  • Phase I: GlycolysisAnaerobic: does NOT require O2

    Occurs in the cytoplasm

    Series of chemical reactions that break down one glucose into two sugar molecules

    Produces 4 ATP moleculesBut it takes 2 to get the reaction started for a net production of TWO ATP!

  • Phase II: Citric Acid CycleAlso known as Krebs Cycle

    Aerobic: requires O2

    Occurs in the mitochondria

    Glucose is broken down even further

    Products: 2 ATP and CO2

  • Phase III: Electron Transport ChainAerobic: requires O2

    Occurs in mitochondria inner membrane

    Electrons from CAC pass thru a chain of proteins

    Products: 32 ATP and H2O

  • FermentationAfter glycolysis, if no O2 then fermentation occursFermentation is an ANAEROBIC process!Allows cell to continue using glycolysis to generate ATP

    2 kinds of FermentationLactic Acid FermentationAlcoholic Fermentation

  • Fermentation

    Lactic Acid Fermentation In animals and some bacteriaResults in the production of lactic acidIf too much builds up, can result in muscle soreness

    Alcoholic Fermentation Yeasts, plantsUsed in bread and alcohol manufacturing

  • FermentationLactic Acid FermentationBacteria in a closed container of milk are in an anaerobic environment so they use fermentation to make ATP and the lactic acid produced curdles the milk. This is what produces cheese, yogurt, sour cream, and cottage cheese.

    Alcoholic Fermentation Yeasts in bread dough are also in anaerobic environment. CO2 gas is produced as a by product and is what makes dough rise. Alcohol evaporates out of bread during baking.

  • 32 ATP

  • Energy Summary(number of ATP molecules formed in each step of respiration)

  • PhotosynthesisMeaning making with light

    Photosynthesis is the process of converting the suns light energy into stored carbohydrates (glucose)

    Takes place in in the chloroplasts of autotrophs

    The green pigment chlorophyll is required for photosynthesis

    CO2 + H20 + Light C6H12O6 + O2

  • Chemical ReactionsTwo phasesLight Dependent ReactionsTurns light energy into ATP

    Light Independent Reactions Conversion of CO2 into Glucose

  • Light Dependent ReactionsLight energy transfers to electrons in chlorophyll

    Excited electrons pass through a chain of proteinselectrons loose energy at each step, creating ATP

    H20 is split to replace electronsGives off O2

  • Light Independent ReactionsAlso known as the Calvin CycleDONT CONFUSE WITH KREBS CYCLE!!!

    Series of reactions that use ATP to convert CO2 into Glucose

    LOTS of enzymes usedThat Mrs. Ball is nice enough to NOT make you know!


View more >