Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is the process by which the chemical energy of "food" is converted into ATP. Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.

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    28-Dec-2015

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  • Cellular RespirationCellular respiration is the process by which the chemical energy of "food" is converted into ATP. Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins can all be used as fuel for cellular respiration, but for our purposes we will look at how glucose is used.

  • Cellular RespirationIn the presence of oxygen, one gram of glucose releases 3811 calories of heat energy.However, if you were to read a nutrition label it would claim that one gram of glucose only releases 3.8 Calories.What is the difference between a calorie and Calorie?A food calorie, or Calorie, is actually equal to 1000 calories, or 1 kcal. One calorie is the energy it takes to heat 1 g of water by 1 C. Therefore one Calorie, or food calorie, is just 1000 times that, or the energy to heat 1 kg of water by 1 C.

  • Overview of RespirationRespiration, like photosynthesis, is a multi-step process.The first step is a process called glycolysis.

  • GlycolysisIn glycolysis glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate. This change is accompanied by a net gain of 2 ATP molecules and 2 NADH molecules.

  • GlycolysisNotice from the picture that glycolysis requires some energy input. 2 ATP go in and 4 ATP come out for a net gain of 2 ATP.

  • GlycolysisAlso notice that glycolysis produces a molecule called NADH.NAD+ NADHThis is very similar to the electron carrier we saw in photosynthesis. NADP+ NADPHIf you are worried about getting the two confused just think NADPH has a P and is in Photosynthesis.

  • GlycolysisGlycolysis occurs in ALL organisms.Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of cells.It is always the FIRST step in converting the energy in food into ATP.Lets check it out!

  • Following GlycolysisGlucoseGlycolysis2 Pyruvate, 2 ATP & 2 NADHFermentationKreb Cycle & Electron Transport Chain

  • Anaerobic RespirationFollowing glycolysis if oxygen is not present, pyruvate is metabolized in a process called fermentation.Fermentation complements glycolysis by recycling NADH back into NAD+This allows glycolysis to continue and ATP to be produced.

  • FermentationNotice the recycling of NAD+ for glycolysis

  • FermentationThere are two types of fermentationLactic Acid FermentationLactic Acid is formed during fermentation.This occurs in our muscles.Alcoholic FermentationAlcohol (and CO2) is formed during fermentation.This occurs in bacteria.

  • FermentationFermentation can be performed by all organisms.It occurs following glycolysis in the absence of Oxygen.Fermentation occurs in the cytoplasm of cells.

  • Summary of Anaerobic RespirationThe purpose of respiration is to convert the energy in food into ATP. How much ATP does anaerobic respiration create?

  • Following GlycolysisGlucoseGlycolysis2 Pyruvate, 2 ATP & 2 NADHFermentationKreb Cycle & Electron Transport Chain

  • Aerobic RespirationFollowing glycolysis if oxygen is present, pyruvate is metabolized in two processes called:The Kreb Cycle Electron Transport Chain The equation for aerobic respiration is:

  • From Glycolysis to the Kreb CycleFollowing glycolysis, pyruvate is transported into the mitochondria. As it moves it loses carbon dioxide to form acetyl-CoA, a 2-carbon molecule. This process creates NADH.

  • Kreb CycleThe Krebs cycle occurs in the mitochondrial matrix. It turns Acetyl-CoA into CO2. In doing so it generates a pool of chemical energy (ATP, NADH, and FADH2). Click picture to follow the link

  • Electron Transport ChainClick on the picture to see it in action

  • Electron Transport Chain (ETC)The electron transport chain (ETC) consists of a series of molecules, mostly proteins, embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The electron transport chain captures the electrons stored in NADH and FADH2 and passes them along the membrane. As the electrons move along the membrane H+ build up in the intermembrane space. The electrons are eventually passed to Oxygen. This makes Oxygen very negative. It quickly bonds with H+ to form water.The H+ that has built up in the intermembrane space wants out! It flows through a molecule called ATP synthase. As it does ATP is formed. Each NADH that donates electrons to the chain will fuel the creation of 3 ATP. Each FADH2 that donates elections to the chain will fuel the creation of 2 ATP.

  • Aerobic RespirationGlucose Carbon DioxideDuring glycolysis, the formation of Acetyl- CoA & the Kreb Cycle

    Oxygen WaterDuring the electron transport chain

  • Aerobic RespirationAerobic Respiration has three distinct parts:Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm (yields 2 ATP)Krebs cycle takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria (yields 2 ATP)Electron transport chain is carried out on the inner mitochondrial membrane (yields 34 ATP)Total ATP = 38!!!!

  • SUMMARYGlycolysis

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