Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration: metabolic reactions that convert stored chemical energy into usable chemical energy (ATP). Where? inside cells of organisms Two Major TypesAerobic Respiration- oxygen (electron acceptor) is required to generate ATP Anaerobic Respiration- talk about this later. Food is ingestedFood is modified- broken downFermentationLactateEthanol + CO2 Krebs CycleElectron Transport ChainIs Oxygen Present to accept electrons?YES!NO!Aerobic RespirationAnaerobic RespirationCellularRespirationFood is ingestedFood is modified- broken down into monomers FermentationLactateEthanol + CO2 Krebs CycleElectron Transport ChainIs Oxygen Present to accept electrons?YES!NO!Aerobic RespirationAnaerobic RespirationCellularRespirationStage 1 of Cellular Respiration Most Common Example: Glycolysis Glycolysis: breaking down of glucose Glucose pyruvate + ATPPyruvate = 3 Carbon sugar
O2Steps of Glycolysis Phosphates from two ATP molecules are transferred to a single glucose molecule to make a 6- C- PP compound (takes three reactions) The 6-C-PP compound is broken down into two 3- C- P compounds (takes two reactions)Another phosphate is is added to the two 3- C- P compounds to make two 3- C- PP compounds Each 3- C- PP compound is converted into pyruvate, producing four 3-C pyruvates (takes four reactions)
Highlight/ Circle initial reactant Glucose and final product PyruvateUnderline any enzymes involved: anything that ends in -ase suffix is an enzymeCross out any ATP molecules usedCircle any ATP molecules made What is the net total of ATP molecules produced from Glycolysis?8Food is ingestedFood is modified- broken downFermentationLactateEthanol + CO2 Krebs CycleElectron Transport ChainIs Oxygen Present to accept electrons?YES!NO!Aerobic RespirationAnaerobic RespirationCellularRespiration
Inner Compartment Electron Transport Chain Inside of Cell
Aerobic Respiration SummaryGoal: To make lots of ATP = usable chemical energy for the cellKrebs Cycle Uses pyruvate to free electrons Electron Carriers: NADH, FADH2Electron Transport ChainElectrons used to create a H+ gradient to leave via ATP synthase to make ATP. Pre- Krebs Cycle Pyruvate enters a mitochondrion and is converted into a 2-C compoundBy product is a 2-C acetyl molecule (different 2-C compound)Acetyl binds to a molecule called coenzyme A (CoA) to make acetyl-CoA. Krebs CycleAcetyl-CoA binds to a 4-C compound, to make a 6-C compound and releases coenzyme A CO2 is released from 6-C compound, to make a 5-C compound. Electrons are transferred to NAD+, to make NADHCO2 is released from the 5-C compound, to make a 4-C compound. ATP is made and NADH are made4-C compound is converted into a different 4-C compound. Electrons are transferred to FAD, to make FADH2New 4-C compound is converted to original 4-C compound to continue cycle. NADH is made. Electron Transport ChainElectrons from electron carriers NADH and FADH2 pass through the ETC located in the inner mitochondria membraneEnergy from the electrons is used to pump H+ ions outside the inner mitochondria compartmentSince there is a higher concentration of H+ ions outside, they are transported back inside through carrier protein ATP Synthase ATP Synthase uses the H+ ion gradient to combine ADP & P to make ATPThe used electrons and H+ ions bind with oxygen to form water.
Aerobic Respiration MovieTopic- Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, ETC Tools- camera, large dry erase board and dry erase markers. Rubric- max 5 pts eachAccuracyEasy to See/ Hear Intriguing/ Creative Vincent and GavinGaby and KiraLuke and AliviaClaire and GrantAlvaro and ThomasAndrew and MaddieShruti and Dominic