Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9

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Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Slide 2 Cellular Respiration Metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking down complex molecules are called catabolic pathways. There are two types of catabolic processes- fermentation and cellular respiration. Slide 3 Catabolic Pathways Fermentation Is the partial degradation of sugars that occurs without the help of oxygen Cellular Respiration This is the most efficient and prevalent catabolic pathway, in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with organic fuel. Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels The breakdown of organic molecules is exergonic Slide 4 Energy flow and Recycling Light energy ECOSYSTEM CO 2 + H 2 O Photosynthesis in chloroplasts Cellular respiration in mitochondria Organic molecules + O 2 ATP powers most cellular work Heat Energy Respiration harvests energy stored in organic molecules to generate ATP, Which powers most cellular work. The waste products are used by chloroplasts For photosynthesis. Thus chemicals essential to life are recycled. Energy Flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat Slide 5 Redox Reaction Example of Redox Reaction Na + Cl Na + + Cl becomes oxidized (loses electron) becomes reduced (gains electron) Some redox reactions Do not completely exchange electrons Change the degree of electron sharing in covalent bonds Slide 6 Redox Reactions Redox reactions Transfer electrons from one reactant to another by oxidation and reduction In oxidation A substance loses electrons, or is oxidized In reduction A substance gains electrons, or is reduced Slide 7 Cellular Respiration During cellular respiration Glucose is oxidized and oxygen is reduced C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Energy becomes oxidized becomes reduced Slide 8 Stepwise Harvest Cellular respiration Oxidizes glucose in a series of steps Electrons from organic compounds Are usually first transferred to NAD +, a coenzyme NADH, the reduced form of NAD + Passes the electrons to the electron transport chain If electron transfer is not stepwise A large release of energy occurs As in the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen to form water (a) Uncontrolled reaction Free energy, G H2OH2O Explosive release of heat and light energy H 2 + 1 / 2 O 2 Slide 9 Electron Transport Chain The electron transport chain Passes electrons in a series of steps instead of in one explosive reaction Uses the energy from the electron transfer to form ATP Slide 10 2 H 1 / 2 O 2 (from food via NADH) 2 H + + 2 e 2 H + 2 e H2OH2O 1 / 2 O 2 Controlled release of energy for synthesis of ATP ATP Electron transport chain Free energy, G (b) Cellular respiration + Slide 11 Processes of Cellular Respiration Respiration is a cumulative function of three metabolic stages Glycolysis The citric acid cycle Oxidative phosphorylation Glycolysis Breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate The citric acid cycle Completes the breakdown of glucose Oxidative phosphorylation Is driven by the electron transport chain Generates ATP Slide 12 Electrons carried via NADH Glycolsis Glucose Pyruvate ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation Electrons carried via NADH and FADH 2 Citric acid cycle Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation Oxidative phosphorylation Mitochondrion Cytosol Slide 13 Both glycolysis and the citric acid cycle Can generate ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation Enzyme ATP ADP Product Substrate P + Slide 14 Glycolysis Glycolysis harvests energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate Glycolysis Means splitting of sugar Breaks down glucose into pyruvate Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell Glycolysis consists of two major phases Energy investment phase Energy payoff phase Glycolysis Can produce ATP with or without oxygen, in aerobic or anaerobic conditions Couples with fermentation to produce ATP Slide 15 Glycolysis Citric acid cycle Oxidative phosphorylation ATP 2 ATP 4 ATP used formed Glucose 2 ATP + 2 P 4 ADP + 4 P 2 NAD + + 4 e - + 4 H + 2 NADH + 2 H + 2 Pyruvate + 2 H 2 O Energy investment phase Energy payoff phase Glucose 2 Pyruvate + 2 H 2 O 4 ATP formed 2 ATP used 2 ATP 2 NAD + + 4 e + 4 H + 2 NADH + 2 H + The energy input and output of glycolysis Slide 16 Dihydroxyacetone phosphate Glyceraldehyde- 3-phosphate H H H H H OH HO CH 2 OH H H H H O H OH HO OH P CH 2 O P H O H HO H CH 2 OH P O CH 2 O O P HO H H OH O P CH 2 C O CH 2 OH H C CHOH CH 2 O O P ATP ADP Hexokinase Glucose Glucose-6-phosphate Fructose-6-phosphate ATP ADP Phosphoglucoisomerase Phosphofructokinase Fructose- 1, 6-bisphosphate Aldolase Isomerase Glycolysis 1 2 3 4 5 CH 2 OH Oxidative phosphorylation Citric acid cycle Glucose enters the cell and is phosphorylated by the enzyme hexokinase which transfers a phosphate group fro ATP to sugar The charge of the phosphate group traps the sugar in the cell because the plasma membrane is impermeable to membranes. Phosphorylation makes glucose more reactive chemically. Slide 17 2 NAD + NADH 2 + 2 H + Triose phosphate dehydrogenase 2 P i 2 P C CHOH O P O CH 2 O 2 OO 1, 3-Bisphosphoglycerate 2 ADP 2 ATP Phosphoglycerokinase CH 2 OP 2 C CHOH 3-Phosphoglycerate Phosphoglyceromutase OO C C CH 2 OH H O P 2-Phosphoglycerate 2 H 2 O 2 OO Enolase C C O P O CH 2 Phosphoenolpyruvate 2 ADP 2 ATP Pyruvate kinase OO C C O O CH 3 2 6 8 7 9 10 Pyruvate O Slide 18 The Citric Acid Cycle The citric acid cycle completes the energy-yielding oxidation of organic molecules The citric acid cycle Takes place in the matrix of the mitochondrion Before the citric acid cycle can begin Pyruvate must first be converted to acetyl CoA, which links the cycle to glycolysis Slide 19 ATP 2 CO 2 3 NAD + 3 NADH + 3 H + ADP + P i FAD FADH 2 Citric acid cycle CoA Acetyle CoA NADH + 3 H + CoA CO 2 Pyruvate (from glycolysis, 2 molecules per glucose) ATP Glycolysis Citric acid cycle Oxidative phosphorylation Slide 20 Oxidative Phosphorylation During oxidative phosphorylation, chemiosmosis couples electron transport to ATP synthesis NADH and FADH 2 Donate electrons to the electron transport chain, which powers ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation Slide 21 The Pathway of Electron Transport In the electron transport chain Electrons from NADH and FADH 2 lose energy in several steps ATP synthase Is the enzyme that actually makes ATP At certain steps along the electron transport chain Electron transfer causes protein complexes to pump H + from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space The resulting H + gradient Stores energy Drives chemiosmosis in ATP synthase Is referred to as a proton-motive force Slide 22 INTERMEMBRANE SPACE H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ P i + ADP ATP A rotor within the membrane spins clockwise when H + flows past it down the H + gradient. A stator anchored in the membrane holds the knob stationary. A rod (for stalk) extending into the knob also spins, activating catalytic sites in the knob. Three catalytic sites in the stationary knob join inorganic Phosphate to ADP to make ATP. MITOCHONDRIAL MATRIX Slide 23 Chemiosmosis Is an energy-coupling mechanism that uses energy in the form of a H + gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work Oxidative phosphorylation. electron transport and chemiosmosis Glycolysis ATP Inner Mitochondrial membrane H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ ATP P i Protein complex of electron carners Cyt c I II III IV (Carrying electrons from, food) NADH + FADH 2 NAD + FAD + 2 H + + 1 / 2 O 2 H2OH2O ADP + Electron transport chain Electron transport and pumping of protons (H + ), which create an H + gradient across the membrane Chemiosmosis ATP synthesis powered by the flow Of H + back across the membrane ATP synthase Q Oxidative phosphorylation Intermembrane space Inner mitochondrial membrane Mitochondrial matrix Slide 24 ATP Production in Respiration During respiration, most energy flows in this sequence Glucose to NADH to electron transport chain to proton-motive force to ATP About 40% of the energy in a glucose molecule Is transferred to ATP during cellular respiration, making approximately 38 ATP Slide 25 Electron shuttles span membrane CYTOSOL 2 NADH 2 FADH 2 2 NADH 6 NADH 2 FADH 2 2 NADH Glycolysis Glucose 2 Pyruvate 2 Acetyl CoA Citric acid cycle Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis MITOCHONDRION by substrate-level phosphorylation by substrate-level phosphorylation by oxidative phosphorylation, depending on which shuttle transports electrons from NADH in cytosol Maximum per glucose: About 36 or 38 ATP + 2 ATP + about 32 or 34 ATP or Slide 26 Fermentation Fermentation enables some cells to produce ATP without the use of oxygen Cellular respiration Relies on oxygen to produce ATP In the absence of oxygen Cells can still produce ATP through fermentation In alcohol fermentation Pyruvate is converted to ethanol in two steps, one of which releases CO 2 During lactic acid fermentation Pyruvate is reduced directly to NADH to form lactate as a waste product Both fermentation and cellular respiration Use glycolysis to oxidize glucose and other organic fuels to pyruvate Slide 27 2 ADP + 2 P1P1 2 ATP Glycolysis Glucose 2 NAD + 2 NADH 2 Pyruvate 2 Acetaldehyde 2 Ethanol (a) Alcohol fermentation 2 ADP + 2 P1P1 2 ATP Glycolysis Glucose 2 NAD + 2 NADH 2 Lactate (b) Lactic acid fermentation H H OH CH 3 C O O C CO CH 3 H CO OO CO CO O CO C OHH CH 3 CO 2 2 Slide 28 Amino acids Sugars Glycerol Fatty acids Glycolysis Glucose Glyceraldehyde-3- P Pyruvate Acetyl CoA NH 3 Citric acid cycle Oxidative phosphorylation Fats Proteins Carbohydrates Cellular respiration Is controlled by allosteric enzymes at key points in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle