Cellular Respiration. I. What is Cellular Respiration?  Cellular Respiration is the series of reactions by which organisms obtain energy by breaking

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Cellular Respiration Slide 2 I. What is Cellular Respiration? Cellular Respiration is the series of reactions by which organisms obtain energy by breaking down organic molecules into ATP energy. Cellular Respiration occurs in three main phases: Glycolysis, which is an anaerobic process (meaning it does not require O 2 ), Krebs Cycle, which is an aerobic process (meaning it does require O 2 ), and Electron Transport, which is an aerobic process (meaning it does require O 2 ). Slide 3 I. What is Cellular Respiration? C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP Glucose Oxygen Carbon Water Energy Dioxide Slide 4 II. Cellular Respiration Occurs in the Mitochondria Slide 5 A. Mitochondria are small compartments located inside plant and animal cells. 1) Outer Membrane composed of a phospholipids bilayer; protects the mitochondria and controls what comes in and out 2) Cristae the inner membrane is composed of a series of folds to increase the surface area inside the mitochondria 3) Matrix the fluid component of the organelle; contains enzymes responsible for the citric acid cycles as well as other recyclable molecules that will be used in the process of Cellular Respiration Slide 6 III. Phase One: Glycolysis Slide 7 A. Glycolysis is the process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid, a 3-carbon compound. 1) 4 ATP Produced 2 ATP Used = Net Gain of 2 ATP 2) occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell 3) does NOT require O 2 (anaerobic) 4) also produces two molecules of NADH (energy) Slide 8 IV. Phase Two: Krebs Cycle Slide 9 A. During the Krebs cycle, pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions. 1) (1 ATP Produced per each turn of the cycle x 2 turns through the cycle) 2 ATP used converting Pyruvic Acid to Acetyl-CoA = Net Gain of 0 ATP 2) occurs in the center cavity of the mitochondria 3) requires O 2 (aerobic) 4) 2 ATP are used converting the Pyruvic Acid from Glycolysis into a substance called Acetyl-CoA 5) enzymes break down the two smaller molecules produced during Glycolysis in CO 2 Slide 10 V. Phase Three: Electron Transport Slide 11 A. The Electron Transport Chain uses the high- energy electrons from the Krebs Cycle to convert ADP to ATP. 1) Net Gain of 34 ATP 2) occurs in the cristae of the mitochondria 3) requires O 2 (aerobic) 4) energy from hydrogen atoms produced during the first two stages of Cellular Respiration is transferred to ATP Slide 12 V. Phase Three: Electron Transport a) the hydrogen atoms carried by NADH are separated into their component parts electrons (e-) and protons (H + ) Slide 13 V. Phase Three: Electron Transport b) the electrons are passed to the chain of electron (e-) carrier molecules Slide 14 V. Phase Three: Electron Transport c) as the electrons (e-) move from one carrier to the next, they release energy Slide 15 V. Phase Three: Electron Transport d) some of this energy pumps the protons (H + ) across the inner membrane of the mitochondria and they accumulate in the outer compartment Slide 16 V. Phase Three: Electron Transport e) the concentration gradient produced results in diffusion of the protons (H + ) back into the inner compartment Slide 17 V. Phase Three: Electron Transport f) the protons pass through an enzyme complex located in the membrane which makes ATP from ADP and Phosphate Slide 18 V. Phase Three: Electron Transport g) the transferred electrons combine with protons (H + ) and molecular oxygen (O 2 ) to form water (H 2 O)