CELLULAR RESPIRATIONPages 228 - 237
CELLULAR RESPIRATIONAll organisms respire!Cellular respiration is like the reverse reaction of photosynthesis Products of photosynthesis become the reactants of cellular respirationRespiration breaks down glucose (Catabolic Rxn.)ATP energy is releasedATP is used for cellular processes like movement of materials, cellular reproduction, protein synthesis, etc. Overview of Respiration
CELLULAR RESPIRATION4. What Organelle is involved in cellular respiration?MITOCHONDRIAOverview of Respiration
Two Types of Cellular Respiration:
Aerobic (Requires Oxygen)Anaerobic (No oxygen required)Overview of Respiration
CELLULAR RESPIRATIONC6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy
Ok! Lets look at our Reactants!1) Glucose2) Oxygen
Wait! You just told me there is a process that does not reqire oxygen??Overview of Respiration(Aerobic)
This is where it gets confusing
For the purposes of this class, we are going to focus on regular cellular respiration which is aerobic (requires oxygen). However, keep in mind that some simple organisms can only do anaerobic (no oxygen required) cellular respiration.
Where do the reactants come from?Glucose - made during Photosynthesis.
Oxygen - is in the air.
CELLULAR RESPIRATIONThe formula for aerobic cellular respiration isC6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy (ATP)
The word equation for this is:
Cellular RespirationAEROBIC RESPIRATION
Aerobic cellular respiration has 3 stages.
Glycolysis Krebs cycleElectron Transport Chain, or ETC
Cellular RespirationAEROBIC RESPIRATION
Glucose is Broken DownInputs:1 Glucose2 ATP Outputs:2 Pyruvate 2 NADH2 ATP Net (4 ATP made but 2 used = 2 left)Occurs in the CYTOPLASMStep 1: GLYCOLYSIS
Step 1: GLYCOLYSISPer 1 molecule of glucose and 2 molecules of ATP, how many.
Net # of ATP made?NADPH made?Pyruvate made?
Where does pyruvate come from?
Where does glycolysis take place?
AEROBIC RESPIRATIONThe step in which pyruvate is broken down Inputs:2 PyruvateOutputs:2 ATP8 NADH2 FADH26 CO2Occurs in the mitochondriaStep 2: KREBS CYCLE
AEROBIC RESPIRATIONStep 2: KREBS CYCLE
Step 3: ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAINIn this step, the breakdown of Glucose is completed.Inputs:8 NADH2 FADH26 O2Outputs:32 ATP6 H2OOccurs in the mitochondria
Step 3: ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
The mitochondrial electron transport chain is similar to that used in chloroplasts for photosynthesis. NADH and FADH2 molecules formed during Glycolysis and Krebs Cycle carry their electrons to the electron transport chain. The electron transport chain creates a proton gradient that ultimately leads to the production of a large amount of ATP.
WOW! MY BRAIN HURTS!
Maybe a Video Will Help
Summary of Aerobic RespirationGlycolysis breaks down glucose into pyruvate. 2 ATP Made Pyruvate is further broken down in the Krebs Cycle. 2 ATP MadeThe electron transport chain finishes breaking down glucose and makes 32 ATPCO2 and Water are wastes (or byproducts). C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP36 ATP MADE TOTAL
Where does Glycolysis take place?Glycolysis
What does Glycolysis require?
What is step 2 of cellular respiration?Glycolysis
Where does the Krebs Cycle take place?Glycolysis
What does the Krebs Cycle Make?
What does the ETC Use?
What does the ETC Make?
ANAEROBIC RESPIRATIONCellular respiration when oxygen is NOT present is called
ANAEROBIC- NO OXYGEN!!Some cells can function for a little while without oxygen.
Other Cells may go their entire life without oxygen.
But they still need ENERGY!!
CELLULAR RESPIRATIONCan release energy when oxygen is not present but...Its far less efficient.Begins with glycolysis followed by fermentation.
Same as Before: Glucose is Broken DownInputs:Glucose2 ATP Outputs:2 Pyruvate 2 NADH4 ATPOccurs in the CYTOPLASMStep 1: GLYCOLYSIS
Special Note:Glycolysis can produce thousands of ATP molecules in milliseconds.But quickly fills all available NAD+ (electron carriers) with electrons and the process stops, so its only good for short-term energy.
ANAEROBIC RESPIRATIONType of anaerobic respiration that releases energy without oxygenIf oxygen is not present, the next step is eitherLactic acid fermentationAlcoholic fermentationStep 2: FERMENTATION
ANAEROBIC RESPIRATIONLactic Acid FermentationConverts pyruvic acid into lactic acid and CO2Responsible for food production using microbes (Swiss cheese)Causes muscle fatigue/burningStep 2: FERMENTATION
ANAEROBIC RESPIRATIONAlcoholic FermentationConverts pyruvic acid into alcohol and CO2Responsible for food production using microbes (sourdough bread)Step 2: FERMENTATION
02+ C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP + alcohol or lactic acid Summary Of FermentationGlycolysis Fermentation
Advantage of Aerobic RespirationYields 66% more energy 36 net ATPThats nearly 20 times more ATP than glycolysis alone.
Energy Yield without oxygenGlycolysis 4 ATP (gross)Fermentation+ 2 ATP 6 ATPBut 2 ATP go back into glycolysis as the energy to start the reaction, so there is only 4 net ATP from anaerobic respiration!!! (32 less than aerobic)
to make ATP to process H2O to store glucose to deliver oxygenWhat is the overall purpose of cellular respiration?Cellular Energy8.3 Formative QuestionsChapter 8
Which represents the general sequence of cellular respiration?Cellular Energy8.3 Formative QuestionsChapter 8
glycolysis Krebs cycle electron transportWhich stage of cellular respiration is the anaerobic process?Cellular Energy8.3 Formative QuestionsChapter 8
CoA CO2 FADH2 NADHWhich molecule generated by the Krebs cycle is a waste product?Cellular Energy8.3 Formative QuestionsChapter 8
What prevents pyruvate from entering the Krebs cycle and instead results in this pathway?Cellular Energy a buildup of CO2 a lack of oxygenStandardized Test PracticeChapter 8