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  • CentreforLatinAmericanandCaribbeanStudies/SchoolofModernLanguages

    NewcastleUniversity

    14April2016

    Translating the language ofthe law into Perus indigenouslanguages

    RosaleenHoward,NewcastleUniversity

    Traduciendo Culturas Per /TranslatingCulturesPeru

  • Thenatureoflegallanguage

    Thestudyoftranslationoflegaltextsfallsatthecrossroadsoflegaltheory,languagetheoryandtranslationtheory(Joseph1995:14)

    Legaltranslationiscomplexandrequiringspecialskills translationcanhavelegalimpactandconsequence (Cao2007:3)

    Thelanguageofthelawmaybeseenasindeterminate,ambiguousoropenended(Cao2007:7;Joseph1995:14)

    Postmodernistpositionswithinlegaltheory,languagetheory,andtranslationtheoryrevealhowlaw,language,andtranslationareideologicallyconstructed(Joseph1995:14)

  • Basicpremise

    ThehegemonyofSpanishoverPerusindigenouslanguagesandtheunequalpositionoccupiedbyspeakersofthelatterinrelationtotheformernecessarilyimpingeuponthetextualproductsofthetranslationprocess

  • ResearchmethodologyOct2014 Nov2015 SupportofProjectPartner:Direccin deLenguasIndgenas,Ministerio deCultura,Peru

    5languages:Chanka Quechua,AncashQuechua,Aymara,Shipibo,Ashaninka

    Withthetranslatorsorrevisers: ThinkAloudProtocols(TAPs) Semistructuredinterviews

    Withusers ofthetranslations Semistructuredinterviews

    TranscriptionandanalysisofTAPsandinterviews

  • Someofthepitfalls

    Translationnecessitateswriting,yetAmazonianlanguagesinparticulararepredominantlyoral;incipientliteracydrawstranslatorsintodebatesoverlanguagestandardisation,evenbeforethetaskoftranslationhasbegun

    Translationtrainersresistengagingwithstandardisationissues,affirmingthattheseareargumentsforanotherplace

    AlegalstatutesuchastheLeydeLenguas isaspecialisedgenreofdiscourseforwhichthereisnoreadyequivalentinthereceivingculture

  • Othercontextualfactors

    Theindigenouspopulationshavetheirownvaluesystemsandmoralcodes,yetPeruvianlaw doesnottakeaccountofindigenouslegalculture;legaltranslationisonedirectional

    ThetranslationsoftheLeydeLenguas hadnolegalweight;fromaperformative pointofview,theyhaveinformativebutnotlegislativevalue Thisissomethingthattranslatorsdonotseemtohavehadclearintheirmindsbeforetheyembarkedontheirtask

  • Thetranslationprocess

    TypologicaldivergencesbetweenSpanishandtheAmerindianlanguagesleadtoobligatoryshifts Eg.theremovaloftheverbtotheendofthesentenceinthecaseofAymara andQuechua

    DivergencesintheculturalsystemsofSpanishandAmerindianlanguagespeakersmakeidentifyinglexicalandconceptualequivalencesdifficult;solutionsarereferredtoasoptionalshifts;differenttranslatorscomeupwithdifferentsolutions;treatedhereastranslationstrategies Eg.findingawaytoexpresstheideaofrights andtheveryideaoflaw itself

  • Ammedarisa,todoelenredoquetepropone,yelcastellanoseprestaparadecirtantascosas,tantasideasenunmismoprrafo,ytepodrsdarcuentasienelmismocastellanoespocoentendible,sermuchomscomplicadollevarloaunalenguaoriginariaporquemuchagentenotienepuesestostrminos,cmodecirportales,pginasweb,cmodecir,nos,progresivamente,mecanismos,idneo,oseaquesloidneo?,habraquebuscartodosesostrminosparaentenderlomejor,ylanaturalezamismadeserleyhacequenoseatanfciltraducirlo. (AncashQuechuaTAP02pp.2310:00)

    Thenatureofthetask

  • InterviewwithYine languagespeaker(Arawaklanguagefamily)

    InterviewwithJaqaru languagespeaker(Arulanguagefamily)

    PrimerEncuentro deIntrpretes yTraductores deLenguas Originarias,Lima2022defebrero del2015

    Thecomplexityofthetask:twoexamples

  • Analysis

    Translationstrategies Lexicalstrategies Discursivestrategies Strategiesrelatedtolanguagevariation

    Subjectiveaspects

  • Discursivestrategies

    Useofexplanations Shiftfromindicativetointerrogativemood Shiftfrom3rdp.sing.to1st p.pl.

  • Shiftfrom3rdp.sing.to1stp.pl.Article 1.1Chanka Quechua

    LapresenteLeytieneelobjetodeprecisarelalcancedelosderechosygarantasindividualesycolectivasque,enmaterialingstica,seestableceenelartculo48delaConstitucinPolticadelPer(MinisteriodeCultura2014:5)

    Kay Leymi lluqsimun kikinchikpa siminchikkunapirimananchikpaq derechunchikkuna qawarichinapaq ()(Ministerio deCultura 2014:4)

    Estaleysaleparaquehablemos ennuestras propiaslenguas,parahacervernuestros derechos()

  • Shiftfrom3rdp.sing.to1stp.pl.comment Chanka Quechua

    Aquestenunsentidoinclusivo,oseaelnarradoresthablandode"nuestras,"mientrasaquenlaLeyesunacosamsalejada,no?,esmsimpersonal,yesoeraotrotematambin,oseaesunpococomplicadoseguirunaestructuradondeademsnadaespersonal,nohayunapersonaquedice"yo"onohayunsujetoqueesthablando,sinoeslanada.Entoncesesbastantedifciltraducirlasleyesas,porqueenelquechuatteposicionas,no?,somosnosotros","t","yo"oalguien,oeselotroqueestdiciendoalgoperoacnoeselotro,noes...esunpococomplejo.Yadems()elobjetoeracomunicaryhacerquelagentetambinseapropiedelaLey,oseaestaesunaleyquedefiendenuestrosderechos ().Poresoesqueaqulapersonaquehablaesunapersonaqueestadentro,dice"nuestraslenguas","nuestras,"entonceseramsestratgicotambin. (ChankaQuechuarespondent,17Nov.2014;Chanka QuechuaTAP01p.6)

  • Subjectiveaspects

    Politicalpositioningandthetranslationprocess Culturalidentificationandthetranslationprocess

  • Politicalpositioningandthetranslationprocess

    20.2Todaslacomunidadescampesinasonativastienenelderechoasolicitarquelosacuerdos,conveniosytodaaquellainformacinodocumentacinqueselesentrega,distribuyeodebensuscribirestenespaolyensulenguaoriginaria,siemprequeelloseafactible, esoestbienpeligroso,osea,ycundonopuedeserfactible?Ah,ya,recordemosunartculoanteriordondedecasitieneortografaosea,yoquerapreguntaraquienelaboraestaLey,osea,teestsrefiriendoaesooesqueesalgoinambiguo?Oesosignificaraqueenesemomentonoencuentrasaalguien,pormsquehayaortografanoencuentrasunoqueescriba?Oseaqusignificaesodesiemprequeseafactible?Porqunopuedeserfactible?Tienequeserfactible.(sereirnicamente)Yquhepuesto?Ahoracmohehechoesodesiemprequeseafactible?Am,coneldolordemicoraznseguramentehetraducidoesaparteObviamentesiestovanaescuchar,vanamolestarseno? (TAPAymara0301:01:50)

  • Bibliography Durston,Alan.2007.PastoralQuechua:TheHistoryofChristianTranslation

    inColonialPeru,15501650.NotreDame,IN:UniversityofNotreDamePress Hanks,WilliamF.2010.ConvertingWords:MayaintheAgeoftheCross.

    Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress Hanks,WilliamF.2014.Thespaceoftranslation.HAU.Journalof

    EthnographicTheory,4(2):1739 Hanks,WilliamF.&CarloSeveri.2014.Translatingworlds:the

    epistemologicalspaceoftranslation.HAU:JournalofEthnographicTheory,4(2):116

    JonLandaburu.1997.HistoriadelatraduccindelaConstitucindeColombiaasietelenguasindgenas(19921994).Amerindia,22:109115

    AndrsChirinosRivera.1999.Perumanta Hatun Kamachina.ConstitucinpolticadelPerLima:FondoEditorialdelCongresodelPeru

    PedroPitarch.2009.Ellaberintodelatraduccin:laDeclaracinUniversaldelosDerechosHumanosentzeltal.

    Joseph,John.1995.Indeterminacy,translationandthelaw.InM.Morris,ed.TranslationandtheLaw.Amsterdam/Philadelphia:JohnBenjamins.Pp.1336

    Cao,Deborah.2007.TranslatingLaw.Clevedon:MultilingualMatters