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468 E. Biological Oceanography, ()LR (1983) 30 (61
Forestry and Environ. Studies, 205 Prospect St., New Haven, Conn. 06511, USA.
83:3454 Pritchard, P.C.H., 1982. Nesting of the leatherback
turtle, Dermochelys coriacea, in Pacific Mexico, with a new estimate of the world population status. Copeia, 4:741-747.
"An aerial survey revealed that nesting by D. coriacea occurs in a greater density and over a much greater extent than previously documented. This single breeding population is by far the largest known. The world population is estimated at 115,000 mature females. Because of severe stresses on all major populations, "endangered" status is still considered justified.' Florida Audubon Sot., l l01 Audubon Way, Maitland, Fla. 32751, USA.
83:3455 Renouf, Deane and M.B. Davis, 1982. Evidence that
seals may use echolocation. Nature, Lond., 300(5893):635-637.
Experimental evidence supports the contention that when visual cues are not available, seals use echolocation. Results help explain why previous attempts to demonstrate sonar abilities in pinnipeds have been unsuccessful. Dept. of Psychology, Me- morial Univ. of Nfld., St. John's, Nfld. AIB 3X9, Canada.
83:3456 Stoneburner, D.L., J.l. Richardson and G.K. Wil-
liamson, 1982. Observations on the movement of hatcbling sea turtles. Copeia, 4:963-965. Custom Telemetry and Consulting, 185 Longview Dr.. Athens, Ga. 30605, USA.
83:3457 Taylor, R.H., 1982. New Zealand fur seals at the
Bounty Islands. N.Z. Jl mar. Freshwat. Res., 16(1):1-9. Ecol. Div., DSIR, Private Bag, Nel- son, New Zealand.
83:3458 Whitledge, T.E., 1982. Regeneration of nitrogen by
the nekton and its significance in the Northwest Africa Upwelling ecosystem. Fishery Bull. nam. mar. Fish. Serv., U.S., 80(2):327-335.
N excretion rates of octopus and fish (6 spp.) ranged 0.44 4.61 ~g NH4-N/mg dry weight per day; whole body C:N was 4.85. N turnover time was ~65 days. Ammonium regeneration rates were ~ 3 mg-at/m-" per day over the shelf and 1.8 mg-at/m: per day on the slope. Dept. of Energy and Environ., Brook- haven Natl. Lab., Upton, NY 11973, USA.
ELI0. Bottom communities
83:3459 Lubchenco, Jane, 1982. Effects of grazers and algal
competitors on fucoid colonization in tide pools. J. Pto,col., 18(4):544-550.
Removal of both herbivores and algal competitors (but not removal of either group alone) from mid-littoral sheltered tide pools resulted in the establishment of Fucus vesiculosus which persisted for up to 3 years. The normal, conspicuous absence of fucoids from these pools must be 'due to the joint action of herbivores and algal competitors and not to possible deleterious factors associated with constant submersion." Dept. of Zool.. Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, Oreg. 97331, USA. (mwf)
83:3460 Munda, I.M. and J.W. Markham, 1982. Seasonal
variations of vegetation patterns and biomass constituents in the rocky eulittoral of Heigoland INorth Seal. Helgolander Meeresunters., 35(2): 131-151. Biol. Inst., Slovene Acad. of Sci. and Arts, Ljubljana, Yugoslavia.
83:3461 van den Hoek, C., 1982. Phytogeographic distribution
groups of henthic marine algae in the North Atlantic Ocean: a review of experimental evi- dence from life history studies. Helgoli~nder Meeresunters., 35(2):153-214.
The possible phytogeographic boundaries of 15 benthic algal species were inferred from "experi- mentally determined lethal temperatures and tem- peratures limiting growth or reproduction.' These boundaries appear to agree with those based on distribution data and often are of a composite nature -e.g., Nemalion helminthoides has a 'southern reproduction boundary on the N. Atlantic E. shore and a southern lethal boundary on the N. Atlantic W. shore.' This 61-page paper details further the distribution of the 15 species and considers causes for NE America's low endemism, Includes 7 pages of references. Dept. of Syst. Bot., Biol. Centre., The Univ., P.O. Box 14, 9750 AA Haren, Groningen, Netherlands. (ahm)
83:3462 Mel'nikov, Yu.l., 1982. Certain adaptations in coastal
birds. Soy. J. Ecol. (a translation of Ekologiya), 13(2): 134-139.
OLR (I 983) 30 (6) E. Biological Oceanography 469
Nest loss in coastal birds is often due to flooding (up to 70%). A set of complementary adaptations has been isolated that work together to maintain suffi- ciently high waterbird population numbers even under 'drastically altered environmental conditions': a second breeding cycle; nest buildup which allows the clutch of eggs to be raised above flood level; and mobility of the population's spatial structure which allows repositioning of nests to take advantage of 'new' favorable nesting areas. Sci.-Res. Inst. of Biol., A.A. Zhdanov lrkutsk State Univ., USSR. (ahm)
83:3463 Quammen, M.L., 1982. Influence of subtle substrate
differences on feeding by shorebirds on intertidal mudflats. Mar. Biol., 71(3):339-343.
Increasing sand content of mudflats from 2% to 14% in experimental plots resulted in decreased time spent feeding in these plots by dowitchers, western sandpipers, dunlin and American avocets. It is suggested that the sand reduces feeding efficiency as the prey items (small polychaete and oligochaete worms) are similar in size to sand grains. Whether birds feed on muddy mudflats or sandy mudflats may be related to 'differential success in prey capture' between microhabitats rather than compe- tition reduction as suggested by other authors. Mar. Sci. Inst., Univ. of Calif., Santa Barbara, Calif. 93106, USA. (ahm)
E l 5 0 . M i c r o b i o l o g y (communi t ies , pro- cesses: also bacter ia , fungi, yeasts , viruses, etc.)
83:3464 Cammen, L.M. and J.A. Walker, 1982. Distribution
and activity of attached and free-living suspended bacteria in the Bay of Fundy. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci., 39(12): 1655-1663.
Free-living bacteria dominated the lower bay where- as attached bacteria were important in the upper bay at 22 stations sampled in spring, summer, and fall of 1979. "Abundance and proportion of attached bacteria were strongly correlated with the concen- tration of suspended matter. ' Bacterial activity followed the same pattern as cell numbers; free- living bacteria were about twice as active as attached forms during summer but half as active in fall. Bigelow Lab. for Ocean Sciences, West Boothbay Harbor, Maine 04575, USA. (mwf)
83:3465 Fletcher, Madilyn and K.C. Marshall, 1982. Are
solid surfaces of ecological significance to aquatic bacteria? Adv. microb. Ecol., 6:199-236.
Virtually all surfaces submerged in natural waters become colonized by bacteria. This review compares the environmental role of attached aquatic bacteria with that of suspended organisms; physicochemical and physiological processes of attachment and the extent to which surfaces select for specific bacterial types are emphasized. The nature and influence of the attachment surface, and effects of nutrient concentrations and hydrodynamic conditions are also examined. Implications for other bacterial habitats are discussed. Dept. of Environ. Sci., Univ. of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK. (dlf)
83:3466 Jones, Keith, 1982. Salinity-tolerant nitrogen-fixing
Enterobacteriaceae in the Lune Estuary [Eng- landl. Zentbl. Bakt. ParasitKde Infekt. Hyg., (Abt. l)(Orig. C)3(4):513-518. Dept. of Biol. Sci., Univ. of Lancaster, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK.
83:3467 Kendrick, Bryce, M.J. Risk, John Michaelides and
Katherine Bergman, 1982. Amphibious micro- borers: bioeroding fungi isolated from live corals. Bull. mar. ScL, 32(4):862-867.
Most bioerosion of calcareous substrates is attrib- uted to macroborers such as sponges and poly- chaetes; erosive effects of the 'apparently equally ubiquitous' microborers (bacteria, fungi, algae) are less well known. This paper reports on the first isolations of identifiable fungal species found in pure cultures of bioeroding fungi from the Caribbean and South Pacific. Most represent 'omnivorous, saprobic, dikaryomycotan anamorphs. ' Dept. of Biol., Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G l, Canada. (ahm)
83:3468 Morita, R.Y., 1982. Starvation-survival of hetero-
trophs in the marine environment. Adv. microb. Ecol., 6: 171-198.
Survival of vegetative marine heterotrophic bacteria (i.e., those with no specific resting cell states) in the absence of energy-yielding substrates is discussed with emphasis on 'new ideas, generalizations and principles.' Organic matter levels in oligotrophic marine waters are discussed, as are metabolic processes aiding bacterial survival (dormancy, min- iaturization, increase in numbers, ATP and RNA synthesis) and processes such as substrate capture, chemotaxis, ATP and energy charge, and substrate uptake. Includes 6 pages of references. Dept. of Microbiol., Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, Ores. 97331, USA. (mjj)