Ch. 8.1 & 9 ATP, Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis
I. Living things need energyMoving muscles
B. Building essential molecules
C. Transporting substances across cell membranes.
II. Where do we get energy?Food 1. to grow 2. to reproduce.
III. Sources of EnergyA. Autotrophs (plants) 1. can make own food 2. by process of photosynthesis 3. also called Producers
B. Heterotrophs 1. get food from others 2. called consumers
Plants and animals need each other to survive.
IV. Chemical EnergyStored in chemical bonds of compounds.
B. Compounds that store energy: ATP, NADH and FADH2.
Building Bonds = stores energy
Breaking Bonds = releases energy
So what does ATP stand for?Adenosine TriphosphateMany Uses 1. Mechanical functions of cells
2.Carry out Active transport
3. Breakdown large molecules
AdenineRibose3 Phosphate groupsGo to Section:The Three Components of ATP
How does ATP store energy?Energy is released when the high energy phosphate bond between the 2nd and 3rd P is broken.
1. Energy is stored in ATPs high-energy phosphate bonds.
2. When a free phosphate group is attached onto ADP, energy is stored in this bond to create ATP.ADPP++EnergyHow does ATP store energy?
For the cell to release and use the energy in ATP, the bond between the 2nd and 3rd phosphate groups must break; leaving ADP and a free phosphate group. Ribose AdenineP P PATPADP PUsing ATP Energy
ATP /ADP Cycle
ATP /ADP CycleATPADP P PEnergy StoredEnergyReleased to do workBonds Formed to make ATPBonds BrokenADP PATPADPADPA working muscle recycles over 10 million ATPs per second!!!
What is photosynthesis?A chemical reaction in which plants take the light energy from the sun and convert it to chemical energy to make their own food.
Plants cells contain organelles called CHLOROPLASTSChloroplasts contain chlorophyll (green color) which makes photosynthesis possible.Carbon Dioxide enters the leaves through the stomata (openings) and combines with the stored energy in the chloroplasts to make glucose.Glucose is moved through the phloem to the rest of the plant.
Glucose is used as a food source for the plants to carry out life processes.
Unused glucose is stored as a starch or becomes part of the plants tissue.
Chemical Equation-Photosynthesis 6 CO2+ 6 H2O + sunlight 6 O2 + C6H12O6 Carbon dioxide +water +sunlight (yields) oxygen + glucoseHow does this relate to Cellular Respiration? Reactants Products
Once plants change the energy from the sunlight into chemical energy during photosynthesis, organisms then have to change that chemical energy into a form that is usable by the organisms cells during a process called Cellular Respiration.
What is cellular respiration? The release of chemical energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules for use by the cells.
CELLULAR RESPIRATION Reactants Products
C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP(glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy)
- 2 forms: Aerobic (with O2 - oxygen) Anaerobic (without O2- oxygen)Reaction is opposite of Photosynthesis
AEROBIC RESPIRATION takes place in the presence of oxygen:(3 steps)Glycolysis- occurs in the cytoplasm producing 2 ATPs and 2 pyruvates.
Krebs Cycle- takes place in the mitochondria. uses the 2 pyruvates from glycolysis and releases 2 ATPs, 6CO2 and many NADH & FADH2
Electron Transport- takes place in the mitochondria.Uses the NADH & FADH2 from Krebs and produces 32 ATPs and 6H2O
ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION (no oxygen present)Glycolysis- produces 2 ATPs and 2 pyruvates
Alcoholic Fermentation in yeast ORLactic Acid Fermentation in muscles