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  • 1. Chapter Two:Early GreeceCultures and Values, 6thEd.Cunningham and Reich

2. History of Early Greece The Heroic Age the early iron age First great works of literature werecreated; iliad, odyssey The Age of Colonization New ideas and artistic styles broughtto Greece by travelers and merchants The Archaic Period Foreign influences absorbed; pavedthe way for the Classical period 3. Homer and the HeroicAge Greece split into independentregions Corresponded to geographicallyseparated areas Controlling urban center developedin each area Significance of the Polis (city-state):Focal point for allpolitical, religious, social,and artistic activities 4. Homer and the HeroicAge Citizens were more loyal to theirPolis than fellow Greeks in othercommunities Rivals between cities Religion, Mythology and Folklore No central body of teaching orinformation Varying versions of the same story Gods and goddesses often confusedand self-contradictory 5. Homer and the HeroicAge I.E., Zeus represented moral code,imposed justice and supervisedpunishment; however, he wasinvolved in love affairs andseductions Individual cities had their ownmythological traditions Poets and artists chose theversions that best suited theirpurposes 6. [Image 2.1]Zeus (Poseidon?) 7. Homer and the HeroicAge Greeks used religion to illuminatetheir own lives, rather than togive them divine guidance I.E., Apollo- logic & order, power ofthe mind; Dionysus emotions Worshiping both, Greeksacknowledged dual existence inhuman nature No Greek god represents supremegood 8. Homer and the HeroicAge No Greek God represents supremeevil Deities explained both naturalphenomena & psychologicalcharacteristics in themselves Human morality required human,rather than divine, solutions Greeks turned to art & literature,rather than prayer, to discover thesolution 9. The Iliad & The Odyssey the Homeric question Little is known about Homer; problemsand theories connected to Homericepics and their creator fall under thislabel Oral Tradition Epithets, Elaborate Similes Chief characters are given epithets i.e., Achilles is swift-footed; odysseus iscunning 10. The Iliad & The Odyssey Iliad Theme of Human Responsibility somber, taut, direct Easier to understand and explain Subject: anger of Achilles and itsconsequences Theme: human responsibility Odyssey Return of the Epic Hero 11. The Iliad & The Odyssey Odyssey Return of the Epic Hero 12. Art and Society Painted Vases major source ofinfo. about artistic developments No attempt at vividness and realism Protogeometric (1000-900 B.C.E.) Simple bold designs Concentric circles, semi-circles (fig. 2.2) Geometric (900-700 B.C.E.) Linear designs, zigzags, triangles,diamonds, the meander (maze pattern) Human Forms (~800 B.C.E.) 13. ProtogeometricAmphora 14. Dipylon Amphora 15. Art and Society Early depictions of humans arehighly stylized Influenced Western art and use ofhuman form as primary subject ofart. Painted in silhouette, combinesfront and side views Head and legs on profile, upper halfof the body seen from the front (fig.2.3) 16. Age of Colonization Prosperity of City-States grew ruling class become concerned withimage of the city-states Ruling classes became patrons of thearts and military leaders International festivals were held athletes and poets competed,represented city Olympia, Delphi, other sacred cities 17. Age of Colonization Trade with other Greeks and NearEast peoples increased Economic success became importantfactor in growth of polis Individual cities began to mint theirown coins Political Power remained witharistocracy 18. Age of Colonization Accumulation of wealth + Over-Population = Colonization Greeks went abroad to makesfortunes or increase them. Italy, Sicily, Egypt, Asia Minor 19. Age of Colonization Trade and Cultural Exposure Greeks in Asia Minor established tradecontacts with people in the ancientnear east, including Persians andPhoenicians Orientalizing - Impact of Trade withNear East peoples Oriental ideas and artistic styles were seenby the colonizers and carried home bytraders Eastern artifacts, ivories, jewelry,metalwork 20. Visual Artsat Corinth and Athens Hostility between Athens andCorinth Later developed into PeloponnesianWar Corinthian Art Miniature style that used a variety ofEastern motifs Sphinxes, winged human figures, floraldesign white, yellow, and purple often used tohighlight details 21. Visual Artsat Corinth and Athens Bold and striking effect Commercially Successful Small size, well made, lively figures,recognizable style (fig. 2.4) Exported throughout Greece, Italy,Egypt, and Near East 22. Visual Artsat Corinth and Athens Athenian Art Potters were slower to discard effectsof Geometric period Vases are large; attempts to depicthumans and animals are often clumsy Illustrated events from mythology ordaily life (more than just decoration) Trade Rivalry Grew as Athensbegan to take over increasing shareof the market: Corinth vs. Athens 23. Visual Artsat Corinth and AthensAthenian Vase Corinthian Vase 24. The Beginnings ofGreek Sculpture Near Eastern and Egyptianinfluences Greeks settled in Egypt Sculptures Resemble Egyptian cultstatues and were placed in grandiosetemples Kore standing female (fig. 2.6) Clad in drapery 25. The Beginnings ofGreek Sculpture Kouros standing male (fig. 2.7) Nudity marks a break with Egyptiantradition Stance (standing position) basedon Egyptian models One foot forward (usually left), armsby side, hands are clenched, wig-likehair 26. The Beginnings ofGreek Sculpture Greek sculptures abandonedabstract for Increasing Realism,Naturalism Careful study of human anatomy Reproduce the human form in a way that wastrue to nature Greek spirit of independence and inquiryasserted itself Representation of Life and vigor 27. Sculpture and Painting in theArchaic Period Change in Archaic art reflectedsocial changes Aristocrats began losing theirstatus/power Solons Legal Reformations Legislator and poet Reformed legal system; divided thecitizens into 4 classes Members could take part in Assemblydebates and sit in law courts 28. Sculpture and Painting in theArchaic Period Class of rich merchants beganto dominate Gained power by playing ondiscontent of the oppressedlower classes Were called tyrants Many were patrons of the arts 29. Sculpture and Painting in theArchaic Period Artistic Developments Flat planes and rigid stances change tomore fully rounded figures More careful study of anatomy Exceptions to traditional male stance(fig. 2.9, Calf-Bearer) Unity between man and beast Freestanding Figures, korai (plural ofKore) 30. [Image 2.9]Calf-Bearer 31. [Image 2.10]Peplos Kore 32. [Image 2.13]Kritios Boy 33. Sculpture and Painting in theArchaic Period High & Low Relief Carvings began toappear Large-scale statues to decorate temples Carved stone slabs 34. Sculpture and Painting in theArchaic Period Relief carvings Figures do not stand freely Carved into a block of stone high relief figures project from thebackground (fig. 2.11), 3-dimensionality Low relief - Carving preserves the flatsurface of the stone (fig. 2.12) The Archaic Smile Result of technical inexperience? Reflection of sense of certainty &optimism? Began to fade by end of 6th century B.C.E. 35. Kritios BoyHigh ReliefCarvingStele of AristionLow Relief Carving 36. Sculpture and Painting in theArchaic Period Vase Painting Black- and Red-Figure Styles Black figure Orientalizing technique usedin mid-6th century (fig. 2.14 The Suicide of Ajax)) Red-figure end of 6th century shows figures in the red color of the clay Details filled in with a brush Developed techniques of foreshortening,perspective, and three-dimensionality (fig.2.15 Euphronios Vase) By end of Archaic period, most artists usedRed-Figure style 37. Black Figure The Suicide of Ajax 38. [Image 2.15]Euphronios, painter, Euxitheos,potter, red-figure calyx krater 39. Architecture:The Doric Order Inspired by Egyptian Models Doric Temples: Temple of Hera atOlympia, Temple of Apollo atCorinth, Doric temples at Paestum(dedicated to goddess Hera) Simple dignity Doric columns have no base; risedirectly from the floor Columns taper toward the top andhave 20 flutes(vertical grooves) 40. Architecture:The Doric Order Capital forms the head of eachcolumn Consists of two sections: Echinus: spreading convex disc Abacus: square block above Echinus Entablature (upper part oftemple/column) has 3 sections: Architrave (lowest section; plainband of rectangular blocks) Frieze (middle section): consists ofmetopes and triglyphs 41. Architecture:The Doric Order Cornice (top section); projectingupper part Pediment: long extendedtriangle formed from cornicesections; often filled withsculptural decoration (see figs.2.16 & 2.17) 42. [Image 2.16]Basilica at Paestum 43. Architecture:The Ionic Order Ornate, fanciful; more gracefuland elaborate Rise from a tiered base/24 flutes Flutes are separated by narrowvertical bands Capital Volutes (pair of spirals) 44. Architecture:The Ionic Order 3-D Architraves not flat, but iscomposed of 3 projecting bands Running Frieze replaces Doricorder metopes and triglyphs 45. Music and Dancein Early Greece Music played a vital role in Greeklife Less than a dozen fragments of Greekmusic have survived Notation difficult to understand Unable to recreate authentic performances Music was of divine origin Gods invented musical instruments Doctrine of Ethos (Musical Theory) Music affected human behavior 46. Music and Dancein Early Greece Dorian Mode expressed firm,powerful, even warlike feelings Phrygian Mode producedpassionate, sensual emotions 47. Music and Dancein Early Greece Instrumentation Cithera 7-string lyre, accompaniedvocal music on ceremonialoccassions, (fig. 2.18) Aulos double reed instrument,similar to modern oboe, used bysingers to accompany their songs (fig.