Changing Paradigm in Dealing with Disasters Indian Exp POLNET HUB-NATIONAL EOC MOBILE EOC NICNET HUB

  • View
    0

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of Changing Paradigm in Dealing with Disasters Indian Exp POLNET HUB-NATIONAL EOC MOBILE EOC NICNET HUB

  • 1

    Changing Paradigm in Dealing with Disasters

    Indian Experience

    P.G.Dhar Chakrabarti Executive Director

    National Institute of Disaster Management

    21-02-2007

    Disaster profile of India Disasters Vulnerable States

    E, F, C, D Gujarat, Maharashtra and West Bengal. (220 ml)

    E, F, D Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Uttar pradesh and Goa (563 ml)

    E, F Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya , Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Mizoram, Assam, Tripura (103 ml) Total 886 million

    E-Earthquake, F-Flood, C-Cyclone, D-Drought

    Earthquake 56% of India are prone to Quake56% of India are prone to Quake

    Zone Area Parts of the state

    V 12% N.E States, J&K, H.P, Gujarat, Bihar, Uttaranchal, A&N

    IV 18% J&K, HP, Uttaranchal, Bihar, Delhi,W. Bengal, Haryana, Punjab, Sikkim, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Lakshdweep

    III 26% Punjab, Haryana, Uttaranchal, Bihar, W.Bengal, Gujarat, Rajasthan, M. P, Orissa, A. P, Goa, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra

  • 2

    Flood • 40 million hectres are

    prone to flood • 8 million hectres affected

    by flood every year • Brahmaputra and

    Gangetic Basin are most flood prone areas

    • North-west region of west flowing rivers – Krishna, Cavery and Mahanadi – are other flood prone areas

    Cyclone • Long coastline of 8000 kms • Pre-monsoon (May-June)

    and post-monsoon (Sept- Oct) cyclones

    • Coastal districts of Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Gujrat most prone to cyclone

    • Most casualties caused by coastal inundation due to tidal waves, storm surges and torrential rains

    Drought Prone Area (Lakh ha.)

    21 8.

    9

    15 2.

    1

    12 5.

    1

    12 3.

    7

    12 1.

    2

    87 .2

    84 .1

    43 .3

    43

    26 .7

    22 .8

    16 .5

    15 .9

    0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    R aj

    as th

    an

    K ar

    n at

    ak a

    A .P

    M ah

    ar as

    tr a

    G uj

    ar at

    M .P

    T am

    il N

    ad u

    B ih

    ar

    U .P

    W es

    t B

    en g

    al

    O ri

    ss a

    H ar

    ya n

    a

    J &

    K

    A re

    a (L

    ak h

    h a.

    )

    Drought • 68% of the net area

    sown in the country is prone to drought

    • Out of this 33% is chronically drought prone, receiving rainfall less than 750mm per annum

    • 35% drought prone that receive rainfall between 750-1125 mm per annum

  • 3

    Pest & Diseases

    Thunderstorms

    0 2 4 6 8 10

    Flood

    Earthquake

    Drought

    Cyclone

    Forest fires

    Epidemics

    Hailstorms

    Hurricane

    Landslides

    Based on last 50 years data.

    Severity index of disastersSeverity index of disasters

    Average annual loss •• Loss of Loss of human lifehuman life: 4350 : 4350 •• CropCrop area affected: 1.42 millionarea affected: 1.42 million hechec.. •• HousesHouses damaged: 2.36 milliondamaged: 2.36 million •• Direct lossDirect loss: 2% of GDP (US$ 15 billion): 2% of GDP (US$ 15 billion) • Revenue loss due to less industrial production: 12% • Expenses on relief & rehab: US$ 1.2 billion • Expenses on reconstruction: US$ 0.8 billion • Indirect psycho-social loss that can not be

    quantified

    Cyclones (IV-V) -4

    Earthquakes (M 6+) -5

    Floods - Every year

    Droughts - Every 2-3 yrs

    Tsunami - 26 Dec 2004

    Earthquake, Gujarat Jan 2001, 13805 lives lost

    Tsunami Dec 26 2004, more than 10000 lives lost

    Major Disasters 1990 - 2005

  • 4

    Public policy on disaster • India never had a policy on disaster management • Attitude towards disaster was marked by fatalism –

    ‘wrath of nature’ or ‘anger of God’ • Government intervention limited to provided post

    disaster relief and rehabilitation assistance • Disaster management was the concern of Ministry of

    Agriculture in Centre and Revenue and Relief Departments in the States

    • Civil response system heavy depended on armed and other paramilitary forces

    Mega disasters 1993-2004

    • Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004: 12405 people dead, 3.5 million houses damaged, 18 million people affected

    • Latur Earthquake 1993: 9475 dead, 1 million houses damaged, 8 million people affected

    • Orissa Super Cyclone 1999: 10086 dead, 2 million houses damaged, 15 million affected

    • Gujrat Earthquake 2001: 13805 dead, 1.8 million houses damaged, 12 million people affected

    System exposed….

    • No scientific hazard- risk -vulnerability mapping • Inadequate early warning system • Absence of techno-legal regime for safe building • Poor community awareness and preparedness • Environmental degradation precipitating disasters • Development projects creating new disasters • Primitive search and rescue system for disasters • Poor disaster communication system • Inadequate relief management • In short, entire disaster management system was

    unprofessional and amateurish

  • 5

    Opportunities created by mega disasters

    LATUR’93

    • Earthquake resistant construction technology developed for non- engineered constructions with community participation

    • Multi-hazard zoning map of the entire country prepared

    • Maharashtra first state to prepare disaster management plans for districts

    ORISSA

    1999

    • Early warning system for cyclone developed

    • Network of cyclone shelters constructed

    • Livelihood restoration integrated in poverty alleviation program

    • High Powered Committee on disaster management set up

    • Emergency evacuation plans for communities in coastal areas

    GUJRAT

    2001

    • National Committee on disaster under Prime Minister

    • New building standards in seismic zones

    • Community based DRM program in 17 States

    • Disaster management shifted from Ministry of Agriculture to Home Ministry

    • Disaster management introduced in curriculum of school education, engineering, architecture, medicine

    • National Institute of Disaster Management set up

  • 6

    TSUNAMI

    2004

    • Disaster Management Bill 2005 introduced in Parliament prescribing legal-institutional

    framework of disaster management

    • National Disaster Management Authority set up

    • Tsunami Early Warning system approved for 50 million USD

    • Emergency Operation Centre in National, State and District Headquarters

    • Nation wide Disaster Communication Plan

    Paradigm shift

    v RELIEF v REHABILITATION

    v PREVENTION

    v PREPAREDNESS v RESPONSE v RECOVERY

    Disaster management cycle

  • 7

    Legal framework

    • Gujrat Disaster Management Act 2002 • Orissa Disaster Management Act 2003 • Uttar Pradesh State Disaster

    Management Act 2004 • Disaster Management Act 2005

    Central Government

    National Disaster Management Authority

    Chairman: PM

    State Disaster Management Authority

    Chairman: CM

    State Government

    District Administration

    Panchayats s

    Municipalities

    MHA

    District Disaster Management Authority

    Co-Chairman: DM/Chairman ZP

    DMD

    National Executive Committee

    State Executive Committee

    NIDM NDRF

    Institutional Framework

    National DM Framework Disaster Management

    Development Environment

    Disaster Risk Assessment ,Reduction and Management

    Prevention, Mitigation,Preparedness Response, Reconstruction, Recovery

    Structural Measures Early Warning System

    Engineering Works Environmental shield

    Retrofitting

    Non-structural Measures Education Awareness Mock Drill

    Training & Capacity Dev. Risk Transfer & Insurance

    Search and Rescue Housing

    Sustainable Development

    Medical Response Infrastructure

    Food & Shelter Livelihood

  • 8

    Early warning systems

    Tracking cyclonesTracking cyclones

    Flood forecasting centres

    15GODAVARI BASIN

    114GANGA-BRAHMAPUTRA

    166 Total

    09EASTERN RIVERS

    03MAHANANDA BASIN

    08KRISHNA BASIN

    17WEST FLOWING RIVER

    FF CENTRES

    RIVER BASIN

    Kan dla

    Mum bai

    Mac hillip

    attn am

    Coc hin

    Goa

    NMP T

    Tutic orin

    JNP T

    Chen nai

    Para dip

    Kolk atta

    Pipv av

    Mun dra

    Enn ore

    Kak inad

    a

    Nag app

    attin am

    Kola chal

    Kan yaku

    mar i

    Early Warning System for Indian Ocean Tsunamisfor Indian Ocean Tsunamis

  • 9

    Emergency Operation Centres

    • State-of-the-art Emergency Operation Centres established in Ministry of Home Affairs for data, video and audio up-linking with all State, District and remote areas

    • EOCs being set up in all State, Union Territory and District headquarters