CHAPTER 05-Changes on the Western Frontier IDENTIFICATIONS Slide 2 01. Great Plains-grassland extending through west-central U.S....from West Texas to North Dakota and Montana...approximately 3-4000 miles wide. 02. Sitting Bull-spiritual leader of Hunkpapa Sioux. Slide 3 03. George A. Custer-young War Between the States general turned Indian fighter with the 7 th Calvary...nicknamed Yellow Hair...attacked Cheyennes at Washita...died with 224 of his men at Last Stand in Battle of Little Big Horn in 1876. Slide 4 04. Battle of Little Big Horn-last great battle (and Indian victory) of Indian Wars...Custer and 7 th Calvary against c.5000 combined Indian warriors...after battle Indians scattered and were easily captured by other US Army units. Slide 5 05. assimilation-plan in which people give up their way of life and become part of another groups culture. Slide 6 06. Dawes Act-US Congress passed in 1887 to Americanize the indians...broke up the reservations and gave some land to individual indians-160 acres to head of household and 80 acres to unmarried adult...remaining land would be sold with money used to buy farm implements...by 1932, whites had taken 2/3 of land set aside for Indians. Slide 7 07. Ghost Dance-as Sioux suffered from poverty and disease, they turned to Paiute prophet who promised that if they performed this ritual, their lands and way of life would be returned to them...hope spread rapidly through the Sioux. Slide 8 08. Wounded Knee, South Dakota-in December 1890, Sitting Bull was to be arrested...in struggle, Sitting Bull was shot and killed On 28.December.1890, the 7 th Calvary rounded up 350 Sioux and took them to reservation at Wounded Knee...next day, they demanded their weapons...shot fired and cavalry opened fire with cannon and machine guns, killing 300 Indians...BROUGHT TO END THE INDIAN WARS AND A WAY OF LIFE! Slide 9 09. longhorns-sturdy, short-tempered breed of cattle that roamed the open ranges of Texas in large herds following the War Between the States. Slide 10 10. long drives-at the end of the War, the demand for beef (and the price for) skyrocketed...ranchers took great risks to get cattle to railheads, like Sedalia, Missouri...2-3 months, 10-14 hour days, Indians, cattle rustlers, weather plagued these long drives or overland transport of cattle. Slide 11 11. railheads-the goal of the long drives...a town on the railroad (or spur) where cattle were driven to be sold, then loaded on rail cars for shipment to the meatpacking plants back east...many were lawless frontier towns. Slide 12 12. Wild Bill Hickok and Calamity Jane- scout and spy during the War Between the States....became famous as frontier Marshall...fastest gunman...killed with aces and eights. Calamity Jane-Jane Canary...expert shot...drove stagecoach and dressed like a man...may have scouted at times for Colonel Custer. Slide 13 13. Joseph F. Glidden-Illinois farmer who is credited with inventing barbed wire...used by farmers in the west to fence off their land...series of smaller ranches replaced the wide open range by the 1880s. Slide 14 14. Homestead Act-passed by US Congress in 1862...offered 160 acres of free land to any citizen who was head of household...from 1862-1900, 600,000 families took advantage of Homestead Act...several thousand of homesteaders were Slide 15 15. Exodusters-freedmen who moved from the Post-Reconstruction South to Kansas...likened themselves to Israelites who followed Moses out of Egypt. Slide 16 16. Morrill Act-federal government supported farmers by financing agricultural education...Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890 gave federal land to states to help establish agricultural experimental stations to inform farmers of new developments...grains for arid soil, techniques for dry farmingthe dry eastern plains=breadbasket of the nation Slide 17 17. the Grange-in 1867, Oliver Hudson Kelley started the Patrons of Husbandry...went from social/educational to fighting for reform...by 1870s fighting the railroads-how to organize co-ops and how to sponsor state legislation to regulate the railroads. Slide 18 18. Populism-movement of the people...based on Populist Party (founded in 1892)...at party convention in Omaha, NEB, demanded reforms to lift farmers and other workers out of debt and to give the people a greater voice in their government.... Slide 19 POPULIST PLATFORM: Economic Reforms-increase money supply (would increase prices for goods & services), graduated income tax, federal loan program. Government Reforms: election of US Senators by popular vote, single terms for President/Vice President, secret ballot to end vote fraud. Also: 8-hour work day and restrictions on immigration. ELECTION OF 1892: Populist presidential candidate=10% of votes + 5 senators, 3 governors and 1500 state legislators elected. Slide 20 19. bimetallism-monetary system in which government would give citizens either gold or silver in exchange for paper currency or gold. 20. gold standard-gold bugs favored backing dollars solely with gold...opposed by silverites-who were bimetallists. Slide 21 21. William Jennings Bryan-Populists favored bimetallism and free coinage of silver...should they join Republicans or Democrats or nominate their own candidate? When Democrats committed to bimetallism and unlimited coinage of silver, Bryan made famous Cross of Gold speech at Demo convention...won nomination...Populists liked Bryan but not his V- P...they endorsed Bryan but nominated their own candidate for vice president, keeping their party intact. Slide 22 END OF POPULISM: In Election of 1896, Republican William McKinley got approximately 7 million votes to 6.5 million for Bryan...Populism collapsed, burying hopes of farmers BUT it left two important legacies: 1. message that downtrodden could organize and have political impact and 2. an agenda of reforms, many of which would be enacted in the 20 th Century.