Chapter 10 Global Climate Systems - Pati 07 - ¢  Climatology is the study of climate Climatic

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  • 4/24/2012

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    Chapter 10 Global Climate Systems

    Geo210 Introduction to Physical Geography

    Michael Paluzzi, ABD

    Climate Climate is weather over time Climatology is the study of climate Climatic regions are areas with similar weather statistics

    No two places have the exact same climate, but places with similar weather statistics are grouped together

    Earth’s Climate System and Its Classification

    Climate Components Insolation – solar radiation (varies by latitude) Temperature – impacted by latitude, altitude, land/water heating differences and cloud cover) Pressure – responsible for winds Air masses – vast bodies of homogeneous air Precipitation – patterns of average annual precipitation control climate types

    Classification of Climatic Regions Grouping similar climates into classes

    Worldwide Average Precipitation

    Figure 10.2

    Wettest climates straddle the equator Amazon in South America, Congo region of Africa, Indonesia and Southeast Asia

    Climates Even though climate is a long term pattern

    climates do change over extended time periods For example: such as the ice age that occurred the Pleistocene epoch

    most recent Ice Age – 1.75 million to 11,000 years ago.

    Climate Classification Köppen system – A standard scheme used to describe the world's diverse climates

    It is based on the concept that native vegetation is the best expression of climate

    thus, climate zone boundaries have been selected with vegetation distribution in mind.

    It combines average annual and monthly temperatures and precipitation, and the seasonality of precipitation

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    Climate Classification Köppen system

    the A climates are tropical climates Tropical – equatorial and tropical latitudes

    the B climates are dry Desert Arid – tropical/midlatitudes Semi-arid – tropical/midlatitudes

    the C climates are generally moderate and are found in the middle latitudes

    Temperate – mid-latitudes, mild winters the D climates are associated with continental and high-latitude locations.

    Continental/ – midlatitudes/high latitudes, cold winters The E climates are polar

    High latitudes/polar regions Highland climates – lower temps than similar latitudes (lapse rate)

    Climate Classification The first sub-classification show precipitation levels,

    f - Moist with adequate precipitation in all months and no dry season. Goes usually with A, C, and D climates. m - Rainforest climate in spite of short, dry season in monsoon type cycle. This letter only applies to A climates. s - There is a dry season in the summer of the respective hemisphere (high-sun season). w - There is a dry season in the winter of the respective hemisphere (low-sun season).

    Climate Classification the second shows temperature.

    a - Hot summers where the warmest month is over 22°C (72°F). These can be found in C and D climates. b - Warm summer with the warmest month below 22°C (72°F). These can also be found in C and D climates. c - Cool, short summers with less than four months over 10°C (50°F) in the C and D climates. d - Very cold winters with the coldest month below -38°C (-36°F) in the D climate only. h - Dry-hot with a mean annual temperature over 18°C (64°F) in B climates only. k - Dry-cold with a mean annual temperature under 18°C (64°F) in B climates only.

    Climate Classification Gulf States = Cfa

    C = mild mid-latitude f = moist = no dry season a = average temperature of the warmest month is above 72°F (22°C) = hot summer

    Climatic Relationships

    Figure 10.3

    Generalized Climate Regions

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    Tropical Climates

    Tropical Climates Tropical Rainforest (Af)

    Temperature – near 80o F the year round. Precipitation – lots of rain – 75 to 100 inches per year Location – equatorial zone either side of the equator Vegetation – broadleaf evergreen forest.

    solid canopy of tree tops – only filtered light reaches ground Soils are nutrient poor and difficult for agriculture

    Tropical Climates Tropical Monsoon (Am) -

    Temperature – near 80o for the year Precipitation - 20 to 30" per month during summer monsoon

    but much drier during winter. Location – usually located 5° - 20° N & S latitude Vegetation – mixed broadleaf deciduous and broadleaf evergreen forest - more shrubs and bushes.

    Arid & Semiarid Climates

    Dry Climates Deserts (BW)

    Temperature - cooler annual average than tropical areas but hotter in the high sun period & cooler during low sun.

    Nights are very cool (greatest daily temperature range) Precipitation – is less than 10" per year.

    Found in 3 main areas: 1. on western side of continents 2. in rain-shadows of north-south mountain ranges 3. in the interior of large continental land mass.

    Vegetation - drought resistant shrubs and cacti barren sand dunes

    Dry Climates Steppe (BS) - transition areas adjacent to deserts

    Temperature: - hotter than tropical areas in summer - cooler in winter with a larger annual range.

    Precipitation – 10-25" per year The vegetation of steppe zones is primarily grasslands

    Low-Latitude Hot Steppe

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    Dry Climates The location of steppe climates follow the location of deserts and are prone to desertification

    Desertification: the expansion of desert-like conditions Caused by poor agricultural practices, overgrazing, and the build-up of salts in soil from irrigation UN estimates that 60% of the world’s rangelands are threatened by desertification

    Humid Mid-latitude

    Humid Subtropical (Ca) Temperature –As hot as tropical climates in summer average and between 32o & 64o in coldest month Precipitation - annual rainfall 30-65” with greatest amounts in summer Location - east side of continents - 20o & 40o.

    Vegetation - broadleaf evergreen, deciduous forests, and needle-leaf evergreen pine forest found in the SE U.S.

    Subtropical Climates

    Humid Mid-latitude Climates Mediterranean (Cs)

    Temperature –mild winters average 40o - 55o , warm summers 70o - 80o

    Precipitation – 15-25 inches mostly falling during the low sun season Location - west sides of continents between 30o & 45o with the largest area around the Mediterranean Sea. Vegetation - scattered broadleaf evergreen trees & shrubs called chaparral –

    drought-resistant shrubs

    Marine West Coast (Cb) Temperature - mild winters for the high latitude; average near or above freezing- cool summers approx. 60o F. Precipitation - 25 to 40 inches on low coast to 100-200 inches on windward slopes facing sea; heavy mountain snows Location - west side of continents (largest area found in Western Europe) Vegetation - broadleaf deciduous in Europe, needle-leaf in Pacific Northwest , and broadleaf evergreen in Southern Chile.

    Marine West Coast Climate

    Humid Continental fasd

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    Humid Continental Climate Humid Continental – Hot Summer (Da)

    NY is an example Temperature - cold winter, warm summer Precipitation - 20-50" per year; heavy snowfalls Location - Northern Hemisphere only Vegetation –tall to medium grass in drier areas (prairie) to broadleaf deciduous forests mixed with evergreens.

    Humid Continental Climate Humid Continental – Mild Summer (Db)

    Moscow, Russia is an example Temperature - cold winter, mild summer Precipitation - 20-50" per year - most in summer; heavy snowfalls frequent in winter Location - Northern Hemisphere only Vegetation – tall to medium grass in drier areas (prairie) to broadleaf deciduous forests mixed with evergreens.

    Sub-Arctic Climate Subarctic (Dc)

    Average 50o F in summer Precipitation - 15-30" per year - heaviest in summer – 7-8 months of continuous snow cover. Location - Northern Hemisphere only 45o - 70o. Vegetation –coniferous forests known as the taiga

    Polar and Highland Climates Tundra Climate Ice Cap and Ice Sheet Climates Polar Marine Climate

    Polar Climates Tundra (Et)

    Temperature - warmest month between 32o & 50o, winter very cold Precipitation - 10-12" per year Location - northern edge of N.A. and Eurasia & outer tip of Antarctica. Vegetation is primarily low plants, many wild flowers in summer & also bare rock.

    Polar Climates Ice Cap (Ef)

    Temperature - extremely cold winter, average summer below freezing. Precipitation - less than 5”

    the driest climate but experiences continuous accumulation of snow and permanent glaciers. Location – interior Greenland, Antarctica. Vegetation – None

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    Polar Climate Highland (H)

    Climates change rapidly on mountains, becoming colder the higher the altitude gets. Closely related to the climate of the surrounding climate.

    The highlands have the same seasons and wet and dry periods as the climate zone

    Mountain climates are very important to mid-latitude climates. Snow is kept back until spring and summer when it is released slowly as water through melting

    Highland Climates (H)

    Highland Climate Highland (H)

    Climates change rapidly on mountains, becoming colder the higher the altitude gets. Closely related to the climate of the surrounding climate.

    The highlands have the same seasons and wet and dry periods as the climate zone

    Mountain climates are very important to mid-latitude climates. Sno