Chapter 13Industrialization and NationalismSection 1
SECTION 1Origins of the Industrial RevolutionBefore the Industrial Revolution, there was an Agricultural Revolution . . . What is a revolution?
SECTION 1Origins of the Industrial RevolutionEnclosure Movement
SECTION 1Origins of the Industrial RevolutionJethro TullSeed Drill 1701 resulted in farming becoming less labor intensive and allowed farmers to grow crops on a much larger scale.
SECTION 1Origins of the Industrial RevolutionCharles Turnip Townshendcrop rotation
I. The Industrial Revolution in GBThe industrial Revolution began in Great Britain in the 1780s for several reasons.
1.Improved farming methods increased the food supply, which drove down food prices allowing families to spend money on manufactured goods. Also, increased food supply caused population growth.
2.Britain had a ready supply of capital, meaning money to invest, for industrial machines and factories. Wealthy entrepreneurs were looking for ways to invest and make profits.
3.Finally, Britain had abundant natural resources and supply of markets to sell goods.
B.In the eighteenth century Great Britain had surged ahead in the production of cotton goods. The two-step process of spinning and weaving had been done by individuals in their homes, a production method called cottage industry.
C.A series of inventions, including the spinning jenny (Richard Arkwright) and the water-powered loom invented by Edmund Cartwright in 1787, made both weaving and spinning faster.
Cottage industry was no longer efficient, so workers were brought to the factories.
D.The production of cotton goods became even more productive after the Scottish engineer James Watt improved the steam engine in 1782 to drive machinery.
Steam power was used to spin and weave cotton. Steam engines used coal, so factories no longer had to be located near water.
E.By 1840 cotton cloth was Britains most valuable product. Its cotton goods were sold all over the world.
F.The expanding use of coal transformed the iron industry.Henry Bessemer developed a process called Bessemer Process, which used coal and air to burn away the impurities in pig iron to create steel.
Steel was a higher quality of iron which was more durable.
G.Railroads were crucial to the Industrial Revolution, because they were an effective way to move resources and goods.
The first public railway line opened in 1830. The 32-miles of track went from Liverpool to Manchester, England. Stephensons rocket went 28mph.
H.The building of railroads became a new job for farm laborers and peasants.
This less expensive transportation lowered the price of goods and made for larger markets.
More sales meant the need for more goods, which brought about more factories.
I.The factory was an important aspect of the IndustrialRevolution, because it created a new kind of labor system.
To keep the machines going constantly, workers had to work in shifts. Factory owners had to train the rural laborers to work the same hours each day and to do repetitive work.
**At this time most grain seed was sown by hand. Field hands carried bags of seeds from which they would grab a handful of seed and broadcast (spread) out over the plowed field. Tull realized that this method was very wasteful, since most of the seeds would be blown away and/or eaten by birds before they ever had a chance to take root. Frustrated by his inability to develop a more efficient hand-sowing method, Tull turned his attention to devising a mechanized seed drill. In 1701, he invented the horse-drawn seed drill. A rotating cylinder had grooves cut into it to allow seed to pass from the hopper above to a funnel below. The seed was then directed into a channel dug by a plow at the front of the machine, and then covered by a harrow attached to the rear. Although it took several years for English farmers to embrace the machine, Tull's design remained the standard for over a century.
*He found that turnips could be rotated with wheat, barley, clover, and ryegrass to make soil more fertile and increase yields, and thus became known as the man responsible for introducing turnip cultivation into England. **************