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1 Chapter 13 Peer Relationships Peers are close in age to one another Peers aid in emotional, social, and cognitive development Perspectives on peers: Piaget: can be more open, spontaneous, critical, ask for clarification, elaborate ideas, and get feedback from peers Vygotsky: can learn new skills, develop cognitive capacities and cooperation skills through peer interactions Others believe that one can gain companionship, assistance, emotional support, and experience first intimate, interpersonal relationships with peers (“chumship-Harry Stack Sullivan) Peers

Chapter 13 Peer Relationships - CMUrakison/POCDclass21.pdf · Chapter 13 Peer Relationships ... are stable over at ... Voluntary forming and joining Not everyone is a close friend

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  • 1

    Chapter 13

    Peer Relationships

    Peers are close in age to one another

    Peers aid in emotional, social, and cognitive

    development

    Perspectives on peers: Piaget: can be more open, spontaneous, critical, ask for

    clarification, elaborate ideas, and get feedback from peers

    Vygotsky: can learn new skills, develop cognitive

    capacities and cooperation skills through peer interactions

    Others believe that one can gain companionship,

    assistance, emotional support, and experience first

    intimate, interpersonal relationships with peers

    (chumship-Harry Stack Sullivan)

    Peers

  • 2

    What Is Special About

    Peer Relationships?

    Piaget, Vygotsky, and others argued that peer relationships provide a unique context for cognitive, social, and emotional development.

    The equality, reciprocity, cooperation, and intimacy that can develop in peer relationships enhance children's reasoning ability and their concern for others.

    Both disagreement and cooperation

    within the context of peer

    relationships have been emphasized

    by theorists as important contributors

    to children's cognitive development.

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    Friends spend time together, feel affection for each

    other, and exhibit give-and-take (reciprocities)

    Friendship

  • 3

    Why would friendship evolve?

    How did selection shape genes for friendship?

    A

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    S S S

    1. Group with altruists, busily out-

    competing all the other groups.

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    S

    S

    S S S

    2. The selfish individuals in the

    group are getting the benefit but

    paying no cost. In the next

    generation selfish have increased

    within the group. 3. And now

    altruists are

    extinct even

    though

    theyve

    helped the

    group.

  • 4

    The Evolution of Cooperation

    and Altruism:

    Reciprocal altruism: Benefit-delivering adaptations

    can evolve when reciprocated later in time

    What is a best friend?

  • 5

    The Development of Friendship

    Between 12-18 months there are early signs of

    interactions and responsiveness (touch, smiles)

    Around 20 months, children initiate more interactions

    with selected peers

    Around age 2, children develop more complex social

    interactions with friends than nonfriends (imitation,

    cooperation, and problem solving)

    Between toddlerhood and preschool, children show more

    pretend play, conflict, and nonaggressive conflict

    resolution with friends than nonfriends

    During the school years there is more communication,

    cooperation, conflict resolution, and intimacy

    Early school years (ages 6-8): Friendship is defined

    by actual activities (playing and sharing);

    instrumental and concrete

    Middle school years (ages 9-adolescence);

    Friendship is defined by mutual liking, closeness,

    and loyalty

    In adolescence, friendship is defined by intimacy,

    disclosure, and feedback

  • 6

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    Early Peer Interactions and

    Friendships

    By or before age 2

    Some researchers have argued that children can have

    friends

    Many 12- to 18-month-olds

    Children seem to select and prefer

    some children over others

    Starting at around 20 months of age

    Children also increasingly initiate more interactions

    with some children than with others

    By age 2

    Children begin to develop skills that

    allow greater complexity in their social interactions

    By age 3 or 4

    Children can make and maintain

    friendships with peers

    By age 3 to 7

    Children can have best friends that are stable over at

    least several months' time

    During the school years there is more communication,

    cooperation, conflict resolution, and intimacy

    Early school years (ages 6-8): Friendship is defined

    by actual activities (playing and sharing);

    instrumental and concrete

    Middle school years (ages 9-adolescence);

    Friendship is defined by mutual liking, closeness,

    and loyalty

    In adolescence, friendship is defined by intimacy,

    disclosure, and feedback

  • 7

    Dimensions on Which Elementary School

    Children Often Evaluate Their Friendships

    Dimension Indicators

    Validation and Caring

    Makes me feel good about my ideas. Tells me I am good at things.

    Conflict Resolution

    Make up easily when we have a fight. Talk about how to get over being mad.

    Conflict and Betrayal

    Argue a lot. Doesnt listen to me.

    Help and Guidance

    Help each other with schoolwork a lot. Loan each other things all the time.

    Companionship and Recreation

    Always sit together at lunch. Do fun things together a lot.

    Intimate Exchange

    Always tell each other our problems. Tell each other secrets.

    Support and Validation

    Loneliness, periods of transition (elementary to

    junior high), buffer against unpleasant

    experiences (being bullied), confidants

    Social and Cognitive Skills

    Children learn complex play, peer norms, and

    understanding of others emotional states

    Functions of Friendships

  • 8

    Benefit (Note: this research is correlational)

    People with a reciprocated best friend in preadolescence

    also report doing better in college, family, and in their

    social life;

    They also had higher self-worth and less psychopathology

    than those who did not have a reciprocated best friend in

    preadolescence.

    The Psychological Costs

    and Benefits of Friendship

  • 9

    Cost

    Children with antisocial and aggressive friends tend to

    exhibit those behaviors, too

    Adolescents who abuse alcohol and drugs have friends

    who do so

    The Psychological Costs

    and Benefits of Friendship

    Sex Differences in Functions of

    Friendships

    Girls friendships are more intimate than boys and provide more

    validation, caring, and help.

    Boys and girls report similar amounts of fighting and meanness to

    their friends, but girls resolve their conflicts more easily.

    Boys and girls friendships are similar in that the friendships

    involve spending time together, but boys and girls spend time in

    different activities.

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  • 10

    Proximity (important in the early years)

    Age-mates (in industrialized countries)

    Sex (same-sex friendships appear early)

    Race (seems to be the least important)

    Similarity and interest (becomes important around age 7)

    Choosing Friends

    Groups begin to emerge early in toddlerhood with

    some members showing more dominance than others

    in the group

    In middle childhood, cliques form (friendship

    groups of 3-9 children) Voluntary forming and joining

    Not everyone is a close friend

    Members are bonded by similarities (academics,

    aggression, shyness, attractiveness, popularity, values)

    Groups are not stable and turnover is high

    The central figures tend to be popular, cooperative,

    studious and some are cool or tough

    Children join for a sense of belonging

    Groups

  • 11

    Between ages 1118: A person may be a member of many cliques

    The cliques become more stable

    During early-mid adolescence focus on dress &

    behavior

    During late adolescence the focus is more on

    individual relations and becoming autonomous

    Between ages 1118: A person may be a member of many cliques

    The cliques become more stable

    During early-mid adolescence focus on dress &

    behavior

    During late adolescence the focus is more on

    individual relations and becoming autonomous

    During late adolescence crowds form:

    Groups with a similar stereotyped

    reputation, such as the jocks and the

    nerds

    Adolescents do not necessarily choose what

    crowd they are in; peer assigned

    Negative peer group influences (gangs)

  • 12

    Boys and Girls in Cliques and

    Crowds Gender differences

    Adolescent girls tend to be more integrated into cliques.

    Adolescent boys have a greater diversity of friends.

    Dyadic dating

    Starting in seventh grade, girls and boys tend to associate with

    one another more and dyadic dating relationships become

    increasingly common.

    By high school, cliques of friends often include adolescents of

    both sexes.

    Cyberspace and

    Child's Peer

    Experience Risks

    Cyberbulling

    Benefits

    Cyber support

    The most common ways U.S. adolescents

    contact their friends. (Lenhart et al., 2010)

  • 13

    Romantic Relationships

    Romantic relationships

    In the U.S., 25% of 12-year-olds and 70% of 18-year-olds

    report having had a romantic relationship in the past 18

    months.

    Between 14 to 18 years, adolescents tend to balance time

    they spend with romantic partners and friends.

    By young adulthood, time with romantic partners increases to

    the point that it is at the expense of involvement with friends

    and crowds.

    Romantic

    Relationships

    Selection criteria

    Young adolescents tend to

    select partners that bring

    them status.

    Older adolescents are more

    likely to select partners

    based on compatibility and

    characteristics that enhance

    intimacy.

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  • 14

    Groups status is measured by a sociometric status

    measure: how liked or disliked a person is by his or

    her peers

    Status in the Group

  • 15

    Over the short term, popular and rejected ratings

    seem to be stable, while neglected or controversial

    ratings tend to fluctuate

    Over the long term, ratings fluctuate more for all

    categories, except rejected

    Status in the Group

    Popular children viewed as helpful, friendly, and

    considerate; however, stuck-up behavior in mid-

    adolescence can change their status

    Overt aggression is more important in rankings

    during the early years

    Withdrawn behavior becomes more important in

    ranking someone over time

    Characteristics and Predictors of Status

  • 16

    Academic Performance Rejected children are more at risk for truancy, repeating

    grades, lower GPAs, and dropping out of school

    Status and Risk

    The relation of childrens sociometric status to academic

    and behavioral problems

    Childrens sociometric status is related to their future problem behaviors.

    Rejected children are far more likely to be held back in, or suspended

    from, school, to be truants, to drop out, and to have problems with the

    police. The occurrence of any of these problems is labeled as

    nonspecific in this figure. (Adapted from Kupersmidt & Coie, 1990)

  • 17

    Adjustment

    Rejected children are more at risk for:

    Externalizing symptoms: aggression,

    delinquency, hyperactivity, attention-deficit

    disorders, conduct disorder, and substance abuse

    Internalizing symptoms: loneliness, depression,

    withdrawn behavior, and obsessive-compulsive

    behavior

    Status and Risk

    Rates of boys self-reported externalizing symptoms as a

    function of third grade rejection and aggression

    Although aggressive-rejected boys did not differ from other boys in reported externalizing

    symptoms in sixth grade, by tenth grade, aggressive-rejected boys reported an average of

    over twice the number of symptoms as did all other boys. (Adapted from Coie et al., 1995)

  • 18

    Aggressive-rejected boys reports of internalizing problems increased from sixth to tenth

    grade, whereas such reports decreased over the same period of time for all other boys.

    (Adapted from Coie et al., 1995)

    Rates of boys self-reported internalizing symptoms as a

    function of third-grade rejection and aggression

    (Hard to prove causal relationships)

    Attachment

    Secure attachment with parent:

    Child develops understanding of reciprocity

    Child develops positive social expectations

    Child is likely to have confidence,

    enthusiasm, and be emotionally positive

    Parents and Peer Relationships

  • 19

    (Hard to prove causal relationships)

    Quality of Ongoing Parent-Child Interactions

    Child understands feelings, through discussion

    about feelings with their mother

    The father adds to his childs peer relationships

    through affection and play

    Parents and Peer Relationships

    Models, Coaches, and Gatekeepers

    Gatekeepers = parents monitor their childrens

    activities

    Coaches = parents help children learn how to deal

    with unfamiliar peers

    Models = children observe how to deal with

    people and conflicts

  • 20

    Percentages of children rejected by peers as a function of

    gender and family income

    As can be seen in these data from a longitudinal study, elementary school children from

    families with low incomes are considerably more likely to be rejected than are children

    from middleclass families. (Adapted from Patterson, Griesler, Vaden, & Kupersmidt, 1992)