Click here to load reader

Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

  • View
    77

  • Download
    3

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Chapter 14: Early Adulthood. Module 6 Social and Personality Development in Early Adulthood. SOCIAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY ADULTHOOD. Let’s look at Table 6.4 to review these tasks. Developmental Tasks of Early Adulthood. 346. Table 6-4. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Beginnings: An Introduction to Development Across the LifespanDiscovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
Chapter 14:
Early Adulthood
Module 6
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
SOCIAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY ADULTHOOD
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
Developmental Tasks of Early Adulthood
346
Let’s look at Table 6.4 to review these tasks
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
Table 6-4
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
INTIMACY, LIKING, AND LOVING DURING EARLY ADULTHOOD
FORGING RELATIONSHIPS
*
Young adults’ happiness stems, in part, from their relationships, and many worry about whether or not they are developing serious relationships “on time.”
Even those who are not interested in forming a long-term relationship typically are focused, to some extent, on connecting with others.
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
What makes young adults happy?
Happiest memories = psychological needs rather than material needs satisfied
Unhappiest memories = basic psychological needs left unfulfilled
Culture influences which psychological needs are most important in determining happiness
347
*
According to research on young adults, happiness usually is derived from feelings of independence, competence, self-esteem, or relating well to other people.
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
What makes us tick?
Social Clocks of Adulthood
Cultural influence
Helson’s research (women’s social clock, deciding whether to pursue a career first or family first)
347
*
SOCIAL CLOCK is psychological timepiece that records the major milestones in our lives.
Social clocks are culturally determined.
Ravenna Helson
Found broad patterns of women’s social clocks by studying them at the ages of 21, 27, and 43.
She found that women became more self-displayed and committed over the years.
They felt greater independence and confidence and could cope with stress more effectively.
Many women exhibit traditional feminine behavior from age 21 to 27, finding a spouse, becoming mothers.
As children grew up, women took on less traditional roles.
Women tend to change positively over time.
Helson concluded that the social clock one chooses is not as important as the process of choosing.
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
Seeking Intimacy: Erikson’s View of Young Adulthood
INTIMACY-VERSUS-ISOLATION STAGE
Isolation = Feelings of loneliness and fearful of relationships
348
Erikson regarded young adulthood as the time of the INTIMACY-VERSUS-ISOLATION STAGE.
It spans post-adolescence into the early 30s.
Focus is on developing close, intimate relationship with others.
People who experience difficulties at this stage are often lonely and fearful of relationships, perhaps from a failure of the identity stage.
Erikon’s view of healthy intimacy was limited to adult heterosexuality and the goal was to produce children, a view not shared by all developmentalists today.
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
Friendship
348
Filters
*
Maintaining friendships is an important part of adult life, filling a basic need for belongingness.
How do people become our friends?
Proximity – live nearby, work with us.
Similarity – hold similar attitudes and values.
Most adults have same-race friends.
We also choose friends based on personal qualities.
Keep confidences
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
The Friends We Choose
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
Falling in Love: When Liking Turns to Loving
How does love develop?
Ask: How do you think love develop?
Invite students to work in small groups to make a list of the sequence in which love develop.
How similar are the sequences to the one proposed by Burgess & Huston (1979) and Berscheid (1985)?
The progression of development of love:
Most relationships develop in similar ways:
People meet, interact for long periods of time.
Seek out each other’s company.
Open up more.
Share physical intimacies.
Feel psychological well-being tied to success of relationship.
Their definition of themselves and their behavior changes.
They see themselves and act as a couple, rather than separate individuals.
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
Falling in Love
Stimulus stage – relationships built on superficial, physical characteristics
Value stage – between second and seventh encounter, relationship characterized by increasing similarity of values and beliefs.
Role stage – relationship built on specific roles played by participants.
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
Passionate and Companionate Love: Two Faces of Love
PASSIONATE (ROMANTIC LOVE)
PASSIONATE (ROMANTIC LOVE) – state of powerful absorption in someone.
COMPANIONATE LOVE – strong affection we have for those with whom our lives are deeply involved.
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
LABELING THEORY OF PASSIONATE LOVE
If it hurts…it really love?
How do you know?
*
LABELING THEORY OF PASSIONATE LOVE (Hatfield and Berscheid) – Combination of intense physiological arousal and situational cues that indicate that “love” is the appropriate label for what they are experiencing.
The physiological arousal can be produced by sexual arousal, excitement, or even negative emotions such as jealousy.
The theory is particularly useful in explaining why people may feel deepened love even when they experience continual rejection or hurt from their assumed lover. It suggests that such negative emotions can produce strong physiological arousal.
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
LABELING THEORY OF PASSIONATE LOVE
If you label negative emotions as positive (jealousy, rejection, etc) and pair them to feelings of passion or love, then the strong physiological arousal and reaction lead to misperception that you are in love, and that the behavior of the other was indications of love.
349
*
LABELING THEORY OF PASSIONATE LOVE (Hatfield and Berscheid) – Combination of intense physiological arousal and situational cues that indicate that “love” is the appropriate label for what they are experiencing.
The physiological arousal can be produced by sexual arousal, excitement, or even negative emotions such as jealousy.
The theory is particularly useful in explaining why people may feel deepened love even when they experience continual rejection or hurt from their assumed lover. It suggests that such negative emotions can produce strong physiological arousal.
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
Romantic Love
Complex intermingling of emotions
Often predominates early part of a love relationship
Affectionate love or companionate love
Have deep, caring affection for person
Attachment and Love
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
Sternberg’s Triangular Theory: Three Faces of Love
Robert Sternberg
*
Robert Sternberg says that love is made up of three components:
Intimacy
Passion
Decision/Commitment
Thoughts of love and determination to maintain that love.
These components can be combined to form eight different types of love depending on which of three components is either present or missing from relationship.
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Love
Theory that love includes three types
Passion: physical, sexual attraction
Attachment and Love
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
Sternberg’s Triangle of Love
Fig. 10.12
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
Do as I say…not as I do!
Relatively high number of people report close friend of a different race
Relatively low number actually name someone of another race or ethnicity
351
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
Choosing a Partner: Recognizing Mr. or Ms. Right
*
Ask: Have you known anyone who has made a significant “match” online?
This is a great way to break the ice when talking about love and mate selection.
Show dating websites: www.match.com, www.wHarmony.com
(You may need to sign up for a free trial!) Students will be amused, especially if you are 60+ years old!
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
Seeking a Spouse: Is Love All That Matters?
U.S. – love as a major factor
In other cultures, love may be a secondary
Emotional maturity, health, similar education, chastity
351
In the U.S., people emphasize love as a major factor.
In other cultures, love may be a secondary consideration (Pakistan, India), although still relatively high on the list of important characteristics according to research.
What else matters?
Emotional maturity, health, similar education, chastity are among the top 18 in a study by Buss, 1990.
U.S.—love and mutual attraction.
China---men: good health; women: emotional stability & maturity.
South Africa/Zulu—men: emotional stability, women: dependable character.
Direct students to Table 14.3.
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
Filtering Models of Mate Selection
Louis Janda and Karen Llenke-Hamel
Broad determinants of attractiveness
*
Louis Janda and Karen Llenke-Hamel suggest that people seeking mates screen potential candidates.
First, we filter for broad determinants of attractiveness, and work our way to specifics:
Residential proximity
Interpersonal attractiveness
The end result is choice based on compatibility between two individuals.
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
353
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
*
Ask: What is homogamy?
Homogamy is tendency to marry someone who is similar in age, race, education, religion, and other basic demographic characteristics. Homogamy has traditionally been dominant standard for most marriages in US.
BUT…importance of homogamy is declining, particularly among certain ethnic groups.
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
What happens when the marriage gradient faces the cougar?
*
The MARRIAGE GRADIENT is the tendency for men to marry women who are slightly younger, smaller, and lower in status and for women to marry men who are slightly older, larger, and higher in status.
Urban Cougar = Sophisticated species of female who seeks the pleasure of younger males. She avoids the entanglements of a "relationship," in favor of the freedom of the hunt.
For fun BUT CHECK BEFORE YOU DISPLAY BEFORE A CLASS!
www.DateACougar.com
Note…this is not the University of Houston student newspaper.
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
Attachment Styles and Romantic Relationships
Infant attachment style is reflected in adult romantic relationships (Shaver)
Secure
Avoidant
Anxious-ambivalent
353
Infant attachment style is reflected in adult romantic relationships (Shaver).
Secure
Happy and confident about future of their relationships (over 50%)
Avoidant
Anxious-ambivalent
Overly invested, repeated break-ups with same partner, low self-esteem (20%)
Attachment style related to nature of care adults give to their romantic partners when they need assistance.
Secure adults are more sensitive and supportive.
Anxious adults are more compulsive, intrusive.
People have relationship difficulties should look back to infant styles for insight into how to be more adaptive in adult relationships.
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
Developmental Diversity
Gay and Lesbian Relationships: Men with Men and Women with Women
Research findings suggest that gay and lesbian relationships are quite similar to relationships between heterosexuals
Most gays and lesbians seek loving, long-term, and meaningful relationships that differ little qualitatively from those desired by heterosexuals
355
Describe successful relationships in ways similar to heterosexual couple descriptions: needs of couple before individual needs; less conflict, more positive feelings toward partner
Lesbian women: show high levels of attachment, caring, intimacy, affection, and respect for partner
Age preferences expressed in marriage gradient for heterosexuals also extend to partner preferences for homosexual men.
Lesbians’ age preferences fall somewhere between those of heterosexual women and heterosexual men.
*
Ask or show this slide with sensitivity. If class is fairly heterogeneous, protect gay students by not making this the when they “come out”. This can be achieved by focusing the discussion on the research—or absence of research—regarding gay and lesbian marriage.
There are virtually no scientific data regarding gay and lesbian marriage, which became a major social issue when the first legal homosexual marriages were conducted in the United States in 2004. It is clear that the question produces strong reactions, but more, it turns out, among older adults than younger ones. Although only 18 percent of those older than 65 support the legalization of gay marriage, a clear majority—61 percent—of people younger than 30 support the practice.
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
Review and Apply
According to Erikson, young adults are in the intimacy-versus-isolation stage.
Types of love include passionate and companionate love. Sternberg’s triangular theory identifies three basic components (intimacy, passion, and decision/commitment).
356
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
Review and Apply
REVIEW
In general, the values applied to relationships by heterosexual, gay, and lesbian couples are more similar than different.
356
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
Review and Apply
APPLY
Consider a long-term marriage with which you are familiar. Do you think the relationship involves passionate love or companionate love (or both)? What changes when a relationship moves from passionate to companionate love? From companionate to passionate love? In which direction is it more difficult for a relationship to move? Why?
356
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
THE COURSE OF RELATIONSHIPS
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
Are you a POSSLQ?
*
Consider not asking students to raise their hands in response to this question.
Instead, use it as an introduction to characterization of POSSLQ.
POSSLQs tend to be young: Almost a quarter of cohabiting women and over 15 percent of cohabiting men are under 25.
Although most are white, African Americans are more likely to cohabit than whites.
Other countries have even higher cohabitation rates, such as Sweden, where cohabitation is the norm.
In Latin America, cohabitation has a long history and is widespread.
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
To Marry or Not to Marry: That is the Question
356
*
Past three decades have seen both a decline in the number of married couples and a significant rise in couples living together without being married, a status known as cohabitation.
Married couples now make up a minority of households: as of 2005, 49.7 percent of all U.S. households contained a married couple.
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
Why do people choice cohabitation rather than marriage?
Not ready for lifelong commitment
“Practice” for marriage
*
Those who feel that cohabiting increases their subsequent chances of a happy marriage are incorrect.
Chances of divorce are higher for those who have previously cohabited, according to data collected in US and Western Europe.
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
Why marry?
Desirability of spouse roles
*
Many see marriage as appropriate culmination of loving relationship, while others feel it is “right” thing to do after reaching particular age in early adulthood.
Spouse can play economic, sexual role, and therapeutic and recreational role.
Only means of having children that is fully accepted by all segments of society.
Marriage offers legal benefits and protections, such as being eligible for medical insurance under a spouse’s policy and eligibility for survivor benefits like Social Security benefits.
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
Why do people wait?
Ask: Can you think of any other reasons?
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
What makes marriage work?
Experience social homogamy, similarity in leisure activity. and role preferences
Hold similar interest
358
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
Why?
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
But the news is not all bad!
Most married couples:
Find themselves more deeply in love than before marriage
Report newlywed period as one of happiest in entire married life
358
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
Parenthood: Choosing to Have Children
Statistics
Costs
Reasons
359
*
Some children are unplanned, but couples cope, because they wanted children eventually; some unplanned children are unwanted.
Today most families have no more than 2 children, rate in US today is 2.1 children per woman (in 1957, it was 3.7 children per woman).
Women are having children later today, into their late 30s and older.
A middle-class family with two children will spend about $233,000 for each child before the child reaches the age of 18.
People have children for psychological reasons.
Pleasure of watching them grow.
Hope children will provide for them in old age or offer companionship.
Most married couples have at least one child.
Some children are unplanned, but couples cope, because they wanted children eventually.
But some unplanned children are unwanted.
Today most families have no more than 2 children, rate in U.S. today is 2.1 children per woman.
Women are having children later today, into their late 30s and older.
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.
What produced the decline in the US fertility rate?
Availability of more reliable birth control methods
Increasing numbers of working outside the home
Choosing to have children later
Cost of raising and educating children
Fear of not being good or accessible parent
359
*
Today, the rate is at 2.1 children per woman, which is…