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Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Chapter 14: Early Adulthood Module 6 Social and Personality Development in Early Adulthood

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Chapter 14: Early Adulthood. Module 6 Social and Personality Development in Early Adulthood. SOCIAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY ADULTHOOD. Let’s look at Table 6.4 to review these tasks. Developmental Tasks of Early Adulthood. 346. Table 6-4. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Chapter 14:Early Adulthood

Module 6Social and Personality Development

in Early Adulthood

Page 2: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

SOCIAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY

ADULTHOOD

Page 3: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Developmental Tasks of Early Adulthood

346

• Let’s look at Table 6.4 to review these tasks

Page 4: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Table 6-4

Page 5: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

INTIMACY, LIKING, AND LOVING DURING EARLY ADULTHOOD

FORGING RELATIONSHIPS

345

Page 6: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

What makes young adults happy?

• Happiest memories = psychological needs rather than material needs satisfied

• Unhappiest memories = basic psychological needs left unfulfilled

• Culture influences which psychological needs are most important in determining happiness

347

Page 7: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

What makes us tick? Social Clocks of Adulthood• Definition• Cultural influence• Helson’s research (women’s social clock,

deciding whether to pursue a career first or family first)

347

Page 8: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Seeking Intimacy: Erikson’s View of Young Adulthood

INTIMACY-VERSUS-ISOLATION STAGEIntimacy = Close, intimate relationship with

others

Isolation = Feelings of loneliness and fearful of relationships

348

Page 9: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Friendship

348

• Important part of adult life need for belonging• Filters• Personal qualities

Page 10: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

The Friends We Choose

348

Page 11: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Falling in Love: When Liking Turns to Loving

How does love develop?

348

Page 12: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Falling in Love

• STIMULUS-VALUE-ROLE (SVR) THEORY (Murstein)– Stimulus stage – Value stage– Role stage

349

Page 13: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Passionate and Companionate Love: Two Faces of Love

• PASSIONATE (ROMANTIC LOVE)

• COMPANIONATE LOVE

349

Page 14: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

LABELING THEORY OF PASSIONATE LOVE

If it hurts…it really love?

How do you know?

349

Page 15: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

LABELING THEORY OF PASSIONATE LOVE

If you label negative emotions as positive (jealousy, rejection, etc) and

pair them to feelings of passion or love, then the strong physiological

arousal and reaction lead to misperception that you are in love,

and that the behavior of the other was indications of love.

349

Page 16: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Romantic Love

• Also called passionate love or eros

– Complex intermingling of emotions

– Strong components of sexuality and infatuation

– Often predominates early part of a love relationship

• Affectionate love or companionate love– Have deep, caring affection for person

Attachment and Love

Page 17: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Sternberg’s Triangular Theory: Three Faces of Love

• Robert Sternberg – Intimacy– Passion– Decision/Commitment

350

Page 18: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Love

• Theory that love includes three types

– Passion: physical, sexual attraction

– Intimacy: warmth, closeness, and sharing

– Commitment: intent to remain together

Attachment and Love

Page 19: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Sternberg’s Triangle of Love

Fig. 10.12

Page 20: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Do as I say…not as I do!

• Relatively high number of people report close friend of a different race

• Relatively low number actually name someone of another race or ethnicity

351

Page 21: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Choosing a Partner: Recognizing Mr. or Ms. Right

Page 22: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Seeking a Spouse: Is Love All That Matters?

• U.S. – love as a major factor

• In other cultures, love may be a secondary– Emotional maturity, health, similar

education, chastity

351

Page 23: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Filtering Models of Mate Selection

• Louis Janda and Karen Llenke-Hamel– Broad determinants of attractiveness– Specifics– End result

353

Page 24: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

353

Page 25: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Do you think you will use the principle of homogamy to select

a mate?

Page 26: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

What happens when the marriage gradient faces the

cougar?

Page 27: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Attachment Styles and Romantic Relationships

• Infant attachment style is reflected in adult romantic relationships (Shaver)– Secure– Avoidant– Anxious-ambivalent

353

Page 28: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Developmental Diversity

Gay and Lesbian Relationships: Men with Men and Women with Women

• Research findings suggest that gay and lesbian relationships are quite similar to relationships between heterosexuals

• Most gays and lesbians seek loving, long-term, and meaningful relationships that differ little qualitatively from those desired by heterosexuals

355

Page 29: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Should marriage be a legal option for lesbians and gays?

Page 30: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Review and Apply

REVIEW• According to Erikson, young adults are in

the intimacy-versus-isolation stage.

• Types of love include passionate and companionate love. Sternberg’s triangular theory identifies three basic components (intimacy, passion, and decision/commitment).

356

Page 31: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Review and Apply

REVIEW• In general, the values applied to

relationships by heterosexual, gay, and lesbian couples are more similar than different.

356

Page 32: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Review and Apply

APPLY• Consider a long-term marriage with which you

are familiar. Do you think the relationship involves passionate love or companionate love (or both)? What changes when a relationship moves from passionate to companionate love? From companionate to passionate love? In which direction is it more difficult for a relationship to move? Why?

356

Page 33: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

THE COURSE OF RELATIONSHIPS

Page 34: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Are you a POSSLQ?

Page 35: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

To Marry or Not to Marry: That is the Question

356

Page 36: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Why do people choice cohabitation rather than marriage?

• Not ready for lifelong commitment

• “Practice” for marriage

• Reject institution of marriage

357

Page 37: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Why marry?

• Preferred alternative during early adulthood

• Desirability of spouse roles

• Legitimatization of children

• Legal benefits and protections

357

Page 38: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Why do people wait?

358

Page 39: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

What makes marriage work?

• Successful married partners:– Show affection– Communicate relatively little negativity– Perceive themselves as interdependent– Experience social homogamy, similarity in

leisure activity. and role preferences– Hold similar interest– Agree on distribution of roles

358

Page 40: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Why?

Page 41: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

But the news is not all bad!

Most married couples:– View early years of marriage as deeply

satisfying – Find themselves more deeply in love than

before marriage – Report newlywed period as one of happiest in

entire married life

358

Page 42: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Parenthood: Choosing to Have Children

• Statistics

• Costs

• Reasons

359

Page 43: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

What produced the decline in the US fertility rate?

• Availability of more reliable birth control methods

• Increasing numbers of working outside the home

• Choosing to have children later

• Cost of raising and educating children

• Fear of not being good or accessible parent

359

Page 44: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Dual-Earner Couples

Working Parent Statistics and Distribution of

Chores

360

Page 45: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Two’s a Couple, Three’s a Crowd?

• Dramatic shift in spouse's roles

• Challenges to marital satisfaction

• Successful coping

360

Page 46: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Gay and Lesbian Parents

• About 20% of gay men and lesbian women are parents– No difference in psychological adjustment

from children raised in heterosexual homes– Specialization of roles develop

• For children, no differences in terms of eventual adjustment from those raised in heterosexual households

361

Page 47: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Singlehood

• Statistics

• Rationale

• Societal view

361

Page 48: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

From Research to Practice

Majority of American Women Are Living Without Spouse

• What do the numbers say?• What do the numbers mean?

362

Page 49: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Something to ponder…

Why do you think that women are less inclined to remarry after a divorce than

men are?

Page 50: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Review and Apply

REVIEW• Cohabitation is an increasingly popular option

for young adults, but most still choose marriage.

• Divorce is prevalent in the United States, particularly within the first 10 years of marriage.

363

Page 51: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Review and Apply

REVIEW• Couples overwhelmingly desire to produce

children, although the availability of contraception and changes in women’s roles in the workplace have combined to decrease average family size.

363

Page 52: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Review and ApplyAPPLY• In what ways do you think cognitive changes in

early adulthood (e.g., the emergence of postformal thought and practical intelligence) affect how young adults deal with questions of marriage, divorce, and childrearing?

363

Page 53: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

WORK: CHOOSING AND EMBARKING ON A CAREER

Page 54: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Why Do People Work?

• Motivation– Extrinsic – Intrinsic

• Personal identity

• Status

366

Page 55: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

What is the status of…?

• What is the status of the career you hope to enter?

• Were you surprised?

366

Page 56: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Satisfaction on the Job

• Satisfaction related to job status

• Worker satisfaction also associated with:– Nature of job– Amount of input one has into one’s duties– Influence employees have over others

367

Page 57: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

The Informed Consumer of Development

Choosing a Career: Beginning Guidelines• Systematically evaluate a variety of choices. • Know yourself. • Create a “balance sheet,” • “Try out” different careers through paid or

unpaid internships. • Remember that if you make a mistake, you

can change careers. • It is reasonable to expect that careers may

change throughout life.368

Page 58: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Review and Apply

REVIEW• Choosing a career is an important step in early

adulthood.

• Gender stereotypes are changing, but women still experience subtle prejudice in career choices, roles, and wages.

• People work because of both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation factors.

369

Page 59: Chapter 14: Early Adulthood

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.  All rights reserved.

Review and Apply

APPLY• If Vaillant’s study were performed today on

women, in what ways do you think the results would be similar to or different from those of the original study?

369