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Chapter 16 Absolutism and Constitutionalism Absolutism

Chapter 16 Absolutism and Constitutionalism Absolutism

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Text of Chapter 16 Absolutism and Constitutionalism Absolutism

  • Chapter 16 Absolutism and ConstitutionalismAbsolutism

  • Spanish Absolutism

  • Constitutionalism

  • Queen Elizabeth I to her troops before meeting the Spanish Armada Let tyrants fear; I have always so behaved myself that, under God, I have placed my chiefest strength and safeguard in the loyal hearts and good will of my subjects. And therefore I am come amongst you at this time, not as for my recreation or sport, but being resolved, in the midst and heat of the battle, to live or die amongst you all; to lay down, for my God, and for my kingdom, and for my people, my honor and my blood, even the dust. I know I have but the body of a weak and feeble woman; but I have the heart of a king, and of a king of England, too; and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any prince of Europe, should dare to invade the borders of my realms: to which, rather than any dishonor should grow by me, I myself will take up arms; I myself will be your general, judge, and rewarder of every one of your virtues in the field. I know already, by your forwardness, that you have deserved rewards and crowns; and we do assure you, on the word of a prince, they shall be duly paid you. . . .we shall shortly have a famous victory over the enemies of my God, of my kingdom, and of my people.

  • James I in a speech to Parliament - The state of Monarchy is the supremest thing upon earth; for kings are not only Gods lieutenants upon earth and sit upon Gods throne, but even by God himself they are called gods. . . .Kings are justly called gods for that they exercise a manner or resemblance of Divine power upon earth; for if you will consider the attributes to God you shall see how they agree in the person of a king. . .

  • God hath power to create or destroy, make or unmake, at his pleasure; to give life or send death; to judge us all, and to be judged nor accomptable to none; to raise low things and to make high things low at his pleasure; and to God are both soul and body due.And the like power have kings; they make and unmake their subjects; they have power of raising and casting down; of life and death; judges over all their subjects and in all causes, and yet accountable to none but God only.

  • . . . Our privileges and liberties are our right and due inheritance, no less than our very lands and goods . . . That they cannot be withheld from us, denied, or impaired, but with apparent wrong to the whole state of the realm.

  • Petition of Right:No forced loans from the people to the kingNo detaining individuals (imprisonment or a trial) without just cause (a good, fact-based reason)Citizens do not need to billet soldiers in their homes without their consent

  • Cavaliers vs. RoundheadsAristocraticAnglican or leaned CatholicSupported the king

    Ordinary menPuritanSupported ParliamentAdvocated democracy

  • all

  • John Locke, Second Treatise on GovernmentPolitical power is that power, which every man having in the state of nature, has given up into the hands of the society, and therein to the governors, whom the society hath set over itself, with this explicit or tacit trust, that it shall be employed for their good.[The government] must preserve the members of that society in their lives, liberties and possessions. . .

  • But if a long train of abuses, prevarications and artifices [by the monarch], all tending the same way, make the design visible to the people, and they cannot but feel what they lie under, and see whither they are going; it is not to be wondered at, that they should then rouse themselves, and endeavour to put the rule into such hands which may secure to them the ends for which government was first erected. . .

  • The English Bill of Rights, 1689the pretended power of suspending the laws or the execution of laws by regal authority without consent of Parliament is illegal; That levying money for or to the use of the Crown by pretence of prerogative, without grant of Parliament . . . is illegal;That the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law;

  • That the subjects which are Protestants may have arms for their defence suitable to their conditions and as allowed by law; That election of members of Parliament ought to be free; That the freedom of speech and debates or proceedings in Parliament ought not to be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of Parliament; That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted;

  • **After 1650 the development of western civilization centers on Paris England, S. Scotland, France, Switzerland, N. Italy, W. and C. Germany, Low CountriesReign of Louis XIV is the example of this his influence stretched from England to Hungary.Spain on its way out, no longer the mover and shaker of European society.*HENRY IVHistoric Statue of Henry IV and the Pont Neuf (finished during his reign)*HENRY IVStatue of Henry IV and the Pont Neuf todayThe statue was taken down during the French revolution (despite what the McKay text says), but was the first to be rebuiltReligious Control - As a Huguenot, he married the French Princess Margaret of Valois to smooth over French religious differences (This marriage was the event from which the St. Bartholomews Day Massacre occurred. Not surprisingly, it was a very unhappy marriage, though she did protect him from being killed in the massacre). He converted to Catholicism when he became monarch of France to help end the French Wars of Religion. He issued the Edict of Nantes allowing Protestants to worship in France within 150 fortified cities, he even funded the military garrisons of these towns. Foreign Policy -- Henry IV mostly stayed out of war, focused more on rebuilding his country *Maximilien de Bthune, duc de Sully and his home Hotel du Sully on the Place des Vosges in Paris. He was a shrewd businessman, and a Protestant. Because of his religion (and a difficult personality) he was hated by many, but he was totally trusted by Henry IV. He implemented Henry IVs successful economic policies which included combining the indirect taxes on salt, sales and transit (and leasing their collection to financiers). Although taxes were reduced, revenues increased because of a revival in trade. Sully also instituted the Paulette, the annual tax paid to keep a position in a family. This was a money-maker for Henry IV, but will become a revenue loser for future kings.Henry IV presided over economic growth and a time of toleration. He improved the infrastructure of France by building new roads and canals and repaired the damage caused by the French wars of religion.

    *When Henry IV died, his second wife, Marie deMedici became regent. Her life is illustrated in a series of huge, overblown baroque painting by Reubens. In this one Henry is being carried off to heaven after his assassination (by a devout Catholic) on the left while she is offered the orb of state on the right.http://www.students.sbc.edu/vandergriff04/mariedemedici.html very baroque, overdone, emotionalThe Death of Henri IV and The Proclamation of the Regency. 1622-1625. Oil on canvas, 12' 11 1/8" x 23' 10 1/4". Muse du Louvre, Paris. *Marie deMedici was regent for young Louis XIII (who was more into the perks of the monarchy than the work associated with it). She hired Cardinal Richelieu to handle the affairs of state for her son.

    Under Richelieu the monarchy embodied the French state

    Richelieu raised the status of the French monarchy; subordinated all competing groups to the monarchy; shuffled the royal council in part by getting rid of the most powerful members (after this he dominated the council)Utilized intendants to collect information, deliver royal orders, recruit for the army, administer local law, and regulate economic activities. All of this undermined the local nobles.Weakened the Protestant nobles by revoking part of the Edict of NantesFounded the French Academy to promote the centralization of government

    Rescinded part of the Edict of Nantes because Louis XIII saw the walled Protestant cities as a state within a state. Protestants still allowed to worship, but not allowed to live in walled cities with their own armies. Protestant cities had to allow Catholic worship services.

    Commerce, trade, guilds, marketplaces all regulated by the intendants

    Sought to destroy the Habsburgs by giving help to the Protestant princes of Germany in the Hundred Years War http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:MariadeMedici.jpg*Seige of La Rochelle (artists rendition). Richelieu/Louis XIII decided that Protestant cities in which Catholics could not practice was political disobedience. Louis XIII revoked part of the Edict of Nantes walls were torn down and Catholic masses said in Protestant cities. (Richelieu said the first mass in La Rochelle.) But Huguenots were still allowed to practice.*Louis XIV also came to the throne young, at the age of 4. His mother Anne of Austria (she was really Spanish, but her mother was Austrian so she was known as Anne of Austria regardless, she was a Habsburg) was regent. Mazarin was Anne/Louis XIVs top minister. She was unpopular because she was a Habsburg her husband had unsuccessfully attempted to keep her from being regent. Mazarin was also unpopular. Though he had worked closely with Richelieu, Mazarin was always suspect because he was Italian. Rumor was that the two were having an affair, though this may have been scandalmongers trying to further tarnish both of their reputations.*Nobles rebelled in the early years of Louis XIVs reign (The Fronde), they were trying to take back the power Richelieu had taken from them. Mazarin subdued the Fronde after eight years of fighting. By then the people of France were willing to accept the absolutism of Louis XIV in exchange for peace and calm.*Louis XIV and CobertLouis XIV was a firm believer in the divine right of kings. He was actively involved in all parts of governing. Controlled the nobles by appointing middle class officials to be his main counselorsNever called the Estates General (thereby denying the nobles an opportunity to organize a resistance against him)Used spying and terror to eliminate threats secret police force, system of informers, practice of opening private lettersRevoked the Edict of Nantes because he thought that religious unity was essential for his royal dignity and to the security of the state. Destroyed Protestant churches, closed schools, baptized Huguenots, exiled pastors. (At the time this was very popular among his subjects.)

    Cracked down on the inefficiencies and corruption associated with tax collection but still ended up selling offices and tax exemptions to raise revenueRaised taxes on commoners

    On the economic front he gave support to old industriesCreated new industries, especially textilesState inspection of goods and the formation of guilds to ensure qualityAbolished domestic tariffs and created high foreign tariffsCreated a merchant marine to transport goodsPromoted the settlement of Canada and claimed all the land west of the Mississippi RiverDevalued currency

    *Militarily Louis XIV (with the assistance of the Marquis de Louvois) created a national army with higher levels of professionalismAttacked the Spanish Netherlands in an attempt to secure Frances borders

    Louis XIV wanted to push North West to dismember the Holy Roman Empire. This resulted in wars with the Spanish Netherlands. France spent a lot of money on these wars, with relatively little gain in land.

    Louis XIVs last war was the War of Spanish Succession - Attempted to unify the Spanish and French thrones. Was defeated by the Grand Coalition of the English, Dutch, Austrians and Prussians who feared an all powerful France/Spain.*Summation of Spains problems:Monarchs of declining skillAgricultural crisis and population declineLoss of skilled merchants and artisans (kicking out the moriscos) Less silver coming from MexicoLess trade with colonies (English and Dutch moving in)Small middle class (because working for a living was looked down upon in Spain)Increasing deficits (because Spain still spent like it was her heyday) and multiple defaults

    Monarchs of declining skill: Spains kings Charles V, Philip II, Philip III, Philip IV, Charles II each less capable and successful than the previous monarch.

    CHARLES V (HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR) ruled 1519-1556 (was actually Charles I of Spain), See chapter 14 for information on him.

    PHILIP II (ruled 1556-1598)Absolute monarch in service to the Catholic Church, absolutely CatholicSaw the Inquisition as an important tool for keeping orderWas very involved in day-to-day decision making due to the complex organization of Spains government.Played different powers against each other in order to keep control but this was very inefficientInherited a large debt from Charles VIndustry overburdened by too many regulations and high taxesMade the moriscos (Muslims) leave Granada, which hurt the economyResponded to inflation with a devaluation of currencyIncreasingly dependent on loans from foreign banksFought to keep the Netherlands united and under Spanish ruleSupported the assassination of Elizabeth I in order to place Mary Queen of Scots on the English throneAttempted to conquer England with the Spanish Armada

    PHILIP III ruled 1598-1621. A very religious man. Handed power over to the duke of Lerma who used it to advance his familys position. Made the Muslims who converted to Catholicism leave Spain which hurt the economy. Brought the war with the Dutch to a truce, but entered the Thirty Years War looking to restore Spains lost luster. An expensive war was not the way to do so, he was unable to stop Spains slow decline.

    PHILIP IV ruled 1621-1665. While he had good advisors (Olivares) Spain was stuck on the idea of regaining her past glory through warfare. Re-started the war with the Dutch and started a 31 year war with France over Mantua (an Italian city state). Country not advancing economically because the upper class sees investing and working in business to be beneath them. Spain also refused to try mercantilism and new scientific discoveries because Spain considered these to be Protestant traits.

    CHARLES II ruled (1665-1700) Had no children, was afflicted by both mental and physical ills (he was known as Charles the Hexed, unable to have children. The thought is that he was the product of too much Habsburg inbreeding (lots of nieces marrying their uncles in his family).

    Louis XIV was married Charles IIs sister and hoped to have his kingdom. He almost succeeded when Charles IIs will went against previous treaties dividing Spanish lands among the French (Bourbons), Austrians (Hapsburgs) and a German prince. Charles IIs will named Philip of Anjou (Louis XIVs grandson) his heir. This is what started the War of Spanish Succession. Once the war is over and European powers agree to let Philip rule as long as the Spanish and French thrones stay separate, Philip rules as Philip V.

    *Elizabeth I rules 1558-1603Parliament began to be restless under Elizabeth, but they deferred to her as an old woman and a national symbol. She maintained peace within the country and fought off the Spaniards. Had great personal powerPolitically shrewd and flexibleGreat sense of royal dignity and devotion to hard work

    Officials, clergy and nobles had to swear allegiance to herShe wisely selected ministersRefused to marry because her husband, as king, would have more power than sheManipulated parliament

    All citizens had to attend Church or pay a fineElizabethan Settlement created a moderate church that was a compromise between Catholicism and the Puritan faithElizabeth was the supreme head of the governor of England

    Carefully managed finances (but left a large debt)

    Gave financial support to Dutch rebels against SpainApproved of pirating wealth from Spanish ships

    *Picture of James I by John de Critz 1606. James I ruled 1603-1625Believed in divine right everyone has to obey the king no matter what. James I was an absolutist, he wrote The True Law of Free Monarchy (free from control of Parliament) Kings drew their authority from God. It was the kings job to take care of the people. Divine right.Seen as a foreigner (because he was from Scotland). Personality was tiresome, called the wisest fool in Christendom Needed money wars against Spain left debt, plus he was far from economical. Landowner members of Parliament did not want taxes increased.Utilized sympathy to get more money out of ParliamentInsulted Parliament when it did not do his biddingDissolved two ParliamentsCreated Earldoms for a price as a way of raising revenue

    The Parliament under James I was truly national. It represented the wealth of the nobility and the middle class. It chafed under the restrictions James tried to place on it.

    James insisted on keeping bishops when Parliament wanted to get rid of them (the Puritan-leaning Parliament saw bishops as too Catholic)Sponsored the authorized version of the Bible which was used by both Anglicans and Puritans as a tool to encourage people to read the BibleTaxes relatively lowKept England at peace Parliament had a different opinion. Goes back to the Magna Carta which acknowledges that kings have to follow the law, the concept of no taxation without representation and the idea that every person has the right to a due process of law.

    **Charles I ruled 1625-1649Picture of Charles I in three positions van Dyck 1635 (van Dyck was Rembrandts most successful pupil)Believed in Divine Right so he tried to govern without calling Parliament. This was a problem because Parliament controlled the countrys money.Puritans didnt like him because he strongly supported the Church of England Parliament was Puritan-leaning. Charles I supported William Laud who tried to impose many elaborate rituals on the Anglican Church, many thought the Anglican Church was becoming too much like CatholicismCharles I (and Laud) Insisted on the use of the Book of Common prayer, this made the Presbyterian Scots rebel because they did not want to institute bishops.Property owners didnt like him because he raised fees. (Ex. Ship money. Originally a tax on coastal cities to help pay for defense, Charles I extended it to all Englishmen. Charles saw it as a legit way for a king to raise money to finance a navy for the whole country. Parliament saw it as taxation without representation which went against British Tradition and the Magna Carta.) When the Scots attacked over their religious differences, Charles called Parliament (The Long Parliament) but it would not authorize funds to pay for war with Scotland. Parliament did not trust Charles I with an army. Charles I often bargained with Parliament then rescinded orders he had already approvedHe had tried (and failed) to arrest Parliamentary leadersUtilized the Court of the Star Chamber to prosecute opponents

    *Since Parliament would not give him money, Charles I eventually raised an army in the North of England made up of nobility, rural gentry and mercenaries

    The conflict evolved into the English Civil WarOliver Cromwell commanded an effective regiment in the Parliamentary force which took its inspiration from Protestantism. Was able to rout Charles Is army. Charles I was brought back to be tried and found guilty.Oliver Cromwell will then control the country. He lived frugally.

    (Cromwell was buried at Westminster, but then exhumed in 1661 and hanged. Head displayed for 20 years!)

    *Picture of Charles Is beheading in 1649 Dutch woodprint, man holding head on right of platform.Cromwell thought the king had to be removed in a permanent way.Parliament hesitated, so Cromwell used his army to remove those who would not find the king to be treasonous forming the Rump Parliament (the Parliament left over after Cromwells removal of some members. So the Rump Parliament is part of the Long Parliament that was elected during the reign of Charles I and lasted until the reign of Charles II because no elections were held during Cromwells rule. This time between kings is also called the interregnum.

    *Oliver Cromwell ruled 1653-1658Initially Favored constitutionalism and parliamentary government, granted a measure of religious toleration allowing several forms of Protestantism. Also allowed Jews to live in England.But he ruled as a dictator of the Puritans holding onto all control for himselfDismissed members of Parliament that supported the kingTore up the constitution prepared by ParliamentKept the standing army and proclaimed semi-martial lawCensored the press Very Puritan forbade sports, closed theatersBanned Catholicism in Ireland, executed priests and confiscated church landMercantilist who enforced the Navigation Acts requiring good going to the colonies be shipped on English ships. Crushed a rebellion in IrelandShort but successful war against the commercially successful Dutch

    Had to fight the Scots who became royalist when one of their Stuart monarchs was beheaded.Irish rebellion violently suppressed*Thomas Hobbes the LeviathanBelieved that people come together in a social contract to form a government - but that they hand over all power to the king. They have no right to rebel, they must follow their king.His thoughts are influenced by the bloody war he had just experienced the English Civil War.*King Charles II ruled 1660-1685 ( Painting by 1685 Godfrey Kneller (1646 - 1723)He intended to get along with the restored (power back to Parliament after Cromwell) Parliament. Made sure that he got along with Parliament by utilizing a group of 5 members of Parliament as his top advisors (beginning of the cabinet system)Courts restoredNeeded more money than Parliament gave him so he made a secret agreement with Louis XIV (in whose court he was raised when his family fled England) for money in exchange for Charles II relaxing laws against Catholics. Louis XIV hoped Charles II would gradually re-Catholicize England.Perhaps in response Charles II did not strongly enforce the Test Act which prohibited those who were not members of the Church of England from voting, holding public office, preaching, teaching, attending the universities or even assembling for meetingsHe also dissolved the Parliament that passed a law saying all rulers had to be members of the Roman Catholic Church Calls for religious toleration were also seen as his promotion of CatholicismAgreed to support French policy against the Dutch Note: Tories were the aristocratic political party who supported Charles II. The Whigs were suspicious of the king, so they passed the Test Act all officeholders must take communion in the Church of England

    *Picture of James II 1680s Sir Godfrey Kneller Ruled (1685-1688)Charles IIs brotherWas religiously tolerantHad a Catholic son in 1688 with is second wife.

    Absolutist like his father and grandfather, thought he could suspend law at will Appointed Roman Catholics into positions in the army, universities and local government. Granted Religious freedom to all, imprisoned church leaders who disavowed this position

    Prominent members of Parliament ask William (husband of Mary who is James IIs Protestant daughter she had been raised that way at the request of her uncle Charles II) to come to England with an army.James II flees.

    Lockes words summarize the philosophy behind the Glorious Revolution. He also advocates a Social Contract (like Hobbes), but in his if the government does not protect peoples rights then the people can overthrow the government.**William and Mary (ruled 1689-1702)Recognized the supremacy of Parliament by accepting the throne from Parliament Accepted Parliaments bill of rights no law could be suspended by the king (like the Test Act had been suspended), no taxes could support an army without parliamentary consent

    Mary very committed to serving as head of the Anglican Church. William controlled the Treasury - Created the Bank of EnglandWilliam seen as saving the Protestant Dutch from the French in the Franco Dutch War (using English resources)William organized the Grand Alliance against Louis XIV more than once, was working on opposing Louis XIV in the War of Spanish succession at the time of his deathMainstream Protestants and Catholics supported them.Strongly repressed the Irish only allowed to trade agricultural goods, not allowed their Catholicism, not allowed to voteThis revolution was definitely upper class oriented the upper class is happy to have monarchs who bring stability and recognize rights.

    Also, Parliament had to be called at least once every three years.Judiciary branch was independent from the Crown Freedom of worship to all Protestants

    *Catholics allowed to live in England, but could not own guns

    **Treaty of Utrecht (1715) ended the War of Spanish SuccessionFrench Bourbon king succeeded to the Spanish throne. France gave Austria the Spanish Netherlands. France recognized the Hohenzollerns as rulers of Prussia. England received Gibraltar and the land around the Hudson Bay region of Canada. England now widely seen as an up-and-coming nation.