Chapter 2 Strategies for Promoting Physical Activity & ‘Stages of Change Model’ VCE Physical Education - Unit 3 Text Sources 1.Nelson Physical Education.

  • Published on
    03-Jan-2016

  • View
    214

  • Download
    1

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

  • Chapter 2Strategies for Promoting Physical Activity & Stages of Change Model

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Text SourcesNelson Physical Education VCE Units 3&4: 4th Edition Malpeli, Horton, Davey and Telford 2006.

    2. Live It Up 2: 2nd Edition Smyth, Brown, Judge, McCallum and Pritchard 2006.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • Strategies for Promoting Physical Activity & Stages of Change Model

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • Mediators for behavioural changeA mediator is the mechanism through which the intervention (strategy) is believed to influence physical activity behaviour. Self-efficacy can be improved if a person is taught strategies to remind themselves to be more active.The improvement in these mediators combined might lead to a greater chance of behavioural change occurring.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • Strategies for Promoting Physical Activity & Stages of Change Model

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • Promotion of Physical ActivityPopulation based promotionPolicyEnvironmentalMass mediaPopulation approaches are designed to reach large segments of society or specific population groups.Population based information is often collected by VicHealth, National Heart Foundation and various universities.Information collected is used to establish government priorities and initiativesIndividual based promotionTheoretical models of changePrint and web-based mediaCounselling and screeningThese strategies are often based on theoretical models of individual behaviour change

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • Population-based Promotion Policy Strategies No. 1 Legislation/Organisational PolicySee table 2.6Legislation Formal, documented policies.Organisational policies Bring about changes in behaviour within a particular organisation. eg. SunSmart in sporting clubs and schools.eg. Smoke Free venues such as workplaces and sporting clubs.Case Study 2.3 p.53Coursework Questions 2.4 p.54VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • Population-Based Promotion Strategies No. 2 Environmental StrategiesTailoring Changing physical environments to suit community needs. Eg. Walking track along Yarra River promotes walking.Removing impediments to activity Take away reasons for people not to participate in PA eg. Design walking tracks away from major highways/roads.3. Introducing new resources and facilities eg. New sports grounds, age specific playgrounds.4. Support from other programs eg. Reducing crime in an area will make people feel more safe to go for a walk.5. Opening Hours Opening sporting venues before and after business hours.VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • Population Based promotion strategies No. 3 Mass Media Mass media can influence participation by;Providing information on its health and non-health benefitsEncouraging public participationProviding information regarding access to community based programsMotivating individuals to take actionVCE Physical Education - Unit 3

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Go for Your Life (VIC)

    Find 30 (WA)

    10,000 Steps (QLD)

    Smartplay (SA)

    Get Moving (National)

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • Individual physical activity promotion strategies.No. 1 Print and Web-based MediaPrint media can promote PA in;BookletsBrochures & handoutsIt is available from;Recreational centresRegional Sports AssembliesHealth care centresSchool and workplacesMail outsDoesnt require internet access.Web bases media promotes PA through;Interactive websitesWorks through the stages of changeGreat short term value not long termExampleshttp://www.healthyactive.gov.au/http://www.activeforlife.com.au/http://www.wrsa.org.au/

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • Individual physical activity promotion strategiesNo. 2 Psychological TheoriesThese theories are used to guide individual approaches.These models are used by practitioners and policy makers to justify, shape and focus health promotion strategies.Theories;Stages of Change (Also called the transtheoretical model)Based on 6 stages with an individual moving up or down through these stages of physical activity readiness.VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • Stages of Change ModelVCE Physical Education - Unit 3Stage 1. Precontemplation Not considering behavioural change

    No intention of being more active within the next 6 months. Not aware their lack of activity is a problem.

    Most difficult group

    Only start to think about change due to constant pressure or after a signicant health event eg. heart attack.

    Stage 1

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • Stages of Change ModelVCE Physical Education - Unit 3Stage 2. Contemplation Acknowledge that they need to become more active.

    Weighing up the pros and cons of being more active.

    Intention of becoming more active within the next 6 months.

    Some individuals remain in this stage for long periods.

    Stage 2

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • Stages of Change ModelVCE Physical Education - Unit 3Stage 3. PreparationSeriously considering becoming more active May exercise once or twice a week or several times a month.

    May be doing physical activity but are not meeting the physical activity guidelines.

    Stage 3

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • Stages of Change ModelVCE Physical Education - Unit 3Stage 4. Action Requires the largest effort, time and energy.

    Attempting to follow National Physical Activity Guidelines.

    Relapse is common, however if an individual maintains the active stage for six months they move into the maintenance stage.

    Stage 4

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • Stages of Change ModelVCE Physical Education - Unit 3Relapse Potential of relapse at any stage between precontemplation and termination.

    Individuals who have reached maintenance stage are more likely to only relapse to Stage 3.

    Individuals who have never reached Stage 5 can relapse to Stage 1.

    Relapse is not failure and occurs most commonly between Stages 2 and 4.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • Readiness to change (motivational readiness)VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Are you accumulating at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity on most (five+) days of the week?NoYesAre you accumulating at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity at least one day per week?Have you been doing this on a regular basis for the last six months?Do you intend to increase your physical activity?If youre doing physical activity irregularly, youre in the preparation stage.If youre not even thinking about it, you are in the precontemplation stage.If you're giving it a thought now and then but not doing it, you are in the contemplation stage.If you have been doing this consistently but for fewer than six months, you are in the action stage.If youre maintained the new habit for six months of more you are in the maintenance stage.NoNoNoYesYesYes

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • Individual physical activity promotion strategiesNo. 3 Counselling

    Telephone counselling and automated telephone-delivered advice

    Programmed to call people automatically including during convenient times. Collect data for PA research. Counselling for people living in isolated or remote areas Social support for older adults if not familiar with using web-based technologies.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Health-professional counselling

    Advice from GPs is often highly regarded. GPs sometimes prescribe PA instead of a prescription for medication.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Assessing motivational readiness

    One of the first steps is to assess a persons motivational readiness to become more active. Once their stage is determined, an individuals motivation readiness can be matched with processes to change their behaviour.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Matching processes of change with motivational readiness

    Stages of change = when people change behaviour

    Processes of change = how people change their PA behaviour

    Processes of change can be grouped into two different categories: cognitive processes & behavioural processes. Table 2.2 pg 44.

    Individuals in early stages (Stages 1 or 2) focus on cognitive strategies eg increasing awareness and knowledge of the benefits of physical activity. Later Stages (Stages 3,4 and 5) might include behavioural strategies such as developing a reminder system an encouraging the use of rewards.Data Analysis p. 47

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Identifying opportunities to be active

    Before you can identify opportunities to be more active you have to be aware of how often you move. (See Table 2.5, a sample daily personal activity record.)

    Modern technology has minimised the need to move and people today sit longer hours than previous generations.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Contracting

    You could draw up a simple contract that states your activity goals and have a witness sign it with you.

    Set a date to reassess whether or not you have met your behavioural goal.

    Reward yourself if goals are achieved.

    Punishments can be used but should be determined by you.

    Punishments should not be in the form of physical activity; eg. no television for a week.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Enlisting social support

    Not having an exercise partner is often a barrier to physical activity.

    Many studies report that having someone to exercise with greatly increases your chances of being sufficiently active.

    Support may come from family members, partners, friends, work colleagues or other community members.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Reminder systems

    Reminding yourself to be active is especially important when you are in the contemplation to action phases of the Stages of Change Model.

    The following are some example reminder systems: Leave yourself a note on the refrigerator, computer or mirror. Use a diary. Poster on office wall or desk. Get friends to send email or text message to remind you Set reminders using your computer or mobile phone.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Gradual programming

    Similar to progressive overload - gradual increase in workload, frequency or intensity.

    A slow, step-by-step approach desirable for inactive people

    For a beginner, being exhausted at the end of an activity greatly reduces likelihood of continuing to be active.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Tailoring

    Prescribing a physical activity plan to meet the individual needs of each person.

    Laboratory 2.2 p.48Individual factors to consider include : social support, access to facilities, work hours, cultural factors, family structure, fitness levels and climate.

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • Cognitive StrategiesIncreasing Knowledge Encourage individual to read and think about P.A.Being Aware of risksProvide the individual with the message that being inactive is very unhealthy.Caring about the consequences to othersEncourage the person to recognise how their inactivity affects their family, friends and co-workers.Comprehending benefitsAssist the individual to understand the personal benefits of being physically active.Increasing healthy opportunities.Help the individual increase their awareness of opportunities to be physically activeVCE Physical Education - Unit 3

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • Behavioural Strategies Substituting alternativesEncourage the individual to participate in physical activity when they are tired, stressed, or unlikely to want to be physically active.Enlisting social supportEncourage the individual to find a family member, friend, or co-worker who is willing and able to provide support for being active.Rewarding yourselfEncourage the individual to praise themselves and reward themselves for being physically activeCommitting yourselfEncourage the individual to make promises, plans and commitments to be active.Reminding yourselfTeach the individual how to set up reminders to be active, such as keeping comfortable shoes in the car/office, ready for use at any timeVCE Physical Education - Unit 3

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • Specific At Risk GroupsGroups at risk of being inactive include;Low socio-economic backgroundsRace and ethic minoritiesDisabled peopleIntervention programs include;Community involvement Local planning to target specific groupsNeeds assessment Community surveys, interviews etc of focus group. One program doesnt fit all.Understanding the target group Need to make the program with an understanding of key values, cultural beliefs and methods of overcoming barriers to PA.VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Web Links Chapter 2

    The 10,000 Steps Rockhampton project: http://www.10000steps.org.au/rockhampton/ Find 30 promotion (Government of Western Australia Department of Health): http://www.find30.com.au Go For Your Life: http://www.goforyourlife.vic.gov.au America On The Move promotion: http://www.americaonthemove.org Be Active promotion (Government of South Australia): http://www.beactive.com.au Building a healthy, active Australia (Australian government): http://www.healthyactive.gov.au Go for green, active living and environment program (Canada): http://www.goforgreen.ca/home_e.html

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

  • VCE Physical Education - Unit 3Complete Checkpoints (Page 61)

    What you should know

    Test your knowledge (Page 62)

    VCE Physical Education - Unit 3

    *

Recommended

View more >