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Chapter 3: The Biosphere What is ecology?. Ecology Ecology –study of interactions among organisms, between organisms, and their environment Interdependence

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  • Chapter 3: The Biosphere What is ecology?
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  • Ecology Ecology study of interactions among organisms, between organisms, and their environment Interdependence Life depends on other living things and natural resources (air, water, land)
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  • Species Levels of Organization 1. Species Individual living thing
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  • Population Levels of Organization 2. Population Groups of individuals of same species in an area.
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  • Community Levels of Organization 3. Community Different populations that live together in an area. Several populations interacting together.
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  • Collection of all organisms (biotic) in a particular place together with the abiotic (physical) environment. Ecosystem Levels of Organization 4. Ecosystem
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  • Biomes Levels of Organization 5. Biomes Groups of ecosystems with similar climate and communities.
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  • Biosphere Levels of Organization 6. Biosphere The highest level of organization. The portion of the Earth that supports life.
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  • SPECIES POPULATION COMMUNITY ECOSYSTEM BIOSPHERE BIOME
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  • Levels of Organization BIOSPHERE BIOME ECOSYSTEM COMMUNITY POPULATION SPECIES
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  • Biotic and Abiotic Factors Biotic living Plants, Animals,Mold, Fungi, Bacteria, Protist Abiotic Nonliving Sunlight, soil, wind, water, temperature
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  • Ecological Methods 1. Observation 1 st step to designing an experiment 2. Experiment test hypotheses 3. Modeling make models based on observation & experiment Helps make future predictions
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  • 3.1 Review 1.Many populations together is called a 2.Combination of biotic and abiotic factors in an environment make up the 3.Whats the different between biotic and abiotic? Community Ecosystem Biotic living factor Abiotic nonliving factor
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  • 3.1 Review Picture Pick any animal you want and draw a picture similar to the one below. Include species, population, community, and ecosystem
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  • 3.2 ENERGY FLOW (Autotrophs and Heterotrophs) One of the most important factors to determine capacity to sustain life is Energy Flow
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  • Autotrophs (producers) Trap light energy to produce food Plants Some protists Some bacteria Photosynthesis Converts light into chemical energy 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Chemosynthesis Converts chemical energy into carbohydrates SUN
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  • Heterotrophs (consumers) Must acquire energy from consuming other organisms Herbivores plants Carnivores animals Omnivores both Detritivores eat dead plants & animals Decomposers break down organic matter
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  • 3.2 Review 1.Another name for autotroph is 2.What are the two processes autotrophs use to make energy? 3.What are the four types of vores? Producer Photosynthesis and Chemosynthesis Carnivore, herbivore, omnivore, detritivore
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  • 3.3 Energy Flow in Ecosystems Food Chains and Food Webs
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  • SUN AutotrophsHeterotroph 1.Food Chain shows simple energy transfer 2.Food Web shows possibilities of energy transfer
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  • Trophic Levels Trophic Levels each step in a food chain/web T Level 1 T Level 2 T Level 3 T Level 4?
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  • Ecological Pyramids Ecological Pyramids shows relative amount of energy at each level (10% rule) Biomass total amount of living tissue within a trophic level
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  • 3.3 Review 1.Which is more complex food chain or web? 2. Grass rabbit fox alligator Which is T2? 3.What is biomass? Food web Rabbit Amount of living tissue in each trophic level
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  • 4.2 Niches and Community Interactions
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  • Tolerance Species ability to survive and reproduce under a range of environmental circumstances. Intolerance Zone
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  • Habitat General place an organism lives. Determined by species tolerance.
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  • Niche Range of physical and biological conditions in which a species lives and the ways the species obtains what it needs to survive and reproduce.
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  • Niches Resources Things needed for life Plants- sunlight, water and soil nutrients Animals- nesting, space, shelter, food, places to feed Physical resources Abiotic factors required for survival. Ex- amphibians lose and absorb water through skin::must live in moist places. Biological resources Biotic factors required for survival. E.g. when/how reproduces, food, way obtains food.
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  • Competition Different organisms attempting to use essential resources. Same resources at same time and place = competition Intraspecific competition-same species competing Interspecific competition- different species competing What do you think these two males are fighting over?
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  • Competitive Exclusion Principle -No two species can occupy exactly the same niche at the same time. -One species will win and survive. -One will lose and die.
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  • Dividing Resources Helps determine the number and kinds of species in a community and the niche each species occupies.
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  • Review so far (14 points) Pick an animal. Any animal. On a blank piece paper draw or write a paragraph using COMPLETE SENTENCES: Its habitat Some things that would give it optimal tolerance. Some things that would cause the habitat to be intolerable. Its niche (list two physical and two biological factors it interacts with) When might it come into competition? What could it do to divide resources with competition?
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  • Predation, Herbivory, and Keystone Species
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  • Predation Where one animal (the predator) captures and feeds on another animal (the prey)
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  • Predation Predators affect size of prey population and determine the places prey can live. E.g. birds can play important role in regulating mouse population sizes
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  • Herbivores Herbivory - Animal (herbivore) feeds on producers (plants) Affect size and distribution of plants. E.g- Many white-tailed deer are eliminating their favorite food plants across US.
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  • Keystone Species A single species that can dramatically change in a community Ex- Sea otters eat large amounts of sea urchins, which eat kelp. Sea otters almost eliminated by hunting; urchins population increased; ate all the kelp. Other organisms also disappeared.
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  • Symbioses Any relationship in which two species live closely together Three main classes: 1.Mutualism 2.Parasitism 3.Commensalism
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  • Mutualism Relationship in which both species benefit E.g. Sea anemone and clownfish Sea anemone-offers shelter; clownfish protects for preditors.
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  • Parasitism Relationship where one organism lives inside or on another organisms and harms it.
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  • Commensalism Relationship where one organism benefits and the other is neither harmed or helped
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  • 4.2 Review 1.What could be a physical and biological resource for a flower? 2.When does competition occur? 3.Ants protecting a tree that gives the ants shelter is an example of Phys Sun Bio Roots, insects, etc. Need for same resources at same time Mutualism
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  • Symbiosis Review A : Find an example of each type of symbiosis and explain why it is that type. B: Draw a picture of one type of symbiosis.
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  • Chapter 5 Populations 5-1 How Populations Grow
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  • Characteristics of Populations 4 important characteristics of a population Geographic distribution Density Growth rate Age structure
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  • Geographic Distribution Geographic distribution Area inhabited by a population. Ranges can vary enormously in size
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  • Population Density Population Density - number of individuals per unit area. This picture shows the population density of people.
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  • Populations Growth Three factors affect population size: number of births number of deaths number of individuals that enter or leave the population. * Simply put, a population will increase or decrease in size depending on how many individuals are added to it or removed from it
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  • Immigration & Emigration Immigration movement of individuals into an area causes growth. Emigration movement of individuals out of an area causes decrease.
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  • Age Structure Number of males and females of each age a population contains. Age structure greatly effects reproduction
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  • Exponential Growth Exponential growth When the offspring generation is larger than the generation before. Population size will increase if there is abundant space and food, and protected from predat

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