Chapter 35 Nationalism and Political Identities in Asia, Africa, and Latin America 1

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  • Chapter 35Nationalism and Political Identities in Asia, Africa, and Latin America*

    2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Indias Quest for Home RuleThe Indian National Congress was founded 1885 to promote self-rule. A mixture of British and Indian intellectuals, the group met annually to discuss more political participation for educated Indians; it was not opposed to continued British rule initially.Support for Congress at the beginning came from both Hindus and Muslims.The British encouraged the development of Muslim League (1906) to blunt the growing power of Congress.Congresss original position of working with the British changed after World War I; it moved toward opposition.Woodrow Wilson and Lenin inspired the postwar change in the movements position.*

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  • Indias Quest for Home Rule*

    2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948)Father: Karamchand Gandhi, was a high-ranking official in a small princely state in what is now Gujarat.His mother, Putlibai Gandhi, was a devout Jain, a sect that preaches pacifism, vegetarianism, and self-enlightenment through strict self-control.Gandhi was a mediocre student; his father had to pull some strings to get him a good education. Gandhi came to London in 1888 to study law, and after being called to the bar, returned to India in 1891. He tried and failed to work as a barrister in Bombay.*

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  • Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948)In 1893at age 24he went to South Africa under a one-year contract with an Indian firm. He ended up staying for 21 years.Indians in South Africa comprised a small group of wealthy Muslims and a larger group of poor Hindu indentured laborers; Gandhis experiences with all of these groups convinced him of their common Indian-ness despite their religious and caste differences.Gandhi was politicized by discrimination he faced on public transportation and by a 1893 bill limiting Indian voting rights.Gandhi opposed the precursor of the apartheid system that created a legal framework for racial segregation and limits on the access to political and economic freedoms for people of color (including Indians).Because of his activism, Gandhi was nearly lynched by a white mob in 1897; only the intervention of the police saved him.During the Boer War, he organized an Indian ambulance corps. He developed non-violent political protest tactics while in South Africa. *

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  • Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948)*Gandhi and his wife, Kasturbai, in 1902, while living in South Africa

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  • Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948)Gandhi returned to India 1915 and joined the Indian National Congress. He took over its leadership in 1920, and turned it into a truly mass movement.Gandhi reportedly was given the title Mahatmameaning great soulby the Indian poet and musician Rabindranath Tagore, a title that Gandhi himself disliked.Voiced strong opposition to the Hindu caste system; wanted an Indian state that embraced peoples of all castes and religions with national citizenship.*

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  • Indian Caste SystemFour castes or varna in HinduismBrahmins priest classKshatriya governing and military classVaishyas cattle herders, farmers, and merchantsShudras laborers, artisans, servants, and tenant farmersUntouchables This British label applies to those outside of the caste system as punishment; they perform duties that make one unclean in Hindu system of belief. Skin Color: There is the expectation that higher castes will be people of lighter skin color and that lower castes will be darker. The upper castes are supposedly descended from peoples of Central Asia who invaded.

    *

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  • Gandhis Passive ResistanceAhimsa: literally means avoidance of violence; important concept in Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism. Has roots in ancient Vedic texts.Satyagraha: passive resistance; term means truth and firmness, or more literally: insistence on truth. Gandhi coined the term in south Africa in 1906.Amritsar Massacre (1919): British troops open fire on a crowd of roughly 15,000 in the city of Amritsar with machine guns. The official count was 379 dead, but the number is more likely to be over 1,000.*

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  • Gandhis Passive ResistanceNon-Cooperation Movement (1920-1922): Gandhi encouraged Indians not to participate in any British institutionscourts, schools, government offices, etc.and to boycott British goods. Was very successful, but Gandhi called it off in 1922 due to outbreaks of violence.Civil Disobedience Movement (1930): Gandhis 25-day Salt March to the coastal city of Dandi picked up where the Non-Cooperation Movement left off, triggering a national protest against the British salt tax. *Gandhi on the march against the government salt production monopoly

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  • The Government of India Act (1937)Creation of autonomous legislatureBut 600 nominally sovereign princes refuse to cooperate with the planfear what was left of their power would be further diminished.Muslim fears of Hindu dominanceTraditional economic divide in urban areas: Muslim merchants and Hindu laborersEconomic tensions become especially severe with Great DepressionMuhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948) proposes a partition: the creation of the state of Pakistan.*Muhammad Ali Jinnah

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  • The Republic of ChinaThe Revolution of 1911: Many local uprisings and revolts across the country reveal a deep-seated resentment against Manchu rule and its failure to modernize. Nationalist Dr. Sun Yatsen (1866-1925) is elected provisional president of a new republic on Dec. 29, 1911. He proclaims the beginning of a new Republic of China in to being on Jan. 1, 1912.Revolution forces the five-year-old Qing Emperor Puyi to abdicate on Feb. 12, 1912, ending over 2,000 years of imperial rule.Central government is weak, leading to political anarchyIndependent warlords exercise local control.*Emperor PuyiDr. Sun Yatsen c. 1911-1912

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  • Sun Yatsen (1866-1925)Born in Guangdong Province, but received a Western education in Hawaii and converted to Christianity. Received his medical degree in Hong Kong in 1892.Created Nationalist Peoples Partyknown as Guomindang or Kuomintangin 1912. Roots of the party were in the Revive China Society, which Sun founded in Honolulu in 1894. *Flag of the first Chinese Republic, 1912-1928. Each color represents one of the five races: Red for Han Chinese, Yellow for Manchus, Blue for Mongols, White for Muslims, and Black for Tibetans.

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  • Chinese NationalismMay Fourth MovementBegan with protests on May 4, 1919, in BeijingStudents and urban intellectuals protest imperialism and the Chinese governments weak response to the Treaty of Versailles. Signaled a turn toward popular Chinese nationalism and especially resentment toward Japanese interference in Chinas affairs.Suppression of the May Fourth protests marked a radicalization of Chinese politics; many intellectuals began to reject the Western liberalism of Wilsons Fourteen Points and accept the principles of Marxist thought.*

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  • Chinese NationalismMarxism increases in popularity after the May Fourth protests of 1919.Chinese Communist Party was founded in Shanghai in 1921 with its first meeting; Mao Zedong attends as the Hunan Province representative.By 1924, the Guomindang welcomed members of the Chinese Communist Party into its ranks, and assured full cooperation.The Guomindang also accepted aid from the Soviet Union at this time.

    *

    2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Chinese NationalismMao Zedong was born in 1893 in a village in Hunan Province, in the southern central part of the country, to a peasant family.Maos father had been born poor, but became successful as a grain merchant.He was a secondary school (high school) student in Hunan Province when the 1911 revolution broke out, and joined the revolutionary army.

    *Mao in 1921After graduating from a teachers college, Mao became an assistant librarian at Beijing University and attended lectures.After returning to Hunan to become a headmaster of a school, Mao attends the first meeting of the Chinese Communist Party in 1921.In 1923, he is elected one of the five commissars of the Central Committee, and on his path to power.

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  • The Republic of China*Regions controlled byvarious warlord factions in 1926

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  • Civil WarJiang Jieshi (also known as Chiang Kai-Shek, 1887-1975) takes over the Guomindang after death of Sun Yatsen in March 1925; he is much less tolerant of radical politics.In 1926 Jiang launches a military expedition to unify China and make himself leader of the country; in 1927, Jiang turned against his Communist allies, leading to the outbreak of Civil War.Communists flee 6,215 miles to northwest China in 1934-1936 to flee destruction at the hand of the Nationalist; this becomes known as the Long March, which wins much popular sentiment for the Communists.Mao Zedong emerges as the leaders at this time, and also formulates a dist