Chapter 36 the Cold War Begins

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Chapter 36 the Cold War Begins. Post War Depression. High prices as price controls removed Lots of strikes in 1946 4.6 million workers will strike at one time another – Steel, automobile, coal strikes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Chapter 36 the Cold War Begins

  • Chapter 36 the Cold War Begins

  • Post War DepressionHigh prices as price controls removedLots of strikes in 1946 4.6 million workers will strike at one time another Steel, automobile, coal strikes Caused by inflating prices and loss of high wages made during the war which caused more strikes GM introduce the contract tied to cost of living Republicans push through Taft Hartley Act 1947 Outlawed the closed shop Permitted employers to sue unions for broken contracts or damages Established a federal mediation service 80 day cooling off period in strikes involving national health or safety Union leaders had to take a loyalty oath.

  • DemobilizationWe bring our troops home with too much haste and create power vacuum which the Russians fill No jobs for returning soldiers GI bill of rights education benefits Tremendous inflation when price controls are removed 33% in one year 1945-1946 Scarce goods Heavy savings

  • Long Economic BoomWar helped to rebuild the depression plagued economyHuge military budgets especially in 1950 for the Korean WarCheap EnergyAmerican Productivity enhanced by the rising educational level 1970 90% of school aged children attend schoolShift of the workforce out of farming because of productivity gains

  • The SunbeltPost war movement -- an average of 30 million people change residence every yearHard on familiesDr. Spocks book The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child CareSunbelt from Virginia to Florida, Texas, Arizona, and CaliforniaSearch of Jobs, climate, and lower taxesRoosevelt had put a lot of defense money into the South Left the Rustbelt the Ohio valley.Every elected President since 1964 has come from the Sunbelt

  • Move to the Suburbs FHA and VA loans made it more affordable to by your own homeTax deductions on interest helps provide financial incentive Government built highways gave people to live in the burbs and commute to the city for their jobs.Levittown in New York Long IslandWhite flight

  • Baby BoomAdds 50 million babies to the nations population by the end of the 50sStrains many aspects of American lifeEducationHealthcareSocial Security

  • Harry TrumanNo college education Fought in WWI Judge Senator from Missouri Vice Pres under RooseveltBecame a give them hell speaker Hot tempered and half cocked sometimes The buck stops here If you cant stand the heat get out of the kitchen Like Grant he permits old friends to become part of his administration and is very loyal despite their dishonesty

  • Yalta Conference Feb. 1945Final conference of the big three (Roosevelt dies) Final plans for smashing Germany discussed Stalin agrees that Poland should have a representative government Stalin soon to break that pledge Bulgaria, Romania to have free elections (a promise also lost)

  • Yalta ContinuedMulti-power conference to be held in San Francisco to Organize the United Nations Most controversial decision concerned the Far East Atomic bomb not yet tested From Roosevelts stand point it was a good idea to have Russia enter the war in the Pacific to pin down Japanese troops in Manchuria and Korea Stalin horse trades Agreed to attack Japan within 2-3 months after Germanys fall Russia to receive southern half of the Sakhalin Island and Japans Kurile Islands Joint control of the Railroads in Manchuria and special privileges at port Dairin and ArthurRussia enters the war at the last minute in order to claim its prize

  • Post War World

  • Soviet Sphere of influence created in EuropeInternational Monetary Fund created To encourage world trade Also founds the World Bank US takes the lead in the formation of these in contrast to the end of WWI

  • The formation of the UNPost war world organization was discussed at all major conference 1945 invitations went out one of Truman first acts was to accept the invite April 25, 1945 the conference assembles in San Francisco Took two months to write the charter but all 50 nations sign

  • UN organizationProvides a General Assembly where each nation has one voteLargely to discuss problemsSecurity councilgiven the power to resolve international disputes Consisted of five permanent members US, Britain, France, Russia, China and six elected members Each major power given a veto to protect their vital interestsOther Aspects of the UN Economic and social council 18 members chosen by General Assembly World court of 15 judges Secretaries, and trusteeship Passed by congress

  • Berlin Airlift 1948

    Germany was to be partitioned but the German Republic was to be treated as an economic whole (decided at Potsdam) Berlin had been partitioned into 4 sectors No provisions for control of land routes Russians use this when they become upset over controversies involving 4 power control in 1948 Americans begin and around the clock airlift 4500 tons a day. Planes landing every 3 minutes for almost 1 year. Russians back off brings about 2 Germanys

  • ReconstructionUS could not afford to see the people of Europe fall to communism Helped UN Relief and Rehabilitations Admin. CARE encouraged private relief Corporation for American Remittance to Europe Nuremberg war crimes trial 22 leading Germans tried 19 convicted 12 sentenced to death 7given lifeAmerican (allied) policy was to help Germany to keep them from the communist camp

  • Truman doctrine 1947Truman get tough policyGeorge F. Kennan -- Containment Britain could no longer bear financial and military load of Greece and Turkey to keep them from communism We fear the loss of the East Med. Establishes the policy of containment Congress appropriates 400 million in economic and military aid

  • Marshall Plan 1947-48Sec of state George Marshall Encourage a European conference to work out plans of economic recovery Conference held July 1947 in Paris Plan of Marshalls was to spend billions over 4 years in 16 coop. Countries 12.5 billion Congress approves after a communist coup in Czech. Within a few years most European countries were exceeding their pre war output Communism lost ground in important countries like France and Italy

  • Dealing with the Soviet MenaceNATO signed on April 4, 1949 an attack on one member was as attack on all and the signatories would then take action they deemed necessary 12 original signatories later 14 with Greece and Turkey added. Congress enacts the first peace time draft Soviets have the bomb in 1949 we begin the development of the H-Bomb.

  • Causes the US military to be unified under the national security act of 1947It creates the Dept. Of Defense-- cabinet official Sec. of Defense -- Forms the Joint Chief of Staff army, navy, air force National security council formed to advise the pres on security matters The CIA formed to organize foreign fact finding Voice of America authorize by congress in 1948

  • Point Four American money and technological aid to go to foreign nations to prevent them from becoming communist Launched in 1950 Helped Latin American , Africa, Near East, Far East

  • Red Scare Truman loyalty program 1947 Attorney general drew up a list of 90 disloyal organizations A loyalty review board investigates 3 mill. Fed. Employees -- 3000 resign or are dismissed Individual states create loyalty oaths The question could be asked: could freedom of speech exist in the face of international communism?

  • Fear Creates a Witch Hunt Richard Nixon leads the red catching as a chairman of the House Committee on Un- American Activities against Alger Hiss Feb. 1950 McCarthy charges that there are scores of communist in the state department and begins a massive witch hunt1950 Truman vetoes the McCarran Internal Security Bill but congress passes the bill over the vetoauthorizes the president to arrest or detain suspicious persons during an internal security emergency Julius and Ethel Rosenberg convicted in 1951 of espionage and were electrocuted in 1953 only people in American history to be executed in peace time for espionage .

  • Election of 1948Rep. nom. Dewey Demos. nom. Truman Southern demos revolt because of Trumans stand on civil rights Southern Demos. nom. Gov. Strom Thurmond Progressives nom. Henry Wallace, Roosevelts former VP Very liberal pro soviet Democrat attempt to nominate Eisenhower fails when he refuses Truman wins

  • Fair DealSweeping program for unemployment, housing, higher ed., min. wage, went further than new deal only a small portion achieved Social Security broadened Public housing progresses Min. wage increases 40-75 cents

  • Korean WarJapan surrenders to Russia North of 38 degrees parallel in Korea Both powers U.S. and Russia said they wanted a unified Korea 1949 Both had pulled out but Russia had left North Korea heavily armed June 25,1950 North Korea invades South Korea Push South Korea to Pusan

  • Truman takes it to the U.N. Russia absent because they protested the non-seating of communist China U.N. orders assistance to South Korea Gen. MacArthur was appointed U.N. commander 16 nations MacArthur lands at Inchon Push to Yalu makes Chinese nervous China attacks Nov. 1950

  • MacArthur wants to bomb bases in ManchuriaTruman says no MacArthur takes it to the public Truman fires MacArthur April 11,1951

  • War drags on for next 2 years

    1952 elections Demos. Adlie StevensonRep. Eisenhower Nixon V.P. Eisenhower very popular, Nixon did most of campaigning labeling Democrats as soft communists Eisenhower goes to KoreaStalin dies, Soviet Union loses interest in continuing warArmistice signed 1953 (July), 54,000 Americans died