Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal Communication Consider the past and you will know the present. Chinese Proverb There is language in her eyes, her cheeks, her lip, nay, her foot speaks. Shakespeare In human intercourse the tragedy begins not when there is misunderstanding about words, but when silence is not understood. Henry David Thoreau
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication Learning Objectives understand the definition and functions of nonverbal intercultural communication identify different aspects of nonverbal communication understand the implications of nonverbal communication interculturally
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication Case 1 Bushs Gesture Why were Norwegians shocked? What can we conclude from the case?
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal Communication Paralanguage E Kinesics D Proxemics C Chronemics B An Introduction to Nonverbal Communication A
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication While-Class Learning: Text A Pre-reading Activity: expressing opinions Without words, how will you express yourself and communicate with others?
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication While-class Learning: Text A An Introduction to Nonverbal Communication 1. Definition of Nonverbal Communication 2. Functions of Nonverbal Communication 3. Areas of Nonverbal Communication
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication An Introduction to Nonverbal Communication communication = 35% verbal messages + 65% nonverbal behaviors similar nonverbal expression: universal emotions, such as happiness, fear, and sadness differences in nonverbal expression of the same meaning or feeling: source of confusion
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication Text A: An Introduction to Nonverbal Communication 1. Definition of Nonverbal Communication
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication Text A: An Introduction to Nonverbal Communication 2. Functions of Nonverbal Communication a. Repeating b. Complementing c. Substituting d. Regulating e. Contradicting
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication 2. Functions of Nonverbal Communication a. Repeating 1) repeat 2) clarify 3) emphasize
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication 2. Functions of Nonverbal Communication b. Complementing
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication 2. Functions of Nonverbal Communication c. Substituting substitute verbal messages in certain settings
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication 2. Functions of Nonverbal Communication d. Regulating Regulate and manage communication by using some form of nonverbal behavior
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication 2. Functions of Nonverbal Communication e. Contradicting On some occasions, nonverbal actions send signals opposite from the literal meanings contained in our verbal messages.
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication 3. Areas of Nonverbal Communication Time language (chronemics) Space language (proxemics) Body language (kinesics) Paralanguage (voice modulation)
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication Case 2 Functions of Nonverbal Communication
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication Text B: Chronemics the study of time: how people use it, structure it, interpret it, and understand its passage two perspectives: 1. time orientations 2. time systems
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication Text B: Chronemics 1. Time Orientations: the value or importance the members of a culture place on the passage of time a. Past-oriented Cultures b. Present-oriented Cultures c. Future-oriented Cultures
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication B.1 Time Orientations a. Past-oriented Cultures previous experiences and events as most important b. Present-oriented Cultures current experiences as most important c. Future-oriented Cultures tomorrow or some other moment in the future is most important
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication Text B: Chronemics 2. Time Systems: different cultures, different ways of organizing time a. Monochronic Time (M-Time) b. Polychronic Time (P-Time)
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication a. Monochronic Time (M-Time) Things should be done one at a time. Time is segmented into precise, small units. Time is viewed as a commodity; it is scheduled, managed, and arranged. An event is regarded as separate and distinct from all others and should receive the exclusive focus of attention it deserves.
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication b. Polychronic Time (P-Time) Several things are being done at the same time. Often schedule multiple appointments simultaneously
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication Comparison of Monochronic and Polychronic Cultures Monochrome Time PeoplePolychrome Time People Do one thing at a timeDo many things at once Concentrate on the jobAre easily distracted and subject to interruption Take time commitments (deadlines, schedules) seriously Consider time commitments an objective to be achieved, if possible Are low context and need informationAre high context and already have information Are committed to the jobAre committed to people and human relationships Adhere to plansChange plans often and easily Are concerned about not disturbing others; follow rules of privacy Are more concerned with people close to them (family, friends, close business associates) than with privacy Show great respect for private property; seldom borrow or lend Borrow and lend things often and easily Emphasize promptnessBase promptness on the relationship Are accustomed to short-term relationshipsHave strong tendency to build lifetime relationships
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication Case 3 Left in the Cold Katherine: an English woman teaching in Beijing Prof. Wang: a Chinese in Katherine s school How would you explain the Directors behavior toward Katherine? How would you make the Director understand why Katherine felt frustrated and angry?
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication While-Class Learning: Text C Proxemics 1. Definition: the study of how people differ in their use of spatial relations 2. Three aspects of space
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication C.1: Personal Space the interpersonal relationship
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication C.1: Personal Space we are surrounded at all moments by a personal space space changes depending on the interpersonal relationship four major types of distances in American social and business circumstances (1) Intimate distance (2) Personal distance (3) Social distance (4) Public distance
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication North American Zones of Space
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication C.1: Personal Space Personality also determines the amount of personal space. eg. introverts extroverts Cultural styles play a big part too. eg. Japanese American body distance: touch culture, nontouch culture Arabs English-speaking countries Chinese and other Asian cultures
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication C.1: personal space Personality Cultural styles Short Distance: Latins, Mediterranean Arabs Medium Distance: Americans, Northern Europeans Long Distance: Japanese, Mediterranean Europeans
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication C2: Semifixed Features of Space spatial arrangements of movable objects within a room (1) Seating arrangements (2) Furniture arrangement
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication C2: Semifixed Features of Space (1) Seating arrangements
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication C2: Semifixed Features of Space (2) Furniture arrangement
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication C3: Fixed Features of Space
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication C3: Fixed Features of Space The origin of fixed features of space began with cultural needs over territoriality. The Americans whose culture stresses individualism generally demand more space than do people from collectivistic cultures.
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication Case 4 Personal Space Mark: a Danish just moved to Sydney Why did that woman suddenly stop talking with Mark and turned to another man?
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication Case 5 Americans Are Cold? Eva: a girl from to Peru to America Hilda: the American hostess Jimmy: Hilda s son How did Mrs. Larsen and Jimmy greet Eva respectively? Why did Eva feel that the Larsens were cold? If you were Eva, would you think that Mrs. Larsen was cold? Why or why not?
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication While-Class Learning: Text D Kinesics 1. Posture 2. Gestures 3. Facial Expression
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication While-Class Learning: Text D 4. Eye Contact 5. Smell
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication D.1. Posture Japan: Bow is much more than a greeting Bow signifies that cultures concern with status and rank
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication D.1. Posture America: being casual and friendly is valued drop into a chair or slouch when standing put feed on the desk
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication D.2. Gestures an important component of nonverbal communication Some gestures widely accepted and understood, such as handshaking many gestures vary in meaning from culture to culture
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication D.2. Gestures Hand gestures Beckoning sign
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication D.3. Facial Expression the most obvious and important source of nonverbal communication a basic set of at least six facial expressions: happiness, sadness, fear, anger, disgust, and surprise
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication D.3. Facial Expression same facial expression, different meanings smiling 1) America 2) Japan 3) Korea 4) Thailand 5) China
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication D.4. Eye Contact The way we use eye contact not only transmits messages to others and reflects our personality but also indicates what we are thinking. The use of eye contact follows some unstated rules. 1) staring at a person at a distance: an invitation 2) returning of the gaze: acceptance of invitation
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication D.4. Eye Contact Persons seeking eye contact while speaking tend to be more believable. However, these rules may vary in different cultures. 1) Western societies 2) Japan 3) Latin American and Caribbean cultures 4) Arabs
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication D.5. Smell the sense of smell can also be a conduit for meaning cultures have been using odor in a variety of ways 1) Americans 2) Japanese 3) Arabs
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication Case 6 Physical Contact A.Parfait Awono: a Cameroonian teaching in the US B.Sun Mei: a Chinese woman Sarah: Sun Mei s American friend Why were the students in the French class unwilling to hold hands with others? Why did Sun Mei behave as she did? If you are parting from your boyfriend or girlfriend, will you hug and kiss each other? Why? How do you look at other behaviors such as handholding between members of the same sex and between members of different sexes, fondling other peoples babies, and parents kissing in front of their children?
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication While-Class Learning: Text E. Paralanguage the set of nonphonemic properties of speech used to communicate attitudes or other shades of meaning 1. voice modulation 2. tempo 3. volume 4. silence
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication Text E.1 Voice Modulation carries very strong emotional overtones English saying: Its not what he said but the way he said it. Chinese saying:
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication Text E.2 Tempo Tempo: Chinese speak slower than Americans: 1) tempo increased with industrialization; 2) Chinese less polysyllabic words than English Volume: soft voice, loud voice Silence: low-context: lack of communication, high-context: integral part of social discourse, not a failure of communication
Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication Case 7 Quarrel Smith: an American Student Li Hua: a Chinese Student Why did Li Hua stop giving any response to Smiths angry words? Why was Smith getting more and more angry? What is the basic barrier in the communication between Smith and Li Hua?