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Chapter 6 CLIMATE, TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY, & AQUATIC BIODIVERSITY

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Text of Chapter 6 CLIMATE, TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY, & AQUATIC BIODIVERSITY

  • Chapter 6 CLIMATE, TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY, & AQUATIC BIODIVERSITY

  • What is the difference between weather and climate?What determines the temperature of a location on Earth?What causes the seasons?Warm-Up

  • 5 factors that determine global air circulation patterns

    1. Uneven heating of Earth

    2. Seasons3. Earths rotation

    4. Variation of suns output

    5. Properties of air and water

  • 1. Uneven Heating of the Earth

  • 1. Uneven Heating of the Earth

  • 5 factors that determine global air circulation patterns

    1. Uneven heating of Earth

    2. Seasons3. Earths rotation

    4. Variation of suns output

    5. Properties of air and water

  • 2. Seasons

  • 2. Seasonshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=taHTA7S_JGk

  • 5 factors that determine global air circulation patterns

    1. Uneven heating of Earth

    2. Seasons3. Earths rotation

    4. Variation of suns output

    5. Properties of air and water

  • 3. Rotation of Earth

  • 3. Rotation of Earth

  • 5 factors that determine global air circulation patterns

    1. Uneven heating of Earth

    2. Seasons3. Earths rotation

    4. Variation of suns output

    5. Properties of air and water

  • 4. Variations in solar output

  • Sun Spots

  • 4. Variations in solar outputhttp://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/data/realtime/gif/

  • 5 factors that determine global air circulation patterns

    1. Uneven heating of Earth

    2. Seasons3. Earths rotation

    4. Variation of suns output

    5. Properties of air and water

  • 5. Properties of air and water

  • 5. Properties of air and water

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  • 5. Properties of air and land

  • 5. Properties of air and landValley (in-land) cities

  • 5. Properties of air and landCoastal cities

  • 5 factors that determine global air circulation patterns

    1. Uneven heating of Earth

    2. Seasons3. Earths rotation

    4. Variation of suns output

    5. Properties of air and water

  • Vine DaySaturday, December 13 from 9 AM 12 PM at George Lorimer PreserveCutting invasive vines to save many mature treesBring protective clothing, gloves and, if you have them, tools such as loppers, pruners and hand saws

  • Warm-UpWhat is El Nino?What is the greenhouse effect? Is it good or bad?What is the ozone layer? How have humans affected it?

  • How do ocean currents affect regional climates?

  • Ocean Currents

  • Ocean CurrentsIn which direction is the warm water flowing?How does that affect the climate?

  • Ocean Upwellings

  • Ocean Upwelling

  • El Nio a disruption of the ocean/atmosphere system in the Pacific OceanHas important consequences for weather and climate around the globeEl Nio

  • Normal ConditionsWind blows from east to west (right to left)Creates an upwelling along the western coast of South AmericaPushes water to western PacificCauses LOTS of rain (monsoons & snow in Himalaya Mountains)

  • The Normal Pacific

  • Normal Conditions

  • Normal Conditions vs. El Nio

  • NormalconditionsEl Nino conditions

  • El Niohttp://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/WorldOfChange/enso.php

  • How does the chemical make-up of the atmosphere lead to the greenhouse effect?

  • What are greenhouse gases?Atmospheric gases that absorb infrared radiation, which warms the airExamples:CO2H2OCH4NO2CFCs

  • Are greenhouse gases GOOD or BAD?THEYRE BOTHGOOD - without greenhouse gases, the Earth would be too cold for lifeBAD - too many greenhouse gases may lead to global warming

  • Where do greenhouse gases come from?ALL OF US!!!Burning fossil fuels releases:CO2H2ONO2Cows release methane (CH4)Various refrigerants use CFCs

  • Ozone DepletionIs this what the hole in the ozone layer looks like?NO!

  • Ozone Videoshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qUfVMogIdr8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aKHcHmg4WKY

  • Rain Shadow Effect

  • Rain Shadow Effect

  • Molokai, Hawaiiwind

  • Whats the difference between a climate and a biome?Climate: physical properties (temperature and precipitation) of an area over a long period of timeBiome: areas on Earth that are inhabited by certain types of organisms

  • Desert Biomes

  • Desert BiomesCharacteristicstypically < 25 cm (10 in) annual precipitationcover 30% of the worlds land surfaceespecially found at 30 N and 30 S latitudelargest deserts on interiors of continents Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP

  • 30 N30 S

  • Deserts

  • Desert BiomesDesert Organismssparse, widely spaced, mostly low vegetationplants typically deeprooted shrubs with small leaves, succulents, or shortlived species that flourish after rainanimals typically nocturnal & have physical adaptations for conserving water & dealing with heat.

  • Grassland BiomesFigs. 614 Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP

  • Grassland BiomesCharacteristicssufficient rainfall to support grass, but too dry for forestsmostly found on interiors of continentsmaintained by seasonal drought, grazing, & periodic fires that prevent shrubs & trees invasion Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP

  • Grassland BiomesCharacteristicsplants include high diversity of grasses & herbaceous plants; typically have resistance to drought, grazing, & fireanimals include large & small herbivores, along with predators adapted to feed on these herbivores

  • Forest BiomesFig. 617 Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP

  • Forest BiomesCharacteristics:sufficient rainfall to support treestypes:Tropical typically broadleaf evergreen trees with high diversityTemperate typically deciduous broadleaf tree with moderate diversityBoreal typically conifers with low diversity Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP

  • Forest BiomesCharacteristics:various layers: Emergent tree tops that break through the canopyCanopy roof of forest of full grown trees.Understory dark and composed of tree saplingsForest Floor dark, not crowded

  • PrecipitationTemperatureWetModerateDryHotTemperateCold

  • PrecipitationTemperatureWetModerateDryHotTropical ForestTropical GrasslandTropical DesertTemperateTemperate ForestTemperate GrasslandTemperate DesertColdPolar ForestPolar GrasslandPolar Desert

  • Mountain BiomesCharacteristicsdiversity of habitat because of diverse topographymake up 20% of Earth's surfaceeach 100 m (~300 ft) gain in elevation is about equal to 100 km (~62 mi) change in latitudemountain regions contain majority of world's foreststimberline: elevation above which trees do not growgradually release melting ice, snow, and water to streams

  • Important Biome Conceptseverything is connectedincoming solar radiation determines global temperature & precipitation patternstemperature & precipitation are major determinants of distribution of organisms

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