Chapter 7 Respiration. Cellular Respiration (p 222) process that releases energy… by breaking down glucose (sugar)… and other food molecules… in the presence

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<ul><li><p>Chapter 7Respiration </p></li><li><p>Cellular Respiration (p 222)process that releases energy by breaking down glucose (sugar) and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen Energy is released in a SLOW controlled wayVideo</p></li><li><p>3 stages of Cellular Respiration(Each step captures some energy and makes it ATP) </p></li><li><p>Glycolysis1 molecule of glucose is broken down in , producing 2 molecules of pyruvic acid and a 3 carbon compound-</p></li><li><p>FACTS1st step of cell resp.2 ATP molecules into its account to get glycolysis going Energy releasing process (2ATP4ATP) Amount of energy made is small- but happens quickly1,000s of ATP made in a few milli-secondsTakes place in cytoplasm</p></li><li><p>The formula for aerobic cellular respiration isC6H12O6 + O2 CO2 + H2O + Energy (as ATP)</p><p>The word equation for this is:Glucose + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy (as ATP)</p></li><li><p> charged batteryADP uncharged battery</p></li><li><p>No oxygen?During fermentation: cells convert NADH to NAD+ by passing high-energy electrons back to pyruvic acid. This action converts NADH back into the electron carrier NAD+, ..allows glycolysis to continue producing a steady supply of ATP. </p></li><li><p>FermentationSore Muscles, wine and beer, breadDef: releases energy from food by making ATP WITHOUT oxygen (anaerobic)2 typesAlcoholic FermentationLactic Acid Fermentation</p></li><li><p>AlcoholicUsed by yeast and other microbesCauses dough to riseCO is released ( this is why bread has spaces) </p></li><li><p>Make wine? Yeast, grapes, sugar and dark place cool place.and a way for Co2 bubbles to escape- </p></li><li><p>Lactic Acid FermentationPyruvic acid Lactic AcidVigorous Exercise(sprinting) after a while oxygen cannot reach the muscles fast enough and you run out so in order to keep going anywayyour muscles keep producing ATP thru Lactic Acid Fermentationsore muscles</p></li><li><p>Uni-cellular org produce LA as a waste during fermentationKimchiCheeseYogurtButtermilk</p></li><li><p>Have Oxygen ?At the end of glycolysis, about 90 percent of the chemical energy that was available in glucose is still unused, locked in the high-energy electrons of pyruvic acid. To extract the rest of that energy, the cell turns to one of the world's most powerful electron acceptorsoxygen. Oxygen is required for the final steps of cellular respiration. Because the pathways of cellular respiration require oxygen, they are said to be aerobic. </p></li><li><p>Krebs and electron transport2nd stage: The Krebs cycle is named after Hans Krebs, the British biochemist who demonstrated its existence in 1937. During the Krebs cycle, pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions. </p></li><li><p>Then. The electron transport chain uses the high-energy electrons from the Krebs cycle. to convert ADP into ATP. See video</p></li><li><p>Aerobic vs Anaerobic RespAerobic- oxygen needed to make ATPKrebs cycleAn-aerobic- fermentation Lactic acidalcoholic</p></li><li><p>How much energy is in foodFood energy is measured in caloriesFood is for Chemical building blocks for bodiesRaw materials for new moleculesEnergy1 gram of glucose= 3811 calories of heat energy WOW???!!!!!!</p></li><li><p>WOW???!!!On the label, foods are actually in kilocalories not calories1000 calories- 1 kilocalorieHershey kiss= 22 kilo-calories REALLY (22,000 calories)- </p></li><li><p>CalorimeterCalorie- amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water , up 1 degree Celsius</p></li><li><p>How efficient is the process of cellular respiration?The 36 ATP molecules the cell makes per glucose represent about 38 percent of the total energy of glucose. That might not seem like much, but it means that the cell is actually more efficient at using food than the engine of a typical automobile is at burning gasoline. What happens to the remaining 62 percent? It is released as heat, which is one of the reasons your body feels warmer after vigorous exercise </p></li><li><p>Equation for RespirationObservations?</p><p>The formula for aerobic cellular respiration isC6H12O6 + O2 CO2 + H2O + Energy (as ATP)</p><p>The word equation for this is:Glucose + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy (as ATP)</p></li><li><p>Photosynthesis vs. RespirationStudy the relationships between the 2 </p></li><li><p>Creatine (GNC- Vitamin Shoppe)Creatine PhosphateOccurs naturally in muscle cellsContains reserve of energyIts P- group can be removed to make more ATP, from ADP, when there is a short supplyWill help to sustain intense activity longer*** Can cause kidney damage though, if used improperly</p></li><li><p>Energy and ExerciseBang! The starter's pistol goes off, and the runners push off their starting blocks and sprint down the track. The initial burst of energy soon fades, and the runners settle down to a steady pace. After the runners hit the finish line, they walk around slowly and breathe deeply to catch their breath.Let's look at what happens at each stage of the race in terms of the pathways the body uses to release energy. To obtain energy, the body uses ATP already in muscles and new ATP made by lactic acid fermentation and cellular respiration. At the beginning of a race, the body uses all three ATP sources, but stored ATP and lactic acid fermentation can only supply energy for a limited</p></li><li><p>time.Quick EnergyWhat happens when your body needs lots of energy in a hurry? In response to sudden danger, quick actions might make the difference between life and death. To an athlete, a sudden burst of speed might win a race.Cells normally contain small amounts of ATP produced during glycolysis and cellular respiration. When the starting gun goes off in a footrace, the muscles of the runners contain only enough of this ATP for a few seconds of intense activity. Before most of the runners have passed the 50-meter mark, that store of ATP is nearly gone. At this point, their muscle cells are producing most of their ATP by lactic acid fermentation. These sources can usually supply enough ATP to last about 90 seconds. In a 200- or 300-meter sprint, this may be just enough to reach the finish line.Fermentation produces lactic acid as a byproduct. When the race is over, the only way to get rid of lactic acid is in a chemical pathway that requires extra oxygen. For that reason, you can think of a quick sprint building up an oxygen debt that a runner has to repay after the race with plenty of heavy</p></li><li><p>breathing.Long-Term EnergyWhat happens if a race is longer? How does your body generate the ATP it needs to run 2 kilometers or more, or to play in a soccer game that lasts more than an hour? For exercise longer than about 90 seconds, cellular respiration is the only way to generate a continuing supply of ATP. Cellular respiration releases energy more slowly than fermentation, which is why even well-conditioned athletes have to pace themselves during a long race or over the course of a game. Your body stores energy in muscle and other tissues in the form of the carbohydrate glycogen. These stores of glycogen are usually enough to last for 15 or 20 minutes of activity. After that, your body begins to break down other stored molecules, including fats, for energy. This is one reason why aerobic forms of exercise such as running, dancing, and swimming are so beneficial for weight control.</p></li></ul>