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Chapter 8 Socioemotional Development in Middle and Late Childhood

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Text of Chapter 8 Socioemotional Development in Middle and Late Childhood

  • Slide 1
  • Chapter 8 Socioemotional Development in Middle and Late Childhood
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  • The Development of Self- Understanding Children increasingly describe themselves with psychological characteristics and traits They become more likely to recognize social aspects of the self More likely to distinguish themselves from others in comparative rather than in absolute terms Social comparison Example: Im a nerd (Harter, 2006)
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  • Self-Esteem and Self-Concept Self-esteem -- global evaluations of the self; self-worth or self-image Self-esteem reflects perceptions that do not always match reality Self-concept -- domain-specific evaluations of the self Children self-evaluate in many domains of their lives -- academic, athletic, appearance
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  • Social and Emotional Development Hierarchial structure of self-esteem Academic competence Social competence Physical/athletic competence Physical appearance
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  • Self-Efficacy Self-efficacy -- belief that one can master a situation and produce favorable outcomes Self-efficacy influences a students choice of activities students with low self-efficacy for learning may avoid many learning tasks, especially those that are challenging high-self-efficacy counterparts eagerly work at learning tasks
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  • Self-Regulation Self-regulation -- deliberate efforts to manage ones behavior, emotions, and thoughts that lead to increased social competence and achievement Capacity in self-regulation is linked to developmental advances in the brains prefrontal cortex
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  • Eriksons Stage: Industry/Competence Vs. Inferiority Industry -- becoming interested in how things are made and how they work When children are encouraged in their efforts, their sense of industry (competence) increases Parents who see their childrens efforts at making things as mischief or making a mess foster a sense of inferiority in their children
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  • Developmental Changes in Emotion Improved emotional understanding Increased understanding that more than one emotion can be experienced in a particular situation Increased awareness of the events leading to emotional reactions Ability to suppress or conceal negative emotional reactions The use of self-initiated strategies for redirecting feelings A capacity for genuine empathy
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  • Recommendations for Parents and Teachers to Promote Coping Strategies Repeatedly reassure children of their safety and security Allow children to retell events and be patient in listening to them Encourage children to talk about any disturbing or confusing feelings; confirm normality of the feelings Protect children from re-exposure to frightening situations and reminders of the trauma Help children make sense of what happened (Gurwitch & others, 2001)
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  • Moral Development According to Piaget, older children: consider the intentions of the individual believe that rules are subject to change are aware that punishment does not always follow wrongdoing Based on Piaget, Kohlberg proposed six stages of moral development which he believed are universal
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  • The Kohlberg Stages Based on Piaget, Kohlberg proposed six stages of moral development which he believed were universal Preconventional reasoning -- children interpret good and bad in terms of external rewards and punishments Conventional reasoning -- individuals apply certain standards, but they are the standards set by others, such as parents or the government Postconventional reasoning -- individuals recognize alternative moral courses, explore the options, and then decide on a personal moral code
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  • Emotional Development Kohlbergs Stages of Moral Development Preconventional morality Stage 1 Avoid punishment Stage 2 Gain reward Conventional morality Stage 3 Gain social approval and care for others Stage 4 Uphold laws and rules Postconventional morality Stage 5 Morality affirms everyones agreed upon rights Stage 6 Reflects more abstract principles for all humanity Moral Reasoning Moral Dilemma
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  • Three weeks before their developmental psychology term papers are due, Jennifer and two classmates visit the campus library to conduct online literature searches on their topics. After 30 minutes of surfing the web, Blake announces that he has found a website that offers inexpensive term papers on a variety of subjects, including the topic of his paper. Jennifer, who has never cheated in her academic career, says nothing and maintains her concentration on her own research. Sharon, who is appalled by Blakes intention to cheat, vows she will report Blake to the professor. In choosing their selected course of action, Blake, Sharon and Jennifer each made a moral decision. However, behavior alone does not indicate moral thinking. Give a justification that each of these students might use at each of Kohlbergs stages.
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  • Gender and the Care Perspective The most publicized criticism of Kohlbergs theory has come from Carol Gilligan She argues that Kohlbergs theory reflects a gender bias Kohlbergs theory is based on a male norm that puts abstract principles above relationships and concern for others In contrast to Kohlbergs justice perspective, Gilligan argues for a care perspective
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  • Prosocial Behavior Kohlbergs and Gilligans theories have focused on moral reasoning Study of prosocial moral behavior emphasizes behavioral aspects of moral development sharing is one aspect of prosocial behavior by the elementary school years, children express objective ideas about fairness (Eisenberg, Fabes, & Spinrad, 2006)
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  • Gender Stereotypes and Gender Similarities and Differences Gender stereotypes -- broad categories that reflect general impressions and beliefs about females and males Similarities and differences between boys and girls -- bear in mind the differences are averages even when differences are reported, there is considerable gender overlap the differences may be due primarily to biological and/or sociocultural factors
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  • Physical Development Males grow to be 10 percent taller Females have a longer life expectancy Females are less likely to develop physical or mental disorders Males have twice the risk of coronary disease Researchers have found some differences in the brains of males and females
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  • Cognitive Development Males have better math and visuospatial skills, whereas females have better verbal abilities Gender difference in visuospatial skills may be small
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  • Socioemotional Development Boys are more physically aggressive than girls girls tend to be more verbally aggressive there are no definitive findings on relational aggression -- behaviors such as spreading malicious rumors or ignoring someone when angry Girls are more likely to express their emotions openly and intensely than boys Girls are better at reading others emotions and more likely to show empathy Males usually show less self-regulation of emotion than females May lead to behavioral problems
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  • Gender Differences in Prosocial Behavior Females view themselves as more prosocial and empathic Across childhood and adolescence, females engage in more prosocial behavior The biggest gender difference occurs for kind and considerate behavior with a smaller difference in sharing ( Eisenberg & Morris, 2004; Eisenberg & Fabes, 1998; Eisenberg, Fabes, & Spinrad, 2006)
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  • Gender-Role Classification; Gender in Context Androgyny -- the presence of positive masculine and feminine characteristics in the same person androgynous individuals are more flexible, competent, and mentally healthy The importance of considering gender in context is very apparent when examining what is culturally prescribed behavior for females and males in different countries around the world (Bem, 1977; Spence & Helmreich, 1978)
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  • Developmental Changes in Parent-Child Relationships In middle and late childhood years, parents spend considerably less time with children Parents continue to be important Parents support and stimulate academic achievement Children receive less physical discipline than they did as preschoolers Children in grade school use more self- regulation (Huston & Ripke, 2006)
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  • Stepfamilies About half of all children whose parents divorce will have a stepparent within four years of the separation Complex histories and multiple relationships make adjustment difficult in a stepfamily Three common types of stepfamily structure Stepfather; stepmother; or blended/complex Children often have better relationships with their custodial parents Simple families show better adjustment than complex (blended) families
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  • Types of Stepfamilies Three common types of stepfamily structure are: stepfather mother typically had custody of the children and remarried stepmother father usually had custody and remarried blended or complex In a blended or complex stepfamily, both parents bring children from previous marriages to live in the newly formed stepfamily
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  • Developmental Changes Reciprocity becomes especially important in peer interchanges As children move through middle and late childhood, the amount of time sp

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