Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Living cells require Organisms use as their main energy source Cellular respiration is the process of Energy is released in the process of respiration when the cells of plants and animals </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Respiration The breakdown of organic molecules is Aerobic respiration consumes Anaerobic respiration is similar to aerobic respiration but Fermentation is a The breakdown of organic molecules is Aerobic respiration consumes Anaerobic respiration is similar to aerobic respiration but Fermentation is a </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration includes both but is often used to refer to Although carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are all consumed as fuel, it is helpful to trace cellular respiration with the : Cellular respiration includes both but is often used to refer to Although carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are all consumed as fuel, it is helpful to trace cellular respiration with the : </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Redox Reactions The during chemical reactions This released energy is used to Chemical reactions that transfer electrons between reactants are called In oxidation, a substance, or is In reduction, a substance, or is In cellular respiration, the The during chemical reactions This released energy is used to Chemical reactions that transfer electrons between reactants are called In oxidation, a substance, or is In reduction, a substance, or is In cellular respiration, the </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> NAD+ In cellular respiration, glucose and other organic molecules are broken down in a series of steps As an electron acceptor, NAD + functions as anNAD + Each NADH (the reduced form of NAD + ) NADH passes the electrons to the In cellular respiration, glucose and other organic molecules are broken down in a series of steps As an electron acceptor, NAD + functions as anNAD + Each NADH (the reduced form of NAD + ) NADH passes the electrons to the </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Electron Transport Chain Unlike an uncontrolled reaction, the electron transport chain passes electrons in a series of steps instead of one explosive reaction O 2 pulls electrons The energy yielded is Unlike an uncontrolled reaction, the electron transport chain passes electrons in a series of steps instead of one explosive reaction O 2 pulls electrons The energy yielded is </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Stages of Cellular Respiration 1)Glycolysis - Anaerobic 2)Citric Acid Cycle - Aerobic 3)Oxidative phosphorylation - Aerobic 1)Glycolysis - Anaerobic 2)Citric Acid Cycle - Aerobic 3)Oxidative phosphorylation - Aerobic </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Mitochondria 1) Glycolysis 2) Citric Acid Cycle 3) Oxidative Phosphorylation (ETC) 1) Glycolysis 2) Citric Acid Cycle 3) Oxidative Phosphorylation (ETC) </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Step 1: Glycolysis Splitting of sugar Breaks down glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) into Occurs in the NAD picks up H+ and electrons to form NADH 2 Splitting of sugar Breaks down glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) into Occurs in the NAD picks up H+ and electrons to form NADH 2 </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Glycolysis Summary Reactants Reactants Products ** Products ** Location: Simple Summary Summary total </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Bridge Reaction In the presence of O 2, Before the citric acid cycle can begin, In the mitochondria matrix 1) Pyruvic Acid loses a C to form 2) The lost carbon 3)Acetic acid binds with In the presence of O 2, Before the citric acid cycle can begin, In the mitochondria matrix 1) Pyruvic Acid loses a C to form 2) The lost carbon 3)Acetic acid binds with </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Step 2: The Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) Takes place within the There are, each catalyzed by a specific enzyme The acetyl group of acetyl CoA joins the cycle by combining with oxaloacetate The next seven steps Takes place within the There are, each catalyzed by a specific enzyme The acetyl group of acetyl CoA joins the cycle by combining with oxaloacetate The next seven steps </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Step 2: The Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) 2 molecules of CO2 are NAD+ and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide - another ion carrier) The NADH and FADH 2 produced by the cycle relay electrons extracted from food The cycle generates Recall that two molecules of pyruvate are formed during glycolysis resulting in 2 molecules of CO2 are NAD+ and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide - another ion carrier) The NADH and FADH 2 produced by the cycle relay electrons extracted from food The cycle generates Recall that two molecules of pyruvate are formed during glycolysis resulting in </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Krebs Cycle Summary Reactants Reactants Products Products Location: Krebs Summary Kreb's Summary 2 </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Step 3: Electron Transport Chain (ETC) Takes place in the A series of molecules that excited electrons pass along, Most of the chain s components are, which exist in Takes place in the A series of molecules that excited electrons pass along, Most of the chain s components are, which exist in </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Step 3: Electron Transport Chain (ETC) Following glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, NADH and FADH 2 account for most of the energy extracted from food These two electron carriers donate electrons to the electron transport chain, which powers ATP synthesis via The carriers alternate as they accept and donate electrons Electrons They are finally passed to O 2, forming Following glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, NADH and FADH 2 account for most of the energy extracted from food These two electron carriers donate electrons to the electron transport chain, which powers ATP synthesis via The carriers alternate as they accept and donate electrons Electrons They are finally passed to O 2, forming </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> NADH and FADH 2 Dump the electrons and protons theyve gathered throughout glycolysis and the citric acid cycle Again, O2 + 2e- + 2H+ H2O Electrons are passed through a number of proteins The chain s function is to break the large free- energy drop from food to O 2 into smaller steps that release energy in manageable amounts Dump the electrons and protons theyve gathered throughout glycolysis and the citric acid cycle Again, O2 + 2e- + 2H+ H2O Electrons are passed through a number of proteins The chain s function is to break the large free- energy drop from food to O 2 into smaller steps that release energy in manageable amounts </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Chemiosmosis Electron transfer in the ETC causes proteins to H + then moves back across the membrane, passing through channels in ATP synthase uses the exergonic flow of H + to drive This is an example of chemiosmosis, Electron transfer in the ETC causes proteins to H + then moves back across the membrane, passing through channels in ATP synthase uses the exergonic flow of H + to drive This is an example of chemiosmosis, ETC Summary </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> ETC </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> ETC Summary Reactants Reactants Product Product Location: Simpler ETC Summary Best ETC Summary </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Whole Respiration Process Song I Found... </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Total Energy Total ATP from 1 molecule of glucose in Stage ATP + 4 Total Glycolysis (b/c 2 are used in the first step) CA Cycle ETC _________________ TOTAL During cellular respiration, most energy flows in this sequence: Glucose -&gt; NADH -&gt; electron transport chain -&gt; proton-motive force -&gt; ATP </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Fermentation Most cellular respiration requires Glycolysis can produce ATP , glycolysis couples with to produce ATP Fermentation uses instead of an electron transport chain to generate ATP 2 Types: Most cellular respiration requires Glycolysis can produce ATP , glycolysis couples with to produce ATP Fermentation uses instead of an electron transport chain to generate ATP 2 Types: </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Lactic Acid Fermentation In lactic acid fermentation, Lactic acid fermentation by some fungi and bacteria is used Human muscle cells use lactic acid fermentation In lactic acid fermentation, Lactic acid fermentation by some fungi and bacteria is used Human muscle cells use lactic acid fermentation </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Lactic Acid Fermentation Example: Burning feeling in muscles during a workout From oxygen debt Lactate Example: Burning feeling in muscles during a workout From oxygen debt Lactate </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Alcohol Fermentation In alcohol fermentation, pyruvate is Bacteria and fungi (yeast) Alcohol fermentation by yeast is used in In alcohol fermentation, pyruvate is Bacteria and fungi (yeast) Alcohol fermentation by yeast is used in </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Fermentation Obligate anaerobes carry out fermentation or anaerobic respiration and Yeast and many bacteria are facultative anaerobes, meaning that Obligate anaerobes carry out fermentation or anaerobic respiration and Yeast and many bacteria are facultative anaerobes, meaning that Review </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Role of Macromolecules Catabolic pathways funnel electrons from many kinds of organic molecules into cellular respiration Glycolysis accepts a wide range of Amino groups can feed Fats are digested to Fatty acids are broken down by beta oxidation and yield An oxidized gram of produces more than twice as much ATP as an oxidized gram of Catabolic pathways funnel electrons from many kinds of organic molecules into cellular respiration Glycolysis accepts a wide range of Amino groups can feed Fats are digested to Fatty acids are broken down by beta oxidation and yield An oxidized gram of produces more than twice as much ATP as an oxidized gram of </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Regulation of Cell Respiration is the most common mechanism for control If ATP concentration begins to, respiration When there is of ATP, respiration Control of catabolism is based mainly on is the most common mechanism for control If ATP concentration begins to, respiration When there is of ATP, respiration Control of catabolism is based mainly on </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Review Questions 1.Define cellular respiration and state its importance as a life process. 2.Differentiate between aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation. 3.State and explain the chemical equation for cellular respiration. 4.Define oxidation and reduction and explain the idea of redox reactions. 5.Explain the use of NAD+ as a coenzyme. 6.Explain the electron transport chain (ETC). 7. Name the 3 major stages of cell respiration, along with their locations. 8.Explain glycolysis, stating the reactants, products, and major activities. 9.Explain the bridge reaction, stating the reactants, products, and major activities. 10.Explain the Krebs cycle, stating the reactants, products, and major activities. 11.Explain glycolysis, stating the reactants, products, and major activities. 12.Explain the ETC, stating the reactants, products, and major activities. 13.Explain the role of oxygen in the ETC. 14.Define chemiosmosis and explain its role in cellular respiration. 15.Differentiate between lactic acid fermentation and alcohol fermentation. 16.Differentiate between oblicate anaerobes and facultative anaerobes. 17.Explain the role of macromolecules in cellular respiration. 18.Explain how cell respiration is regulated. </li> </ul>