Characterization of maize production in Southern Africa: synthesis of CIMMYT/DTMA household level farming system surveys in Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe

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<ul><li><p>7/29/2019 Characterization of maize production in Southern Africa: synthesis of CIMMYT/DTMA household level farming syste</p><p> 1/86</p><p>Characterization of Maize Productionin Southern Africa:</p><p>Synthesis of CIMMYT/</p><p>DTMA Household LevelFarming System Surveys</p><p>inAngola, Malawi, Mozambique,</p><p>Zambia and ZimbabweGirma T. Kassie, Olaf Erenstein, Wilfred Mwangi, Roberto LaRovere,</p><p>Peter Setimela and Augustine Langyintuo</p><p>SOCIO-ECONOMICS</p><p>Working Paper 4</p><p>July 2012</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Characterization of maize production in Southern Africa: synthesis of CIMMYT/DTMA household level farming syste</p><p> 2/86</p><p>ii</p><p>The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, known by its Spanish acronym, CIMMYT</p><p>(http://www.cimmyt.org/), is an international, not-for-profit research and training organization that conducts research</p><p>and training related to maize and wheat throughout the developing world. Drawing on strong science and effective</p><p>partnerships, CIMMYT works to create, share, and use knowledge and technology to increase food security, improve the</p><p>productivity and profitability of farming systems, and sustain natural resources. CIMMYT belongs to and is funded by</p><p>the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) (http://www.cgiar.org/) and also receives</p><p>support from national governments, foundations, development banks, and other public and private agencies. CIMMYT</p><p>is particularly grateful for the generous, unrestricted funding that has kept the center strong and effective over manyyears.</p><p>The Drought Tolerant Maize for Africa (DTMA) Project is jointly implemented by CIMMYT and the International</p><p>Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), and is funded by the Bill &amp; Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) and the</p><p>Howard G. Buffett Foundation (HGBF). The project is part of a broad partnership, known as the Drought Tolerant</p><p>Maize for Africa (DTMA) Initiative that involves national agricultural research and extension systems, seed companies,</p><p>non-governmental organizations (NGOs), community-based organizations (CBOs), and advanced research institutes. Its</p><p>activities build on longer-term support by other donors, including the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation</p><p>(SDC), the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), the International Fund for</p><p>Agricultural Development (IFAD), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the Eiselen</p><p>Foundation. The project aims to develop and disseminate drought tolerant, high-yielding, locally-adapted maize varieties</p><p>and aims to reach 3040 million people in sub-Saharan Africa with better technologies in 10 years.</p><p> CIMMYT, 2011. All rights reserved. The designations employed in the presentation of materials in this publication do</p><p>not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of CIMMYT or its contributory organizations</p><p>concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city, or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its</p><p>frontiers or boundaries. CIMMYT encourages fair use of this material. Proper citation is requested.</p><p>Correct Citation: Kassie, G. T., O. Erenstein, W. Mwangi, R. La Rovere, P. Setimela, and A. Langyintuo. 2012.</p><p>Characterization of Maize Production in Southern Africa: Synthesis of CIMMYT/ DTMA Household Level Farming System Surveys in</p><p>Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Socio-Economics Program Working Paper 4.Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT.</p><p>GROVOC Descriptors Maize; Production; Farming systems; Surveys; Angola; Malawi;Mozambique; Zambia; Zimbabwe; Southern Africa</p><p>dditional Keywords DTMA; CIMMYTGRIS Category Codes F01 Crop Husbandry</p><p>F08 Cropping Patterns and Systems</p><p>Dewey Decimal Classif. 633.15068ISBN 978-607-8263-03-5</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Characterization of maize production in Southern Africa: synthesis of CIMMYT/DTMA household level farming syste</p><p> 3/86</p><p>iii</p><p>SOCIO-ECONOMICS</p><p>Working Paper 4</p><p>Girma T. Kassie1*, Olaf Erenstein2, Wilfred Mwangi3, Roberto La Rovere2, Peter Setimela1, and Augustine</p><p>Langyintuo4</p><p>July 2012</p><p>1CIMMYT, Harare, Zimbabwe; 2CIMMYT, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3CIMMYT, Nairobi, Kenya; and 4The Alliance</p><p>for a Green Revolution in Africa, Nairobi, Kenya</p><p>*Corresponding author: P.O. Box 163, Mazowe Road, Harare, Zimbabwe,</p><p>E-mail: g.tesfahun@cgiar.org</p><p>Characterization of Maize Production in Southern Africa:Synthesis of CIMMYT/DTMA Household Level Farming System</p><p>Surveys in Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Characterization of maize production in Southern Africa: synthesis of CIMMYT/DTMA household level farming syste</p><p> 4/86</p><p>iv</p><p>Contents</p><p>List of tables ................................................................................................................................................. v</p><p>List of figures ............................................................................................................................................... vi</p><p>Acknowledgments .................................................................................................................................... viii</p><p>Acronyms ................................................................................................................................................... viv</p><p>Executive summary ..................................................................................................................................... 1</p><p>Chapter 1: Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 4Chapter 2: Methodology ............................................................................................................................. 7</p><p>2.1. The study area ................................................................................................................................ 7</p><p>2.2. Sampling ....................................................................................................................................... 10</p><p>2.3. Data collection ............................................................................................................................. 11</p><p>Chapter 3: Result and discussion ............................................................................................................. 12</p><p>3.1. Characterizing the sample population ...................................................................................... 12</p><p>3.1.1. Demographic features........................................................................................... 12</p><p>3.1.2. Resource endowment and assets of households............................................................. 13</p><p>3.1.3. Asset ownership based wealth index for the sample households....................................... 19</p><p>Chapter 4: Poverty and inequality ........................................................................................................... 234.1. Houesehold income, income sources and expenditure ......................................................... 24</p><p>4.2. Poverty line................................................................................................................................... 26</p><p>4.3. Measuring poverty ....................................................................................................................... 27</p><p>4.4. Poverty profiling .......................................................................................................................... 30</p><p>4.5. Determinants of poverty ............................................................................................................ 32</p><p>4.6. Inequality ...................................................................................................................................... 36</p><p>Chapter 5: Characterizing maize production ......................................................................................... 38</p><p>5.1. Farm land under maize and other crops .................................................................................. 38</p><p>5.2. Maize varieties under production ............................................................................................. 41</p><p>5.3. Trends in maize production ...................................................................................................... 425.4. Access to agricultural information ............................................................................................ 45</p><p>Chapter 6: Drought risk perception and management ........................................................................ 47</p><p>6.1. Drought and drought risk management .................................................................................. 47</p><p>6.2. Importance of drought in southern Africa .............................................................................. 48</p><p>6.3. Experiences of crop failure due to drought ............................................................................ 49</p><p>6.4. Farmers assessment of riskiness of different maize types ................................................... 50</p><p>6.5. Land allocation pattern as a response to risk expectation .................................................... 51</p><p>6.6. Maize trait preference - how important is drought tolerance? ............................................. 53</p><p>Chapter 7: Determinants of adoption of improved maize varieties .................................................. 56</p><p>Chapter 8: Conclusions and implications ............................................................................................... 66</p><p>References ................................................................................................................................................... 68</p><p>Appendices ................................................................................................................................................. 72</p><p>Appendix 1. Quantile regression used in the report ............................................................................. 72</p><p>Appendix 2. Non-parametric tests .......................................................................................................... 76</p><p>Appendix 3. The Logit model .................................................................................................................. 76</p><p>Appendix 4. Tobit model ......................................................................................................................... 77</p><p>Appendix 5. Double Hurdle Model ........................................................................................................ 78</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Characterization of maize production in Southern Africa: synthesis of CIMMYT/DTMA household level farming syste</p><p> 5/86</p><p>v</p><p>List of tables</p><p>Table 1: Description of the study areas10 ................................................................................................ 8Table 2: Sample districts and sample size .............................................................................................. 11</p><p>Table 3: Description of the sample population ..................................................................................... 12</p><p>Table 4: Resource endowments of the sample population ................................................................. 14</p><p>Table 5: Farm land size, irrigation and fallowing .................................................................................. 16</p><p>Table 6: Farm labor sources and allocation ........................................................................................... 17Table 7: Livestock wealth of the sample households ........................................................................... 19</p><p>Table 8: Descriptive statistics of assets considered in computation of wealth index ...................... 20</p><p>Table 9: Household level income sources .............................................................................................. 24</p><p>Table 10: Expenditure items .................................................................................................................... 25</p><p>Table 11: Absolute and relative poverty lines and poverty incidence ................................................ 27</p><p>Table 12: Poverty measures based on measurement error adjusted total reported income ........... 29</p><p>Table 13: Poverty measures based on measurement error adjusted total reported expenditure ... 29</p><p>Table 14: Poverty profiles of sample households based on daily income per adult equivalent ..... 30</p><p>Table 15: Poverty profiles of sample households based on daily expenditure per adult equivalent.31</p><p>Table 16: Determinants of poverty in rural Malawi ............................................................................. 33</p><p>Table 17: Determinants of poverty in rural Mozambique ................................................................... 34Table 18: Determinants of poverty in rural Zambia ............................................................................ 35Table 19: Magnitude of inequality measures.......................................................................................... 77</p><p>Table 20: Land allocation to crops and maize varieties ....................................................................... 38</p><p>Table 21: Fertilizer use in the sample communities ............................................................................. 39</p><p>Table 22: Improved maize seed sources and use .................................................................................. 40</p><p>Table 23: Varieties grown by farmers ..................................................................................................... 41</p><p>Table 24: Knowledge and use of maize varieties .................................................................................. 42</p><p>Table 25: Access to agricultural extension ............................................................................................. 45</p><p>Table 26: Relative ranking of drought risk as constraint of agriculture ............................................ 48</p><p>Table 27: Mean number of crop failures due to drought over the last 10 years .............................. 49Table 28: Games-Howell Multiple Mean Comparison test on number of crop failuresexperienced ................................................................................................................................................. 49Table 29: Riskiness of maize varieties (in terms of yield variability) in study countries ................. 50Table 30: Responses of farmers for potential sources of production risk ........................................ 52Table 31: Determinants of improved maize adoption in Angola ....................................................... 56Table 32: Determinants of improved maize adoption in Malawi ....................................................... 58Table 33: Determinants of improved maize adoption in Mozambique ............................................ 61Table 34: Determinants ofimproved maize adoption in Zambia .................................</p></li></ul>

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