Chemistry for Dummies 102 - Anderson School ... Chemistry for Dummies 102 Author Anderson School District

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  • Chemistry 102

  • PERIODS – Rows on the Periodic Table arranged

    by atomic # horizontally.

  • Families /

    Groups – Columns that have many similar properties and chemical characteristics and numbered 1-18.

  • Basic Organization of Elements on the Periodic Table

    The states of matter of all of the elements is given for normal conditions, i.e. a temperature of 20°C / 68 F.

    Metals

    Non -

    Metals

    Metalloids

  • http://www.lenntech.com/periodic-chart.htm SmartBD Act

    http://www.lenntech.com/periodic-chart.htm http://www.lenntech.com/periodic-chart.htm http://www.lenntech.com/periodic-chart.htm

  • • Metals *Luster (shininess)

    *Good conductors of heat and electricity

    *High density (heavy for their size)

    *Ductile (most metals can be drawn out

    into thin wires)

    *Malleable (most metals can be hammered

    into thin sheets)

  • Non- Metals

    • No luster (dull appearance)

    • Poor conductor of heat and electricity

    • Brittle (breaks easily)

    • Not ductile

    • Not malleable

    • Low density

  • Metals and Non-Metals

    SB Interactive Periodic

  • Metalloids – “In Between Metals and Non-metals” with their

    characteristics.

  • Chemical Symbols -

    letters that represent an element on the periodic table.

    Element Symbol

    Sodium Na

    Chlorine Cl

    Hydrogen H

    Oxygen 0

    Carbon C

    Nitrogen N

    Chemical symbols to

    know!!

  • Chemical Formulas to KNOW

    • Common molecules and their chemical formulas.

    • ________ – Table salt / Sodium Chloride • _______ – Carbon Dioxide • _______ – Oxygen Gas • _______ – Water • ________ – Glucose • ________ – Nitrogen Gas

  • • Common table salt is the compound sodium chloride.

    • Sodium chloride has one atom of sodium for each atom of chlorine.

    • Sodium chloride as a chemical formula: NaCl

    NaCl

  • Physical Changes

    A change that

    alters the form

    or appearance

    but not the

    actual

    substance. (ex.

    sugar and

    water mixed is

    still “sugar

    water”)

  • Physical Changes

    - change in state of matter

    - size

    - shape

  • • Sublimation – Solid to a gas…(skips the liquid stage).

    Another type of

    physical change….

  • Chemical

    Changes

  • Chemical Changes

    A change that produces a new

    substance and can’t be changed

    back by physical means.

    - Evidence of:

    *Color change *Precipitate – a solid

    formed from a solution

    *Gas production

    *Change in temperature

    *Changes in properties***

  • • Ex. Wood that has changed into ashes and gases cannot be restored to its original form as a log.

  • Color • half-eaten apple

    turns brown - a chemical change occurs when the apple is exposed to air.

    • color of food changes as it is cooked - a chemical change occurs.

  • A sign of Chemical Change

    is color change. • The green pigment that you see during the

    summer is chlorophyll .

    For Example:

    In autumn, changes in temperature and rainfall amounts cause trees to stop producing chlorophyll. The chlorophyll already in the leaves undergoes a chemical change into colorless chemicals.

  • Odor • When eggs and other foods spoil -

    chemical change that produces an odor..

  • C H E M I C A L C H A N G E S

  • Law of Conservation of Matter / Mass

    • Matter can not be created or

    destroyed, only its form can be

    changed.

    (Chemical equations have to be

    balanced.)

    Balancing Equations Activity / Chemisty in a Bag /

    Gum Activity

    http://www.creative-chemistry.org.uk/gcse/revision/equations/index.htm

    http://www.creative-chemistry.org.uk/gcse/revision/equations/index.htm http://www.creative-chemistry.org.uk/gcse/revision/equations/index.htm http://www.creative-chemistry.org.uk/gcse/revision/equations/index.htm

  • __Reactants

    ____

    ____Products_____

    __

    Chemical Equation for Cellular Respiration

    A Chemical Change

  • Chemical Changes/ Reactions

    Subscript – how many atoms.

    Coefficient – number of molecules.

  • Chemistry Facts • Warm temperatures speed up a reaction.

    • Colder temperatures slow a reaction down.

    • Enzymes are found in the human body and act as a catalyst – speeds up chemical reactions.

    • Exothermic – gives off energy. Temp. goes up.

    • Endothermic – absorbs energy. Temp. goes down.

  • Intermission

    • 1. NaCl is the formula for what common substance?

    • 2. Where would you find the reactants of a chemical equation?

    • 3. What are the products of respiration?

    • 4. What is the symbol for carbon?

    • 5. Why do chemical equations have to be balanced?

  • Intermission

    • 1. Burning a match would be what type of change?

    • 2. Peeling an orange would be what type of change?

    • 3. The formation of gas would be a sign of a ___________ change.

    • 4. A temperature change would be a sign of a _________ change.

  • Matter – Physical and Chemical 28

  • Acids and Bases 0 to 6 7 8 to 14 • Acid Neutral Alkaline / Bases

    Sour Taste

    Bitter Taste

    Reacts with some metals

    Can be corrosive

    Corrosive – eats away

    Slippery feeling

    Tomatoes, citrus fruits, vinegar

    Water, blood, saliva Ammonia, Cleaners, Soap, Milk of Magnesia

  • Uses of Acids

    • Vinegar, which is used in salad dressing, contains acetic acid.

    • Lemons, limes, and oranges have a sour taste because they contain citric acid.

  • Uses of Acids • Your body needs

    ascorbic acid, which is vitamin C.

    • Sulfuric acid is used in the production of fertilizers, steel, paints, and plastics.

  • Uses of Bases • Weak bases are

    used for medicines, etc.

    • Stronger bases are found in soaps, ammonia, and many other cleaning products because they interact strongly with dirt and grease.

  • Red and Blue Litmus Paper

    pH Strip

    Phenolphthalein – turns magenta in

    base and clear in

    acids.

    Indicators – shows the presence of something.