Chemistry – STAR Test Review – Day 1 Ch2 – Classifying Matter

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Chemistry – STAR Test Review – Day 1 Ch2 – Classifying Matter 1 . Classify these as elements, compounds, or mixtures. If mixture, decide if heterogeneous or homogeneous. a . silver b . pine tree c . orange juice d . carbon dioxide e . air - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Chemistry – STAR Test Review – Day 1 Ch2 – Classifying Matter

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Chemistry STAR Test Review Day 1Ch2 Classifying Matter 1. Classify these as elements, compounds, or mixtures. If mixture, decide if heterogeneous or homogeneous. a. silver b. pine tree c. orange juice d. carbon dioxide e. air2. Classify each of the following changes as physical or chemical. a. bread is bakedb. salt dissolves in water

c. milk spoilsd. A snowflake meltsCh4,25 The Atom and Nuclear Processes1. What is the charge, positive or negative, of the nucleus of every atom?2. Determine the number of neutrons in each atom. a. nitrogen-15 b. radium-2263. List the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in each of the following atoms. a. 2713Al b. 4420CaCh5 The Electron ___ Daltona. planetary model of the atom, electrons move around the nucleus like planets around sun___ Bohrb. gold foil experiment atoms have a dense core called nucleus___ Rutherfordc. father of the modern atomic theory, everything made of atoms1. Find the Battleship Position, the Electron Configuration, and the Orbital Filling Diagram for these atomic numbers:a. Atomic number 15b. Atomic number 562. What is the frequency of radiation with a wavelength of 5.0 x 10-8 m?3. What is the energy of a photon whose frequency is 3.0 x 1012 Hz?Ch6 Periodicity1. Arrange these elements in order of decreasing atomic size: sulfur, chlorine, aluminum and sodium. Does your arrangement demonstrate a periodic or group trend?2. Distinguish between the first and second ionization energies of an atom.3. Chlorine, selenium, and bromine are located near each other on the period table. Which of these elements is the smallest atom? 4. Which particle has the largest radius in each atom /ion pair?a. Na, Na+ b. S, S-2 5. Why dont the noble gases appear in an eletronegativity table?Day 2Ch9 Naming 1. Identify the following elements as metals, metalloids, or nonmetals.a. goldb. silicon2. The melting point of a compound is 1240C, and ice melts at 0C. Is this compound an ionic or molecular compound?3. Write the formulas for these compounds.a. barium fluoride b. calcium carbonatec. lithium hypochlorite d. tin(II) hydroxidee. tetraiodine nonoxide4. Write names for these compounds.a. Al(OH)3b. NaIc. Sn3(PO4)2d. CS2e. Cl2O7f. N2O5Ch10 The Mole1. How many moles are 2.80x1024 atoms of silicon?2. Find the gram molecular mass of C3H7OH.3. What is the mass of 2.11 x 1024 molecules of sulfur dioxide?4. Find the volume at STP of 3.20 x 10-3 mol CO2 gas.5. At STP, what volume does 12.2 g of fluorine gas occupy?6. 13.0 x 1024 molecules of argon occupy what volume at STP?Ch11 Chemical Reactions1. Balance the following equations:a. ___ PbO2 ___ PbO + ___ O2b. ___ Li + ___ FeBr2 ___ LiBr + ___ Fec. ___ Al + ___ CuSO4 ___ Al2(SO4)3 + ___ Cu2. Rewrite these word equations as balanced chemical equations.a. iron (III) chloride + calcium hydroxide iron (III) hydroxide + calcium chlorideb. sodium + water sodium hydroxide + hydrogen3. Write the balanced chemical equation for the following combination reaction: Mg + O2 4. Write the balanced chemical equation for the following decomposition reaction:HBr 5. Write the balanced chemical equation for the following single-replacement reaction:Ag(s) + KNO3(aq) 6. Write a balanced chemical equation for the following double replacement reactions:HCl(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq) 7. After balancing the equation, identify the type.a. ___ C2H6 + ___ O2 ___ CO2 + ___ H2Ob. ___ Pb(NO3)2 + ___ NaI ___ PbI2 + ___ NaNO3Day 3Ch12 Stoichiometry1. Determine the mass of lithium hydroxide produced when 0.38 g of lithium nitride reacts with water according to the following equation: Li3N + 3H2O NH3 + 3LiOH2. Determine the mass of carbon dioxide produced when 0.85 g of butane reacts with oxygen according to the following equation: 2C4H10 + 13O2 8CO2 + 10H2O3. ___ C2H5OH + ___ O2 ___ CO2 + ___ H2OGiven 26 L O2, at STP, how many liters of CO2 will be produced?4. Carbon disulfide is an important industrial solvent. It is prepared by the reaction of coke with sulfur dioxide.5C + 2SO2 CS2 + 4COhow many moles of CS2 form when 2.7 mol of C reacts?5. The reaction between fluorine with ammonia produces dinitrogen tetrafluoride and hydrogen fluoride.5F2(g) + 2NH3(g) N2F4(g) + 6HF(g)if you have 66.6 g of NH3, how many liters of F2 are required for complete reaction?Ch13,14 Gas Laws1. According to the kinetic theory, gases consist of particles that:a. occupy considerable volumeb. are close together c. exert attractive and repulsive forces among themselvesd. move rapidly in constant random motione. None of these2. At sea level, atmospheric pressure is equal to __________3. STP refers to ________________________4. Absolute zero is:a. the temperature at which the motion of particles theoretically ceasesb. 0 Kc. a temperature that has never been produced in the laboratoryd. All of thesee. None of these5. At 80 K, the particles of gas have:a. twice the average kinetic energy of the same particles at 40K b. half the average kinetic energy of the same particles at 40Kc. one-forth the average kinetic energy of the same particles at 20Kd. None of these6. Compare H2O as a gas, liquid, and solid.a. Which state has the most kinetic energy?b. Which state has a definite shape?c. Which state has its volume most affected by pressure?7. Water could be made to boil at 92C by: (think about pressure)8. As the temperature of a fixed volume of a gas increases, the pressure will __________9. The volume of a gas is doubled while the temperature is held constant. The pressure of the gas __________10. If a sample of oxygen occupies a volume of 2.15 L at a pressure of 58.0 kPa and a temperature of 25C, what volume would this sample occupy at 101.3 kPa and 0C? (Combined Gas Law)11. The volume (in L) that would be occupied by 5.00 mol of O2 at STP is: (PV = nRT)Day 4Chapter 7,8 Ionic and Covalent Bonds1. How many valence electrons does an atom of any element in Group 15 have?2. Draw the electron dot structure for an atom of fluorine.3. The general electron dot structure . X : could represent which column on the periodic table?4. When a magnesium atom loses its valence electrons, what is the charge on the resulting ion?5. What is the electron configuration of oxygen and also the oxide ion, O -2?6. An ionic compound is:a. generally a salt b. held together by ionic bondsc. composed of anions and cationsd. all of the above7. Which of these is not a characteristic of most ionic compounds?a. solid at room temperatureb. conducts an electric current when melted c. has a low melting point d. produced by reaction between metallic and nonmetallic elements8. A covalent bond forms?a. when as element becomes a noble gasb. when atoms share electronsc. between metals and nonmetalsd. when electrons are transferred from one atom to another9. Name one element with eight valence electrons.10. In general metals react by:a. losing valence electronsb. gaining valence electronsc. sharing valence electronsd. sometimes gaining and sometimes losing valence electrons.11. An ion of K has the same electron configuration as what noble gas?12. Will the following atoms combine to form ionic bonds, polar covalent bonds, or nonpolar covalent bonds?a. sodium and bromineb. nitrogen and oxygenc. hydrogen and carbonChapter 15,16 Properties of Water and Solutions1. The high surface tension of water is due to ________________________2. Is a solution is a heterogeneous or homogeneous mixture? Can the solute be filtered out of the solvent? What does it mean to say a solution is saturated?3. What is an electrolyte?4. How many water molecules are attached in the substance copper sulfate pentahydrate?5. Which of these would you expect to be soluble in the nonpolar solvent carbon disulfide, CS2? a. SnS2b. CaCO3c. CCl4d. H2O6. Which of the following would be expected to dissolve very readily in water? a. CH4b. H2c. NaOHd. CCl47. What 3 things can you do to usually make a substance dissolve faster in a solvent?8. To increase the solubility of a gas at constant temperature, would it be better to increase or decrease the pressure above the liquid? 9. What is the molarity of a 200 mL solution in which 0.2 mole of sodium bromide is dissolved?Day 5Chapter 17 Thermochemistry1. Water has a specific heat capacity of 4.18 J/(g.C). Iron has a specific heat capacity of 0.44 J/(g.C). Which can absorb more heat energy without changing its temperature as much?2. The boiling point of an unknown solution is 125C. What is this temperature in Kelvin?3. A beaker contains 250 mL of water and is placed on a hot plate. The water is heated. Heat energy comes from the hot plate, enters the water, and the waters temperature rises until it starts to boil. When the water starts to boil, the temperature stops rising, yet the hot plate continues to pump heat energy into the water. How can this be?4. Given the reaction: N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2 NH3(g) H = 92 kJIs the reaction endothermic or exothermic? Re-write the reaction to include the heat.If 5 L of Hydrogen react with excess nitrogen, how much heat is produced?Chapter 18 Reaction Rates and Equilibrium1. Based on the reaction given in #4 above, if someone keeps adding more and more hydrogen gas to an excess of nitrogen, what will happen to the amount of ammonia produced? 2. If the reaction in #4 above took place in a large balloon and was allowed to reach equilibrium, what would happen if someone squeezed the balloon into a smaller volume?3. Which has more entropy, solid iodine or iodine that has sublimed into a gas?4. At 25C, the following reaction occurs: 4NH3(g) + 7O2(g) 4NO2(g) + 6H2O(g) + 1130.6 kJa. The change in entropy, S = 110.8 J/K. Does this reaction have a favorable change in entropy?b. Is this reaction spontaneous, based on the Gibbs Free Energy Equation?Chemistry The M