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Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions 1 Com m unistParty legislature executive G eneralSecretary (H u Jintao) Chairm an (W u Bangguo) Prem ier (W en Jiabao) Politburo of CentralCom m ittee National People’sC ongress State C ouncil party structure parallelsand dominates all other elements of the state bureaucracy Traditionally a rubber stamp for party decisions ; nom inally elected butparty supervises nom ination of candidates implements party policy; overseesall governm ent m inistries, state- ow ned factories, schools, etc.

Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

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Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions. 1. Political Implications of Economic Reform in China. Totalitarianism Authoritarianism charismatic leader  more routinized succession single dominant party  single dominant party - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

1

Communist Party

legislature executive

General Secretary

(Hu Jintao)

Chairman

(Wu Bangguo)

Premier

(Wen Jiabao)

Politburo of Central Committee

National People’s Congress

State Council

party structure parallels and

dominates all other elements of the state

bureaucracy

Traditionally a rubber stamp for party decisions;

nominally elected but party supervises

nomination of candidates

implements party policy;

oversees all government

ministries, state-owned factories,

schools, etc.

Page 2: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

Political Implications of Economic Reform in China

Page 3: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

Totalitarianism Authoritarianism

charismatic leader more routinized succession

single dominant party single dominant party

utopian, forward-looking ideology economic performance/nationalism

state control over all emergence of non-political private organized activity sphere

arbitrary terror end of arbitrary terror, but no overt challenge to regime allowed

mass mobilization apathy okay

Page 4: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

Perspectives on the potential for democracy today “not free”

Civic culture Survey data

Civil society Interest groups

Existing institutions Traditionally “rubber-stamp legislature”

Rule by law Changing role for courts

Page 5: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

5

Page 6: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

World Values SurveyPeople’s Republic of China, 2001

A165.- Generally speaking, would you say that most people can be trusted or that you need to be very careful in dealing with people?

1 Most people can be trusted

2 Can´t be too careful

Page 7: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions
Page 8: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

World Values SurveyPeople’s Republic of China, 2001

A170.- All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?

1 Dissatisfied 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Satisfied

Page 9: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions
Page 10: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

World Values SurveyChina

A173.- Some people feel they have completely free choice and control over their lives, while other people feel that what they do has no real effect on what happens to them. Please use this scale where 1 means "none at all" and 10 means "a great deal" to indicate how much freedom of choice and control you feel you have over the way your life turns out.

1 None at all 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 A great deal

Page 11: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions
Page 12: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

World Values SurveyPeople’s Republic of China, 2001

E110.- On the whole are you very satisfied, rather satisfied, not very satisfied or not at all satisfied with the way democracy is developing in our country?

1 Very satisfied 2 Rather satisfied 3 Not very satisfied 4 Not at all satisfied

Page 13: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions
Page 14: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

World Values SurveyPeople’s Republic of China, 1990, 2001

E070.- I am going to name a number of organizations. For each one, could you tell me how much confidence you have in them: is it a great deal of confidence, quite a lot of confidence, not very much confidence or none at all?

The armed forces

1 A great deal 2 Quite a lot 3 Not very much 4 None at all

Page 15: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions
Page 16: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

Perspectives on the potential for democracy today “not free”

Civic culture Survey data

Civil society Interest groups

Existing institutions “rubber-stamp legislature”

Rule by law Changing role for courts

Page 17: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

Perspectives on the potential for democracy:Civil Society

Definition of civil society a sphere of independent group activity

autonomous from the state and free from state domination

Definition of pluralism (U.S.) a system of interest representation in

which any group can freely form to express interests autonomous from state control

Page 18: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

Perspectives on the potential for democracy:Civil Society

Definition of state corporatism (P.R.C.) a system of interest representation in

which only certain groups are licensed by the state and accept limitations on their expression of interest

Page 19: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

Perspectives on the potential for democracy:Civil Society

State corporatism The authoritarian state uses a corporatist

approach to Pre-empt the formation of unapproved interest groups

NO duplicates allowed (state occupies existing “space”) Coopt the interests expressed by approved groups

Official recognition in exchange for limits; state sponsor Repress the expression of interests outside the control of

the state. 1998 “Regulations on the Registration and

Management of Social Organizations” implemented by the Ministry of Civil

Affairs

Page 20: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

Perspectives on the potential for democracy:Civil Society

Civil society More than 200,000

registered social organizations

Others repressed Tiananmen

Square, Autonomous Student Union 1989 violently suppressed

China Democracy Party 1998 leaders imprisoned

Page 21: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions
Page 22: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

Perspectives on the potential for democracy:Civil Society

Internet “Virtual civil society” or “Great Firewall”Can the state

control 400 million Internet users, instant messaging, etc.?

Xiamen Protest against Parazylene Chemical Plant

Page 23: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

Media expansion23

TV and radio Approx. 1,000 TV stations

Print 2,035 newpapers (2003)

Internet 300 million internet users (1 in 4 Chinese) as

of 2008 Increase of 42% over 2007 Largest # of users in world as of 2008 400 million users as of 2010 World’s largest internet market

Page 24: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

China’s Internet: A Virtual Civil Society?

Internet “God’s present to China” “The internet has made it easier

to obtain information, contact the outside world and submit articles to overseas media. It is like a super-engine that makes my writing spring out of a well. The internet is an information channel that the Chinese dictators cannot fully censor, allowing people to speak and communicate, and it offers a platform for spontaneous organisation.”

Liu XiaoboNobel Peace Prize WinnerCurrently serving prison sentence

Page 25: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

China’s Internet: Subject to corporatist controls

Standard controls Registration

Internet Service Providers personally responsible Provide identity papers at registration

Self monitoring Must monitor content, prevent publication of prohibited

material, remove and report any prohibited materials Government sponsor required

Government sponsor—held responsible Party “propaganda circulars”

Specific instructions on how to handle sensitive topics Special Internet Police

More than 60 Chinese serving prison sentences for Internet-based political crimes (HRW ’05)

A public security official examines the identity of a Chinese surfer at an internet café (Lagerkvist 2010)

Page 26: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

Bringing Evidence to the Debates

Case: Shanghai Maglev Extension

Page 27: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

Shanghai Maglev Extension Case

Citizens protest maglev extension January 6, 2008 Middle class

homeowners Texting: collectively

taking a walk 集体散步 Blogging Video posted on internet

Subsequently banned by Internet police

Southern Metropolis Daily (newspaper) only Chinese media

that reported this incident

Page 28: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

Shanghai Maglev Extension Case

Citizen blog post Mr. Zhou [a member of

Shanghai government's evaluation team] mentioned ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection) and said that this organization has reported that this is harmless and that is harmless. This is really strange. We ordinary citizens can also read English. What we have seen in ICNRP documents details all kinds of harmful effects of electric and magnetic radiation. A lot of research, including biological research and volunteered human subjects research, all showed enormous risks in such an environment.

Page 29: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

Shanghai Maglev Extension Case

Southern Metropolis Daily

‘Two days ago, the plan for the western extended line of the Maglev project began to be publicized. In order to peacefully express themselves, residents along the line came to People’s Square and expressed their opinion about Maglev line passing through their own neighborhood using the method of “taking a walk” and “shopping.” Citizens say: this is one way to express opinions.’

Page 30: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

Shanghai Maglev Extension Case

Shanghai government’s official media site: EastNet

“There are people who want Shanghai in chaos. Now, some foreigners are playing up the Maglev project, spreading some malicious rumors. Some domestic people also follow them to make a fuss. Goodhearted people must not to fall into their trap.”

Page 32: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

Perspectives on the potential for democracy:Institutions

Existing institutions and rules National People’s Congress

legislature indirectly elected from local People’s Congresses

Page 33: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

Perspectives on the potential for democracy:Institutions

National People’s Congress Evolving beyond

“rubber stamp” Three Gorges Dam

Project first “no” votes

Revision of the Marriage Law

public participation led to domestic violence clause

Labor Contract Law public

participation gained greater labor protection

Page 34: Chinese Communist Party parallels and dominates all other state institutions

Perspectives on the potential for democracy:Rule of Law

Rule of law State introduced “rule by law”

To underpin economic growth, control lower level officials

Examples Labor Law

Workers can sue employers in court for violations Workers win ~40-50%, but hard to enforce

Independent trade unions prohibited Administrative Litigation Law

Private entrepreneurs can sue if denied license unfairly