Choosing Accommodations for English Language Learners with Disabilities

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Choosing Accommodations for English Language Learners with Disabilities. Laurene Christensen , Ph.D., National Center on Educational Outcomes, University of Minnesota Brian Touchette , Assessment Resources, Delaware Department of Education - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Choosing Accommodations for English Language Learners with DisabilitiesLaurene Christensen, Ph.D., National Center on Educational Outcomes, University of MinnesotaBrian Touchette, Assessment Resources, Delaware Department of EducationMelissa Gholson, Office of Assessment and Accountability, West Virginia Department of EducationVitaliy Shyyan, Ph.D., National Center on Educational Outcomes, University of Minnesota

    National Conference on Student AssessmentJune 22, 2013

  • Accommodations ManualHow to Select, Administer, and Evaluate Use of Accommodations for Instruction and Assessment of English Language Learners with Disabilities

  • Step 1: Expect ELLs with disabilities to achieve grade-level academic content standards

    Step 1

    ELL/IEP or ELL/504 Plan Teamspecial education teachers or 504 Plan committee representativeslanguage educators and facilitators (ESL/bilingual teacher(s), another ESL/bilingual/migrant teacher or ELL administrator, language acquisition specialist, interpreter)assessment officials (test administrator(s), guidance counselor, reading specialist)general education teachers (classroom/content teacher(s))first/native language special education practitionersschool administrators (principal, school/district official(s))parents (parent(s)/guardian(s))students

    Step 1

    Equal Access to Content Standardsevery ELL/IEP or ELL/504 Plan Team member must be familiar with content standards and accountability systems at the state and district levelevery ELL/IEP or ELL/504 Plan Team member must know where to locate standards and updatesall general, special, and language educators, as well as other educational stakeholders must collaborate for successful student access

    Step 1

    Conditions for High ExpectationsInstruction is provided by teachers who are qualified to teach in the content areas addressed by state standards and who know how to differentiate instruction for diverse learners. Education plans for ELLs with disabilities are developed to ensure the provision of specialized instruction (e.g., specific reading skills, strategies for learning how to learn). Appropriate accommodations are provided to help students access grade-level content.

    Step 1

    Legal BasisParticipation of ELLs with disabilities in assessments is required by federal laws:Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA)Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 2007 (ESEA)Section 504 of the 1973 Rehabilitation ActLau v. Nichols (1974)Castaeda v. Pickard (1981)

    Step 1

    ESEA Focuseshow successful schools are including all students in standards-based educationhow well students are achieving standardswhat needs to be improved upon for specific groups of students

    Step 1

    Including All ELLs with Disabilities in State Accountability Assessmentsassurance of the provision of accommodations to facilitate student access to grade-level instruction and state assessmentsuse of alternate assessments to assess the achievement of students with the most significant cognitive disabilitiesuse of different assessment formats to assess the achievement of beginner ELLs

    Step 1

    State Legislation*CURRENT STATE WEBSITE FOR ALL CONTENT STANDARDS/COMMON CORE STANDARDS COULD BE INSERTED HERE. CURRENT STATE-SPECIFIC POLICIES ABOUT THE PARTICIPATION OF STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES IN STATE ASSESSMENT COULD BE INSERTED HERE.

    Step 1

    Discussion PointHow do I stay updated on current federal and state accommodation policies for ELLs with disabilities?

  • Step 2: Learn about accommodations for instruction and assessment

    Step 2

    What Are Accommodations?Procedures and materials that increase equitable access during instruction and assessments for ELLs with disabilities and generate valid assessment results that show what ELLs with disabilities know and can doProvided to a student during state assessments AND during classroom instruction, classroom assessments, and district assessments

    Step 2

    Technology ImplicationsIn the age of technology-mediated educational practices, many computer-based accommodations facilitate instruction and assessment of ELLs with disabilities effectively if they are selected and used properly.

    Step 2

    The Use of Accommodations Is Linked Through Each of These AreasContent Standards/Common Core StandardsFigure from ASES SCASS/CCSSO Accommodations Training Slides PowerPoint

    Step 2

    Who Is Involved in Decisions?ELL/IEP or ELL/504 Plan Teams must make assessment and accommodation decisions for students based on individual needs in accordance with state and federal guidelines. ELLs with IEPs and 504 Plans must be provided accommodations based on individual needs as long as the accommodations meet state accommodation guidelines and regulations and do not invalidate the assessment results. Accommodations should be documented in IEPs and 504 Plans.

    Step 2

    Accommodations and Universal DesignUD principles improve instruction and assessment for all studentsUD in assessments may reduce the need for accommodations and alternate assessmentsUD in assessments cannot eliminate the need for accommodations and alternate assessmentsUD can provide more cost-effective assessments and valid inferences about them

    Step 2

    Good Practices and ResourcesResources and strategies that should be allowable whenever possible for all students

    Step 2

    Accommodations vs. ModificationsAccommodations provide access without reducing learner expectations

    Modifications can increase the learner achievement gap by lowering expectations for what students are required to know or do

    Step 2

    English Language- and Disability-related Needs

    Step 2

    Student ProfilesThink of specific students who represent the four areas of the figure. What are they like? What are the students needs and characteristics? What are the implications of accommodation decisions for each student?

    Step 2

    Accommodations vs. Modifications vs. Best Practices Dictionary

    Step 2

    Activity: Accommodations vs. Modifications vs. Best Practices Graphic Organizers

    Step 2

    Activity:Read Aloud Text AccommodationDiscussion Point: How would you read aloud the following test item?

    A thermometer is shown.

    What temperature is shown on the thermometer?A 11CB 12FC 25CD 25F

  • Step 3: Select accommodations for instruction and assessment for individual students

    Step 3

    Document AccommodationsOn a students IEPOn a students 504 PlanOn a students ELL individualized plan

    Step 3

    IEP Areas to AddressConsideration of special factorsSupplementary aids and servicesParticipation in assessments

    Step 3

    504 Plan Examples of Conditionsallergies or asthmaattention difficultiescommunicable diseases (e.g., hepatitis)drug or alcoholic addictions, as long as they are not currently using illegal drugsenvironmental illnessestemporary disabilities from accidents who may need short term hospitalization or homebound recovery

    Step 2

    Making Decisions for Accommodations

    Step 3

    Student Characteristics

    Step 3

    Student Characteristics: Questions to AskWhat are the students language learning strengths and areas of further improvement?How do the students learning needs affect the achievement of grade-level content standards?What specialized instruction (e.g., learning strategies, organizational skills, reading skills) does the student need to achieve grade-level content standards?What accommodations will increase the students access to instruction and assessment by addressing the students learning needs and reducing the effect of the students language barrier? These may be new accommodations or accommodations the student is currently using.

    Step 3

    Student Characteristics: Questions to AskWhat accommodations are regularly used by the student during instruction and assessments?What are the results for assignments and assessments when accommodations are used and not used?What is the students perception of how well an accommodation worked?Are there effective combinations of accommodations?

    Step 3

    Student Characteristics: Questions to AskWhat difficulties does the student experience when using accommodations?What are the perceptions of parents, teachers, and other specialists about how the accommodation worked?Should the student continue to use an accommodation, are changes needed, or should the use of the accommodation be discontinued?

    Step 3

    Consider the Followingthe students willingness to learn to use the accommodationopportunities to learn how to use the accommodation in classroom settingsconditions for use on state assessments

    Step 3

    Discussion PointWhat would be helpful to ask students and parents about accommodation use?

    Step 3

    Prior Accommodation UseAccommodations should not be used for the first time on the state testPlan time for student to learn new accommodationsIn a technology-based setting, be sure that the student knows how to use the accommodation that is part of the platformPlan for evaluation and improvement of accommodation use

    Step 3

    Instruction vs. Assessment AccommodationsSometimes, accommodations used in instruction may not be used on an assessmentPlan time for students to practice NOT using certain accommodations before the state assessmentSome instructional accommodations may alter what a test is designed to measure

    Step 3

    Individual Test Characteristics: Questions to AskWhat are the characteristics of the test my student needs to take? Are the test tasks similar to classroom assessment tasks or does the student need to have the opportunity to practice similar tasks prior to testing?Does the student use an accommodation for a classroom task that is allowed for similar tasks on the state or district tests?Are there other barriers that could be removed by using an accommodation that is not already offered or used by the student?

    Step 3

    Maintaining Validity: Questions to AskDoes the state or district allow the identified accommodation for the test or portion of the test noted as a barrier?If not, does the accommodation change the standard of the assessment?Are there additional principles to help guide decision making?

    Step 3

    Accommodation Policies and Maintaining ValidityTest validity is compromised if a student refuses to use an assigned accommodationLong-term implications of accommodations should be consideredPlan ample time for students to become familiar with accommodationsPlan for ongoing evaluation and improvement of accommodation use

  • Step 4: Administer accommodations during instruction and assessment

    Step 4

    Accommodations During InstructionStudents should be provided selected accommodations during instructionAn accommodation may not be used solely during assessmentsFamiliarize students with technological aspects of accommodations

    Step 4

    Accommodations During AssessmentTake appropriate security precautionsUnderstand the procedures needed to administer the assessmentAdminister standardized assessments according to prescribed procedures and conditionsAvoid any conditions that might invalidate resultsProvide for and document all reasonable and allowable accommodationsAvoid unfair actions or conditions

    Step 4

    Administering Assessments and AccommodationsTake appropriate security precautions before, during, and after the administration of the assessmentUnderstand the procedures needed to administer the assessment prior to administrationAdminister standardized assessments according to prescribed procedures and conditions and notify appropriate persons if any nonstandard or delimiting conditions occur

    Step 4

    Administering Assessments and AccommodationsAvoid any conditions in the conduct of the assessment that might invalidate the resultsProvide for and document all reasonable and allowable accommodations for the administration of the assessment to persons with disabilities or special needsAvoid actions or conditions that would permit or encourage individuals or groups to receive scores that misrepresent their actual levels of attainment

    Step 4

    Ethical Testing PracticesEthical testing practices must be maintainedUnethical testing practices are inappropriate interactions between test administrators and students taking the test

    Step 4

    StandardizationAdherence to uniform administration procedures and conditions during an assessmentIs essential and necessary to produce comparable performance resultsMust be followed strictly

    Step 4

    Test SecurityMaintaining the confidentiality of test questions and answersCritical in ensuring the integrity and validity of test resultsTests are kept in secure locations or on password-protected computersStudents are guaranteed secure and equitable testing conditions

  • Step 5: Evaluate and improve accommodations use

    Step 5

    Reasons WhyEnsure meaningful participationReveal questionable patterns of useSupport continued useIndicate additional training needsGuide formative evaluation

    Step 5

    Ways to Collect InformationFrom classroom dataObservations of test administrationsInterviews with test administratorsTalking with students after testingAnd more

    Step 5

    What Information Should Be CollectedDecision-making teams, schools, and districts decideTechnology-based accommodations allow for better recordsIn a paper-and-pencil test, accommodation information can be coded with other student data

    Step 5

    Sample Questions to Ask at the School or District LevelAre there policies to ensure ethical testing practices, the standardized administration of assessments, and that test security practices are followed before, during, and after the day of the test?What types of accommodations are provided and are some used more than others?How well do students who receive accommodations perform on state and local assessments?

    Step 5

    Sample Questions to Ask at the Student LevelWhat is the students perception of how well the accommodation worked?What combinations of accommodations seem to be effective?What are the difficulties encountered in the use of accommodations?

    Step 5

    Discussion Point (Think, Pair, Share)What are the consequences of under-accommodating?What are the consequences of over-accommodating?

    Step 5

    Postsecondary ImplicationsContinued use of accommodations, if needed, at the college and career levelsDecision-making teams document accommodation useColleges and universities may allow fewer accommodations than those available in K-12 settingsStudents document their need for accommodations

  • Assuring Access for All Students

  • Accommodations Research PlanAnalysis of accommodations resultsDisaggregated by all sub groupsCross data with enrollment in programs such as universal pre-K, special education and advanced coursesCross data analysis by indicators (e.g. graduation/drop out and retention rates, suspensions)ELLs additionally are disaggregated by language proficiency levels, number of years in programData dissemination and technical support

  • WVS 326 State and District Accommodations ReportAnalyzed accommodations provision data for WESTEST 2 by content area7 reports were generated for each content area to summarize (1) provision rate, (2) refusal rate, (3) not allowable rate, and (3) number of students over-accommodatedState, district, school-level reports Intended uses of the...

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