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170 West Tasman Drive San Jose, CA 95134-1706 USA http://www.cisco.com Cisco Systems, Inc. Corporate Headquarters Tel: 800 553-NETS (6387) 408 526-4000 Fax: 408 526-4100 Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide Release 12.2 Customer Order Number: DOC-7811739= Text Part Number: 78-11739-02

Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide · Contents iv Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide Configuration Fundamentals Overview FC-1 Organization

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  • 170 West Tasman DriveSan Jose, CA 95134-1706USAhttp://www.cisco.com

    Cisco Systems, Inc.Corporate Headquarters

    Tel:800 553-NETS (6387)408 526-4000

    Fax: 408 526-4100

    Cisco IOSConfiguration FundamentalsConfiguration GuideRelease 12.2

    Customer Order Number: DOC-7811739=Text Part Number: 78-11739-02

  • THE SPECIFICATIONS AND INFORMATION REGARDING THE PRODUCTS IN THIS MANUAL ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. ALL STATEMENTS, INFORMATION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS IN THIS MANUAL ARE BELIEVED TO BE ACCURATE BUT ARE PRESENTED WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. USERS MUST TAKE FULL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THEIR APPLICATION OF ANY PRODUCTS.

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    The Cisco implementation of TCP header compression is an adaptation of a program developed by the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) as part of UCBs public domain version of the UNIX operating system. All rights reserved. Copyright 1981, Regents of the University of California.

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    Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration GuideCopyright 20022006 Cisco Systems, Inc.All rights reserved.

  • C O N T E N T S

    iiiCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    About Cisco IOS Software Documentation xxi

    Documentation Objectives xxi

    Audience xxi

    Documentation Organization xxiDocumentation Modules xxiMaster Indexes xxivSupporting Documents and Resources xxiv

    New and Changed Information xxvNew Features in Cisco IOS Release 12.2 xxv

    Identifying Platform Support for Cisco IOS Software Features xxviUsing Feature Navigator xxviUsing Software Release Notes xxvi

    Document Conventions xxvii

    Obtaining Documentation xxviiiWorld Wide Web xxviiiDocumentation CD-ROM xxviiiOrdering Documentation xxix

    Documentation Feedback xxix

    Obtaining Technical Assistance xxixCisco.com xxixTechnical Assistance Center xxx

    Using Cisco IOS Software xxxi

    Understanding Command Modes xxxi

    Getting Help xxxiiExample: How to Find Command Options xxxiii

    Using the no and default Forms of Commands xxxv

    Saving Configuration Changes xxxvi

    Filtering Output from the show and more Commands xxxvi

    Identifying Supported Platforms xxxviiUsing Feature Navigator xxxviiUsing Software Release Notes xxxvii

  • Contents

    ivCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Configuration Fundamentals Overview FC-1

    Organization of This Guide FC-1Cisco IOS User Interfaces FC-1File Management FC-2System Management FC-2

    Task-Oriented Documentation Approaches FC-3Overview of Router Configuration Tasks FC-3Understanding the Cisco IOS Command-Line Interface FC-4Storing or Obtaining Configuration Files or Images from a Server FC-4Changing the Image or Configuration File Loaded by the Router FC-5

    CISCO IOS USER INTERFACES

    Using the Command-Line Interface FC-9

    Cisco IOS CLI Command Modes Overview FC-9User EXEC Mode FC-10Privileged EXEC Mode FC-12Global Configuration Mode FC-13Interface Configuration Mode FC-14Subinterface Configuration Mode FC-15ROM Monitor Mode FC-16Summary of Main Cisco IOS Command Modes FC-17

    Cisco IOS CLI Task List FC-18

    Getting Context-Sensitive Help FC-18Displaying All User EXEC Commands FC-21

    Using the no and default Forms of Commands FC-22

    Using Command History FC-23Setting the Command History Buffer Size FC-23Recalling Commands FC-24Disabling the Command History Feature FC-24

    Using CLI Editing Features and Shortcuts FC-24Moving the Cursor on the Command Line FC-25Completing a Partial Command Name FC-25Deleting Entries FC-26Recalling Deleted Entries FC-26Editing Command Lines that Wrap FC-27Continuing Output at the --More-- Prompt FC-27Redisplaying the Current Command Line FC-27Transposing Mistyped Characters FC-28

  • Contents

    vCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Controlling Capitalization FC-28Designating a Keystroke as a Command Entry FC-28Disabling and Reenabling Editing Features FC-28

    Searching and Filtering CLI Output FC-29Understanding Regular Expressions FC-29

    Using the Cisco IOS CLI Examples FC-35Determining Command Syntax and Using Command History Example FC-35Searching and Filtering CLI Output Examples FC-36

    Using AutoInstall and Setup FC-39

    Using AutoInstall FC-39Understanding AutoInstall FC-40AutoInstall Configuration Task List FC-50Monitoring and Completing the AutoInstall Process FC-56AutoInstall Configuration Examples FC-57

    Using Setup FC-59Using Setup After First-Time Startup FC-59Using Streamlined Setup FC-66

    Using Configuration Applications FC-67Cisco ConfigMaker FC-67

    Configuring Operating Characteristics for Terminals FC-69

    Terminal Operating Characteristics Configuration Task List FC-69

    Displaying Information About the Current Terminal Session FC-70

    Setting Local Terminal Parameters FC-70

    Saving Local Settings Between Sessions FC-71

    Ending a Session FC-72

    Changing Terminal Session Parameters FC-72Defining the Escape Character and Other Key Sequences FC-72Specifying Telnet Operation Characteristics FC-74Configuring Data Transparency for File Transfers FC-76Specifying an International Character Display FC-77Setting Character Padding FC-78Specifying the Terminal and Keyboard Type FC-79Changing the Terminal Screen Length and Width FC-80Enabling Pending Output Notifications FC-80Creating Character and Packet Dispatch Sequences FC-81Changing Flow Control for the Current Session FC-82Enabling Session Locking FC-82

  • Contents

    viCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Configuring Automatic Baud Rate Detection FC-83Setting a Line as Insecure FC-83Configuring Communication Parameters for Terminal Ports FC-83

    Displaying Debug Messages on the Console and Terminals FC-84

    Recording the Serial Device Location FC-84

    Changing the Retry Interval for a Terminal Port Queue FC-84

    Configuring LPD Protocol Support on a Printer FC-85

    Managing Connections, Menus, and System Banners FC-87

    Managing Connections, Menus, and System Banners Task List FC-87

    Managing Connections FC-88Displaying Current Terminal Characteristics FC-88Escaping Terminal Sessions and Switching to Other Connections FC-89Assigning a Logical Name to a Connection FC-89Changing a Login Name FC-90Locking Access to a Terminal FC-91Sending Messages to Other Terminals FC-91Clearing TCP Connections FC-92Exiting a Session Started from a Router FC-92Logging Out of a Router FC-92Disconnecting a Line FC-93

    Configuring Terminal Messages FC-93Configuring an Idle Terminal Message FC-93Configuring a Line in Use Message FC-94Configuring a Host Failed Message FC-94

    Configuring Terminal Banners FC-94Using Banner Tokens FC-95Configuring a Message-of-the-Day Banner FC-95Configuring a Login Banner FC-95Configuring an EXEC Banner FC-96Configuring an Incoming Banner FC-96Configuring a SLIP-PPP Banner Message FC-97Enabling or Disabling the Display of Banners FC-97

    Creating Menus FC-99Creating a Menu Task List FC-100Specifying the Menu Title FC-100Specifying the Menu Prompt FC-101Specifying the Menu Item Text FC-102Specifying the Underlying Command for the Menu Item FC-102

  • Contents

    viiCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Specifying the Default Command for the Menu FC-104Creating a Submenu FC-104Creating Hidden Menu Entries FC-105Specifying Menu Display Configuration Options FC-106Specifying per-Item Menu Options FC-107Invoking the Menu FC-107Deleting the Menu from the Configuration FC-108

    Connection Management, System Banner, and User Menu Configuration Examples FC-108Changing a Login Name Example FC-109Sending Messages to Other Terminals Example FC-109Clearing a TCP/IP Connection Example FC-110Configuring Banners Example FC-111Setting a SLIP-PPP Banner with Banner Tokens Example FC-111Configuring a Menu Example FC-112

    Using the Cisco Web Browser User Interface FC-113

    Cisco Web Browser UI Task List FC-113

    Enabling the Cisco Web Browser UI FC-114

    Configuring Access to the Cisco Web Browser UI FC-114Specifying the Method for User Authentication FC-114Applying an Access List to the HTTP Server FC-115Changing the HTTP Server Port Number FC-115

    Accessing and Using the Cisco Web Browser UI FC-115Accessing the Router Home Page FC-116Issuing Commands Using the Cisco Web Browser UI FC-117

    Customizing the Cisco Web Browser UI FC-119Understanding SSIs FC-119Customizing HTML Pages Using SSIs FC-121Copying HTML Pages to Flash Memory FC-122Displaying HTML Files Containing SSIs FC-122

    Cisco Web Browser UI Customization Examples FC-123Using the SSI EXEC Command Example FC-123Using the SSI ECHO Command Example FC-124

    FILE MANAGEMENT

    Using the Cisco IOS File System FC-127

    IFS Use and Management Task List FC-127

    Understanding IFS FC-128Displaying and Classifying Files FC-128

  • Contents

    viiiCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Platform-Independent Commands FC-128Minimal Prompting for Commands FC-128Creating and Navigating Directories FC-128

    Copying Files Using URLs FC-129Specifying Files on a Network Server FC-129Specifying Local Files FC-129Using URL Prefixes FC-130

    Using URLs in Commands FC-132Determining File Systems Supporting a Command FC-132Using the Default File System FC-132Using Tab Completion FC-133Listing Files in a File System FC-133

    Managing File Systems FC-133Listing Available File Systems FC-133Setting the Default File System FC-134Displaying the Current Default File System FC-134Displaying Information About Files on a File System FC-134Displaying a File FC-136

    Flash Memory File System Types FC-136Class A Flash File Systems FC-137Class B Flash File Systems FC-139Class C Flash File Systems FC-141

    Remote File System Management FC-142

    NVRAM File System Management FC-142

    System File System Management FC-143

    Managing Configuration Files FC-145

    Understanding Configuration Files FC-145Types of Configuration Files FC-145Location of Configuration Files FC-146

    Configuration File Management Task List FC-146

    Displaying Configuration File Information FC-147

    Entering Configuration Mode and Selecting a Configuration Source FC-147

    Modifying the Configuration File at the CLI FC-147

    Copying Configuration Files from the Router to a Network Server FC-149Copying a Configuration File from the Router to a TFTP Server FC-149Copying a Configuration File from the Router to an rcp Server FC-149Copying a Configuration File from the Router to an FTP Server FC-151

  • Contents

    ixCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Copying Configuration Files from a Network Server to the Router FC-153Copying a Configuration File from a TFTP Server to the Router FC-154Copying a Configuration File from an rcp Server to the Router FC-154Copying a Configuration File from an FTP Server to the Router FC-156

    Maintaining Configuration Files Larger than NVRAM FC-158Compressing the Configuration File FC-158Storing the Configuration in Flash Memory on Class A Flash File Systems FC-159Loading the Configuration Commands from the Network FC-160

    Controlling the Parser Cache FC-161Clearing the Parser Cache FC-161Disabling the Parser Cache FC-161Reenabling the Parser Cache FC-162Monitoring the Parser FC-162

    Copying Configuration Files Between Different Locations FC-163Copying Configuration Files from Flash Memory to the Startup or Running Configuration FC-163Copying Configuration Files Between Flash Memory File Systems FC-163Copying a Configuration File from a Server to Flash Memory Devices FC-165

    Reexecuting the Configuration Commands in the Startup Configuration File FC-166

    Clearing Configuration Information FC-166Clearing the Startup Configuration FC-166Deleting a Specified Configuration File FC-167

    Specifying the Startup Configuration File FC-167Specifying the CONFIG_FILE Environment Variable on Class A Flash File Systems FC-167Configuring the Router to Download Configuration Files FC-169

    Loading and Maintaining System Images FC-173

    Understanding Images FC-173Types of Images FC-173Image Naming Conventions FC-174General Output Conventions for Copy Operations FC-174

    System Images Task List FC-175

    Displaying System Image Information FC-175

    Copying Images from Flash Memory to a Network Server FC-176Copying an Image from Flash Memory to a TFTP Server FC-176Copying an Image from Flash Memory to an rcp Server FC-177Copying an Image from Flash Memory to an FTP Server FC-179

    Copying Images from a Network Server to Flash Memory FC-181Restrictions on Naming Files FC-182Understanding Flash Memory Space Considerations FC-182

  • Contents

    xCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Output for Image Downloading Process FC-183Copying to Flash Memory for Run-from-Flash Systems FC-183Copying an Image from a TFTP Server to a Flash Memory File System FC-184Copying an Image from an rcp Server to a Flash Memory File System FC-186Copying an Image from an FTP Server to a Flash Memory File System FC-188Verifying the Image in Flash Memory FC-190

    Copying Images Between Local Flash Memory Devices FC-190Copying a File Between Local Flash Memory Devices Example FC-192

    Specifying the Startup System Image in the Configuration File FC-193Loading the System Image from Flash Memory FC-193Loading the System Image from a Network Server FC-195Loading the System Image from ROM FC-197Using a Fault-Tolerant Booting Strategy FC-197

    Recovering a System Image Using Xmodem or Ymodem FC-198Xmodem Transfer Using the Cisco IOS Software Example FC-200Xmodem Transfer Example Using the ROM Monitor FC-201

    Loading and Displaying Microcode Images FC-202Understanding Microcode Images FC-203Specifying the Location of the Microcode Images FC-203Reloading the Microcode Image FC-204Displaying Microcode Image Information FC-204Using Microcode on Specific Platforms FC-205

    Maintaining System Memory FC-207

    Understanding Memory Types and Functions FC-207DRAM FC-207EPROM FC-208NVRAM FC-208Flash Memory FC-208

    Maintaining System Memory Task List FC-209

    Displaying System Memory Information FC-210

    Partitioning Flash Memory FC-210Systems that Support Partitioning FC-210Benefits of Partitioning Flash Memory FC-210Flash Load Helper Versus Dual Flash Bank FC-211Partitioning Flash Memory FC-211

    Using Flash Load Helper to Upgrade Software on Run-from-Flash Systems FC-212Flash Load Helper Features FC-212Downloading Files Using the Flash Load Helper FC-213

  • Contents

    xiCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Formatting Flash Memory FC-214Flash Memory Formatting Process FC-215Recovering from Locked Blocks FC-215

    Reallocating DRAM Memory for the Cisco 3600 Series FC-216Reallocate Processor Memory and I/O Memory Example FC-217

    Using Memory Scan on the Cisco 7500 Series FC-218Configuring and Verifying Memory Scan FC-218

    Rebooting FC-221

    Understanding Rebooting Procedures FC-221Which Configuration File Does the Router Use upon Startup? FC-221Which Image Does the Router Use upon Startup? FC-222

    Rebooting Task List FC-225

    Displaying Boot Information FC-225

    Modifying the Configuration Register Boot Field FC-225How the Router Uses the Boot Field FC-226Hardware Versus Software Configuration Register Boot Fields FC-226Modifying the Software Configuration Register Boot Field FC-226

    Setting Environment Variables FC-228BOOT Environment Variable FC-228BOOTLDR Environment Variable FC-228CONFIG_FILE Environment Variable FC-229Controlling Environment Variables FC-229

    Scheduling a Reload of the System Image FC-230Configuring a Scheduled Reload FC-231Display Information about a Scheduled Reload FC-231Cancel a Scheduled Reload FC-232

    Entering ROM Monitor Mode FC-232Aliasing ROM Monitoring Commands FC-233

    Manually Loading a System Image from ROM Monitor FC-233Manually Booting from Flash Memory in ROMMON FC-234Manually Booting from a Network File in ROMMON FC-235Manually Booting from ROM in ROMMON FC-235Manually Booting Using MOP in ROMMON FC-236Exiting from ROMMON FC-236

    Configuring Basic File Transfer Services FC-237

    Basic File Transfer Services Configuration Task List FC-237

    Configuring a Router as a TFTP or RARP Server FC-237

  • Contents

    xiiCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Configuring a Router as a TFTP Server FC-238Configuring a Router as a RARP Server FC-241

    Configuring System BOOTP Parameters FC-243

    Configuring a Router to Use rsh and rcp FC-243Specifying the Source Interface for Outgoing RCMD Communications FC-244About DNS Reverse Lookup for rcmd FC-244Enabling and Using rsh FC-245Enabling and Using rcp FC-247

    Configuring a Router to Use FTP Connections FC-249

    SYSTEM MANAGEMENT

    Performing Basic System Management FC-253

    Basic System Management Task List FC-253

    Configuring the System Name FC-254

    Customizing the CLI Prompt FC-254

    Creating and Displaying Command Aliases FC-254

    Controlling Minor Services FC-255Controlling the BOOTP Server FC-256Controlling the Finger Protocol FC-256

    Hiding Telnet Addresses FC-257

    Setting Time and Calendar Services FC-257Understanding Time Sources FC-258Configuring NTP FC-260Configuring SNTP FC-267Configuring VINES Time Service FC-267Configuring Time and Date Manually FC-268Using the Hardware Clock FC-269Monitoring Time and Calendar Services FC-271Configuring Time Ranges FC-271

    Delaying EXEC Startup FC-272

    Handling an Idle Telnet Connection FC-273

    Setting the Interval for Load Data FC-273

    Limiting the Number of TCP Transactions FC-273

    Configuring Switching and Scheduling Priorities FC-274

    Modifying the System Buffer Size FC-275

    Basic System Management Examples FC-276System Configuration File Example FC-276

  • Contents

    xiiiCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Clock, Calendar, and NTP Configuration Examples FC-276Buffer Modification Examples FC-277

    Troubleshooting and Fault Management FC-279

    Troubleshooting and Fault Management Task List FC-279

    Displaying System Information Using show Commands FC-280

    Testing Network Connectivity FC-281Configuring the TCP Keepalive Packet Service FC-281Testing Connections with the ping Command FC-282Tracing Packet Routes FC-282

    Logging System Messages FC-282Enabling System Message Logging FC-283Enabling Message Logging for a Slave Card FC-283Setting the Syslog Destination FC-283Configuring Synchronization of Logging Messages FC-284Enabling Time-Stamps on Log Messages FC-284Limiting the Error Message Severity Level and Facilities FC-284Defining the UNIX System Logging Facility FC-286Displaying Logging Information FC-287Logging Errors to a UNIX Syslog Daemon FC-287Setting the Syslog Source Address FC-287

    Using Field Diagnostics on Line Cards FC-288

    Troubleshooting Specific Line Cards FC-289

    Storing Line Card Crash Information FC-289

    Creating Core Dumps for System Exceptions FC-289Specifying the Destination for the Core Dump File FC-290Creating an Exception Memory Core Dump FC-292

    Enabling Debug Operations FC-293

    Enabling Conditionally Triggered Debugging FC-294Enabling Protocol-Specific debug Commands FC-295Enabling Conditional Debugging Commands FC-296Specifying Multiple Debugging Conditions FC-297Conditionally Triggered Debugging Configuration Examples FC-297

    Using the Environmental Monitor FC-299

    Configuring SNMP Support FC-301

    Understanding SNMP FC-301SNMP Notifications FC-302MIBs and RFCs FC-304

  • Contents

    xivCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    SNMP Versions FC-305

    SNMP Configuration Task List FC-306Creating or Modifying an SNMP View Record FC-307Creating or Modifying Access Control for an SNMP Community FC-307Specifying an SNMP-Server Engine Name (ID) FC-308Specifying SNMP-Server Group Names FC-308Configuring SNMP-Server Hosts FC-308Configuring SNMP-Server Users FC-309Enabling the SNMP Agent Shutdown Mechanism FC-309Setting the Contact, Location, and Serial Number of the SNMP Agent FC-309Defining the Maximum SNMP Agent Packet Size FC-309Limiting the Number of TFTP Servers Used via SNMP FC-310Monitoring and Troubleshooting SNMP Status FC-310Disabling the SNMP Agent FC-310Configuring SNMP Notifications FC-310Configuring the Router as an SNMP Manager FC-313

    SNMP Configuration Examples FC-314

    New MIB Features in Cisco IOS Release 12.2 FC-315Circuit Interface Identification MIB FC-315Ethernet-like Interfaces MIB FC-315Event MIB FC-316Expression MIB Support for Delta, Wildcarding, and Aggregation FC-316Interfaces Group MIB Enhancements FC-316MIB Enhancements for Universal Gateways and Access Servers FC-317MSDP MIB FC-319NTP MIB FC-319Response Time Monitor MIB FC-319

    Configuring Cisco Discovery Protocol FC-321

    Configuring the Cisco Discovery Protocol FC-321

    CDP Configuration Task List FC-322Setting the CDP Transmission Timer and Hold Time FC-323Reenabling CDP on a Local Router FC-323Reenabling CDP Version-2 Advertisements FC-323Reenabling CDP on an Interface FC-323Monitoring and Maintaining CDP FC-324

    CDP Configuration Examples FC-324Example: Setting the CDP Transmission Timer and Hold Time FC-324Example: Monitoring and Maintaining CDP FC-325

  • Contents

    xvCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Configuring RMON Support FC-327

    Configuring RMON Support FC-327Configuring RMON Alarm and Event Notifications FC-329Configuring RMON Groups FC-329Monitoring and Verifying RMON Configuration FC-330RMON Configuration Examples FC-331

    Network Monitoring Using Cisco Service Assurance Agent FC-333

    Understanding the Cisco SAA FC-333New Features in Cisco IOS Release 12.2 FC-334

    Cisco SAA Configuration Task List FC-334Configuring SAA Operations FC-335Configuring the Operation Type FC-336Configuring SAA Operation Characteristics FC-338Scheduling the Operation FC-343Enabling the SAA Responder on Operational Targets FC-344Configuring SAA Control Message Authentication FC-344Resetting the SAA FC-345Restarting a Stopped Operation FC-345Displaying SAA Status and SAA Operational Results FC-345Changing the Memory Threshold for the SAA FC-346Configuring Specific Operations FC-347Configuring SAA Operations Using SNMP FC-351Accessing SAA Data Using SNMP FC-352Enabling SAA SNMP Notifications FC-352

    SAA Configuration Using the CLI Examples FC-353SNA Echo Example FC-353IP/ICMP Path Echo Example FC-355TcpConnect Example FC-356SAA Control Protocol Authentication Example FC-357Jitter Operation Example FC-358HTTP GET Operation Example FC-359HTTP RAW Operation Using RAW Submode Example FC-360HTTP RAW Operation Through a Proxy Server Example FC-360FTP Operation Example FC-361DNS Operation Example FC-361DLSw Operation Example FC-362DHCP Operation Example FC-363Connection Loss Trigger Example FC-363

    SAA Configuration Using SNMP Examples FC-364

  • Contents

    xviCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Creating an Echo Operation Example FC-364Creating a Path Echo Operation Example FC-364Creating a UDP Operation Example FC-365Creating a TCP Operation Example FC-365Creating a Jitter Operation Example FC-365Creating an HTTP Get Operation Example FC-365Creating an HTTP RAW Operation Example FC-366Creating a DNS Operation Example FC-366Creating a DLSw Operation Example FC-366Creating a DHCP Operation Example FC-366Creating an FTP Operation Example FC-366

    SAA Command List FC-367

    Configuring Web Cache Services Using WCCP FC-369

    Understanding WCCP FC-369Understanding WCCPv1 Configuration FC-370Understanding WCCPv2 Configuration FC-371

    WCCPv2 Features FC-372Support for Services Other than HTTP FC-372Support for Multiple Routers FC-373MD5 Security FC-373Web Cache Packet Return FC-373Load Distribution FC-373

    Restrictions for WCCPv2 FC-374

    Configuring WCCP FC-374Specifying a Version of WCCP FC-374Configuring a Service Group Using WCCPv2 FC-375Excluding Traffic on a Specific Interface from Redirection FC-376Registering a Router to a Multicast Address FC-376Using Access Lists for a WCCP Service Group FC-377Setting a Password for a Router and Cache Engines FC-377

    Verifying and Monitoring WCCP Configuration Settings FC-378

    WCCP Configuration Examples FC-378Changing the Version of WCCP on a Router Example FC-379Performing a General WCCPv2 Configuration Example FC-379Running a Web Cache Service Example FC-379Running a Reverse Proxy Service Example FC-380Registering a Router to a Multicast Address Example FC-380Using Access Lists Example FC-380

  • Contents

    xviiCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Setting a Password for a Router and Cache Engines Example FC-381Verifying WCCP Settings Example FC-381

    APPENDIXES

    Cisco IOS Command Modes FC-385

    Base Command Modes FC-385User EXEC Mode FC-385Privileged EXEC Mode FC-386Global Configuration Mode FC-386ROM Monitor Mode FC-386Setup Mode FC-386

    Configuration Modes and Submodes FC-386AAA Preauthentication Configuration Mode FC-387Access List Configuration Mode FC-387Access-point Configuration Mode FC-387Access-point List Configuration Mode FC-388Address Family Configuration Mode FC-388ALPS Circuit Configuration Mode FC-388ALPS ASCU Configuration Mode FC-388Annex G Configuration Mode FC-389APPN Configuration Modes FC-389ATM VC Configuration Mode FC-389ATM VC Bundle Configuration Mode FC-389ATM VC Bundle-Member Configuration Mode FC-390ATM VC CES Configuration Mode FC-390ATM VC Class Configuration Mode FC-390ATM-FR VC Group Configuration Mode FC-390ATM PVC Range Configuration Mode FC-391ATM PVC-in-range Configuration Mode FC-391CA Identity Configuration Mode FC-391CA Trusted-Root Configuration Mode FC-391Call Discriminator Configuration Mode FC-391Called-Group Configuration Mode FC-392CASA Configuration Mode FC-392CAS Custom Configuration Mode FC-392CES Configuration Mode FC-392Certificate Chain Configuration Mode FC-392Class Map Configuration Mode FC-393Controller Configuration Mode FC-393

  • Contents

    xviiiCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Crypto Map Configuration Mode FC-393Crypto Transform Configuration Mode FC-393Customer Profile Configuration Mode FC-393DHCP Pool Configuration Mode FC-393Dial Peer Voice Configuration Mode FC-394Dial Peer COR List Configuration Mode FC-394Dialer DNIS Group Configuration Mode FC-394DLUR Configuration Mode FC-394DNIS Group Configuration Mode FC-394Extended Named Access List (NACL) Configuration Mode FC-394Frame Relay DLCI Configuration Mode FC-395Frame Relay Congestion Management Configuration Mode FC-395FRF.5 / FRF.8 Configuration Mode FC-395Gatekeeper Configuration Mode FC-395Gateway Configuration Mode FC-396Hex Input Mode FC-396HTTP Raw Request Configuration Mode FC-396Hub Configuration Mode FC-396IBM Channel Configuration Mode FC-396IBM Channel Internal Adapter Configuration Mode FC-396IBM Channel Internal LAN Interface Configuration Mode FC-397Interface Configuration Mode FC-397IP Host Backup Configuration Mode FC-398IPv6 Access List Configuration Mode FC-398IP VPN Routing/Forwarding (VRF) Instance Configuration Mode FC-399IPX Router Configuration Mode FC-399ISAKMP Policy Configuration Mode FC-399Key-Chain Configuration Mode FC-399Key-Chain Key Configuration Mode FC-399LANE Database Configuration Mode FC-400Line Configuration Mode FC-400Listen-Point Configuration Mode FC-400Map Class Configuration Mode FC-400Map-List Configuration Mode FC-400Modem Pool Configuration Mode FC-400MPOA Client (MPC) Configuration Mode FC-401MPOA Server (MPS) Configuration Mode FC-401MRM Manager Configuration Mode FC-401Policy-Map Configuration Mode FC-401Poll-Group Configuration Mode FC-401

  • Contents

    xixCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Public-Key Chain Configuration Mode FC-401Public-Key Key Configuration Mode FC-402Public-Key Hex Input Configuration Mode FC-402QoS Class-Map Configuration Mode FC-402QoS Policy-Map Configuration Mode FC-403QoS Policy-Map Class Configuration Mode FC-403RADIUS Server Group Configuration Mode FC-403RED Group Configuration Mode FC-403RLM Group Configuration Mode FC-403RLM Device Configuration Mode FC-404Resource Group Configuration Mode FC-404(Resource-Pool) Call Discriminator Profile Configuration Mode FC-404(Resource-Pool) Customer Profile Configuration Mode FC-404(Resource-Pool) Resource Group Configuration Mode FC-405(Resource-Pool) Service Profile Configuration Mode FC-405(Resource-Pool) VPDN Profile Configuration Mode FC-405Route-Map Configuration Mode FC-405Router Configuration Mode FC-405RTR Entry Configuration Mode FC-406SAA HTTP Raw Request Configuration Mode FC-406Server Group RADIUS Configuration Mode FC-406Server Group TACACS+ Configuration Mode FC-406Service Profile Configuration Mode FC-407SLB DFP Configuration Mode FC-407SLB Real Server Configuration Mode FC-407SLB Server-Farm Configuration Mode FC-407SLB Virtual Server Configuration Mode FC-407SPE Configuration Mode FC-408Standard Named Access List (NACL) Configuration Mode FC-408Static Maps Class Configuration Mode FC-408Static Maps List Configuration Mode FC-409Subinterface Configuration Mode FC-409System Controller Poll-Group Configuration Mode FC-409Time Range Configuration Mode FC-409TN3270 Server Configuration Mode FC-410TN3270 DLUR Configuration Mode FC-410TN3270 DLUR PU Configuration Mode FC-410TN3270 DLUR Linked SAP Configuration Mode FC-411TN3270 Listen-Point Configuration Mode FC-411TN3270 Listen-Point PU Configuration Mode FC-411

  • Contents

    xxCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    TN3270 PU Configuration Mode FC-411TN3270 Response-Time Configuration Mode FC-412TN3270 Security Configuration Mode FC-412TN3270 Security Profile Configuration Mode FC-412Translation-Rule Configuration Mode FC-412Voice-Card Configuration Mode FC-413Voice Class Configuration Mode FC-413Voice-Port Configuration Mode FC-413Voice Service Configuration Mode FC-413Voice Service Session Configuration Mode FC-413VoIP Dial Peer Configuration Mode FC-414VPDN Group Mode and Submodes FC-414VPDN Profile Configuration Mode FC-414VPDN Template Configuration Mode FC-414VRF Configuration Mode FC-415X.25 Profile Configuration Mode FC-415

    Configuration Modes Summary Table FC-415

    Configuring Line Cards on the Cisco 7500 Series FC-431

    Performing a Single Line Card Reload FC-431

    Configuring Dual RSPs on Cisco 7500 Series Routers FC-432Understanding Master and Slave Operation FC-432Understanding Dual RSP Implementation Methods FC-433Dual RSP Configuration Task List FC-433Setting Environment Variables on the Master and Slave RSP FC-442Manually Setting Environment Variables on the Slave RSP FC-443

    Monitoring and Maintaining Dual RSP Operation FC-443Overriding the Slave Image Bundled with the Master Image FC-444Manually Synchronizing Configuration Files FC-444Troubleshooting and Reloading a Failed RSP Card FC-444Disabling Access to the Slave Console FC-445Displaying Information About Master and Slave RSP Cards FC-445

    INDEX FC-449

  • xxiCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    About Cisco IOS Software Documentation

    This chapter discusses the objectives, audience, organization, and conventions of Cisco IOS software documentation. It also provides sources for obtaining documentation from Cisco Systems.

    Documentation ObjectivesCisco IOS software documentation describes the tasks and commands necessary to configure and maintain Cisco networking devices.

    AudienceThe Cisco IOS software documentation set is intended primarily for users who configure and maintain Cisco networking devices (such as routers and switches) but who may not be familiar with the tasks, the relationship between tasks, or the Cisco IOS software commands necessary to perform particular tasks. The Cisco IOS software documentation set is also intended for those users experienced with Cisco IOS software who need to know about new features, new configuration options, and new software characteristics in the current Cisco IOS software release.

    Documentation OrganizationThe Cisco IOS software documentation set consists of documentation modules and master indexes. In addition to the main documentation set, there are supporting documents and resources.

    Documentation ModulesThe Cisco IOS documentation modules consist of configuration guides and corresponding command reference publications. Chapters in a configuration guide describe protocols, configuration tasks, and Cisco IOS software functionality and contain comprehensive configuration examples. Chapters in a command reference publication provide complete Cisco IOS command syntax information. Use each configuration guide in conjunction with its corresponding command reference publication.

  • About Cisco IOS Software DocumentationDocumentation Organization

    xxiiCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Figure 1 shows the Cisco IOS software documentation modules.

    Note The abbreviations (for example, FC and FR) next to the book icons are page designators, which are defined in a key in the index of each document to help you with navigation. The bullets under each module list the major technology areas discussed in the corresponding books.

    Figure 1 Cisco IOS Software Documentation Modules

    Cisco IOSIP ConfigurationGuide

    IPC

    Cisco IOSConfigurationFundamentalsConfigurationGuide

    Cisco IOSConfigurationFundamentalsCommandReference

    Module FC/FR: Cisco IOS User

    Interfaces File Management System Management

    Cisco IOSIP CommandReference,Volume 2 of 3:RoutingProtocols

    Module IPC/IP1R/IP2R/IP3R: IP Addressing and Services IP Routing Protocols IP Multicast

    Cisco IOSAppleTalk andNovell IPXConfigurationGuide

    Cisco IOSAppleTalk andNovell IPXCommandReference

    Module P2C/P2R: AppleTalk Novell IPX

    Cisco IOSApollo Domain,Banyan VINES,DECnet, ISOCLNS, and XNSConfigurationGuide

    Cisco IOSApollo Domain,Banyan VINES,DECnet, ISOCLNS, and XNSCommandReference

    Module P3C/P3R: Apollo Domain Banyan VINES DECnet ISO CLNS XNS

    Cisco IOSWide-AreaNetworkingConfigurationGuide

    Cisco IOSWide-AreaNetworkingCommandReference

    Module WC/WR: ATM Broadband Access Frame Relay SMDS X.25 and LAPB

    Cisco IOSSecurityConfigurationGuide

    Cisco IOSSecurityCommandReference

    Module SC/SR: AAA Security Services Security Server Protocols Traffic Filtering and Firewalls IP Security and Encryption Passwords and Privileges Neighbor Router Authentication IP Security Options Supported AV Pairs

    Cisco IOSInterfaceConfigurationGuide

    Cisco IOSInterfaceCommandReference

    Module IC/IR: LAN Interfaces Serial Interfaces Logical Interfaces

    47953

    FC

    FR

    IP2R

    WC

    WR

    SC

    SR

    MWC

    MWR

    Cisco IOSMobileWirelessConfigurationGuide

    Cisco IOSMobileWirelessCommandReference

    Module MWC/MWR: General Packet

    Radio Service

    IC

    IR

    Cisco IOSIP CommandReference,Volume 1 of 3:Addressingand Services

    Cisco IOSIP CommandReference,Volume 3 of 3:Multicast

    P2C

    P2R

    IP1R

    IP3R

    P3C

    P3R

  • About Cisco IOS Software DocumentationDocumentation Organization

    xxiiiCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Cisco IOSVoice, Video,and FaxConfigurationGuide

    Cisco IOSVoice, Video,and FaxCommandReference

    Module VC/VR: Voice over IP Call Control Signalling Voice over

    Frame Relay Voice over ATM Telephony Applications Trunk Management Fax, Video, and

    Modem Support

    Cisco IOSQuality ofServiceSolutionsConfigurationGuide

    Cisco IOSQuality ofServiceSolutionsCommandReference

    Module QC/QR: Packet Classification Congestion Management Congestion Avoidance Policing and Shaping Signalling Link Efficiency

    Mechanisms

    Module DC/DR: Preparing for Dial Access Modem and Dial Shelf Configuration

    and Management ISDN Configuration Signalling Configuration Dial-on-Demand Routing

    Configuration Dial-Backup Configuration Dial-Related Addressing Services Virtual Templates, Profiles, and

    Networks PPP Configuration Callback and Bandwidth Allocation

    Configuration Dial Access Specialized Features Dial Access Scenarios

    Module BC/B1R: Transparent

    Bridging SRB Token Ring

    Inter-Switch Link Token Ring Route

    Switch Module RSRB DLSw+ Serial Tunnel and

    Block Serial Tunnel LLC2 and SDLC IBM Network

    Media Translation SNA Frame Relay

    Access NCIA Client/Server Airline Product Set

    Module BC/B2R: DSPU and SNA

    Service Point SNA Switching

    Services Cisco Transaction

    Connection Cisco Mainframe

    Channel Connection CLAW and TCP/IP

    Offload CSNA, CMPC,

    and CMPC+ TN3270 Server

    Cisco IOSSwitchingServicesConfigurationGuide

    Cisco IOSSwitchingServicesCommandReference

    Module XC/XR: Cisco IOS

    Switching Paths NetFlow Switching Multiprotocol Label Switching Multilayer Switching Multicast Distributed Switching Virtual LANs LAN Emulation

    47954

    Cisco IOSBridging andIBM NetworkingConfigurationGuide

    Cisco IOSBridgingand IBMNetworkingCommandReference,Volume 1 of 2

    Cisco IOSBridgingand IBMNetworkingCommandReference,Volume 2 of 2

    XC

    DC

    DR

    TC

    TR

    BC

    XR

    B1R B2R

    QC

    QR

    VC

    VR

    Cisco IOSTerminalServicesConfigurationGuide

    Cisco IOSTerminalServicesCommandReference

    Module TC/TR: ARA LAT NASI Telnet TN3270 XRemote X.28 PAD Protocol Translation

    Cisco IOSDialTechnologiesConfigurationGuide

    Cisco IOSDialTechnologiesCommandReference

  • About Cisco IOS Software DocumentationDocumentation Organization

    xxivCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Master IndexesTwo master indexes provide indexing information for the Cisco IOS software documentation set: an index for the configuration guides and an index for the command references. Individual books also contain a book-specific index.

    The master indexes provide a quick way for you to find a command when you know the command name but not which module contains the command. When you use the online master indexes, you can click the page number for an index entry and go to that page in the online document.

    Supporting Documents and ResourcesThe following documents and resources support the Cisco IOS software documentation set:

    Cisco IOS Command Summary (two volumes)This publication explains the function and syntax of the Cisco IOS software commands. For more information about defaults and usage guidelines, refer to the Cisco IOS command reference publications.

    Cisco IOS System Error MessagesThis publication lists and describes Cisco IOS system error messages. Not all system error messages indicate problems with your system. Some are purely informational, and others may help diagnose problems with communications lines, internal hardware, or the system software.

    Cisco IOS Debug Command ReferenceThis publication contains an alphabetical listing of the debug commands and their descriptions. Documentation for each command includes a brief description of its use, command syntax, usage guidelines, and sample output.

    Dictionary of Internetworking Terms and AcronymsThis Cisco publication compiles and defines the terms and acronyms used in the internetworking industry.

    New feature documentationThe Cisco IOS software documentation set documents the mainline release of Cisco IOS software (for example, Cisco IOS Release 12.2). New software features are introduced in early deployment releases (for example, the Cisco IOS T release train for 12.2, 12.2(x)T). Documentation for these new features can be found in standalone documents called feature modules. Feature module documentation describes new Cisco IOS software and hardware networking functionality and is available on Cisco.com and the Documentation CD-ROM.

    Release notesThis documentation describes system requirements, provides information about new and changed features, and includes other useful information about specific software releases. See the Using Software Release Notes section for more information.

    Caveats documentationThis documentation provides information about Cisco IOS software defects in specific software releases.

    RFCsRFCs are standards documents maintained by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Cisco IOS software documentation references supported RFCs when applicable. The full text of referenced RFCs may be obtained on the World Wide Web at http://www.rfc-editor.org/.

    MIBsMIBs are used for network monitoring. For lists of supported MIBs by platform and release, and to download MIB files, see the Cisco MIB website on Cisco.com at http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-center/netmgmt/cmtk/mibs.shtml.

  • About Cisco IOS Software DocumentationNew and Changed Information

    xxvCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    New and Changed InformationThe following organizational changes have been made since the 12.1 release of the Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide:

    The material found in the Monitoring the Router and Network chapter of the previous release can now be found in the following chapters:

    Configuring SNMP Support

    Configuring RMON Support

    Configuring Cisco Discovery Protocol

    Network Monitoring Using Cisco Service Assurance Agent

    The chapters titled System Management Using System Controllers and Managing Dial Shelves have been removed; information on system controllers and dial shelves is now found in the Cisco IOS Dial Technologies Configuration Guide.

    New Features in Cisco IOS Release 12.2Cisco IOS Release 12.2 software incorporates the enhancements available in Cisco IOS Release 12.1(1) through 12.1(5) and combines them with the new features introduced in Cisco IOS Release 12.1(1)T through 12.1(5)T.

    For a complete list of new features in Cisco IOS Release 12.2, see the New Features in Cisco IOS Release 12.2 index or the New Features in Release 12.1 T online index, available on Cisco.com and the Documentation CD-ROM. The Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide for Release 12.2 includes information about the following new features in the Cisco IOS software:

    In the Configuring SNMP Support chapter:

    Call Tracker plus ISDN and AAA Enhancements for the Cisco AS5300 and Cisco AS5800

    Circuit Interface Identification MIB

    Cisco AAA Server MIB and Additional Enhancements for the Cisco AS5300 and Cisco AS5800

    Cisco AAA Session MIB

    Ethernet-like Interfaces MIB

    Event MIB

    Individual SNMP Trap Support

    Interface Index Persistence

    Interfaces Group MIB Enhancement

    Monitoring Resource Availability on Cisco AS5300 Universal Access Servers

    MSDP MIB

    NTP MIB

    In the Managing Configuration Files chapter:

    Parser Cache

    In the Network Monitoring Using Cisco Service Assurance Agent chapter:

    Service Assurance Agent Enhancements

  • About Cisco IOS Software DocumentationIdentifying Platform Support for Cisco IOS Software Features

    xxviCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    In the Performing Basic System Management chapter:

    Trimble Palisade NTP Synchronization Driver for the Cisco 7200 Series

    In the Configuring Web Cache Services Using WCCP chapter:

    WCCP Redirection on Inbound Interfaces

    In the Configuring Line Cards on the Cisco 7500 Series Appendix:

    Single Line Card Reload for the Cisco 7500 Series

    Identifying Platform Support for Cisco IOS Software FeaturesCisco IOS software is packaged in feature sets consisting of software images that support specific platforms. The feature sets available for a specific platform depend on which Cisco IOS software images are included in a release. To identify the set of software images available in a specific release or to find out if a feature is available in a given Cisco IOS software image, see the following sections:

    Using Feature Navigator

    Using Software Release Notes

    Using Feature NavigatorFeature Navigator is a web-based tool that enables you to quickly determine which Cisco IOS software images support a particular set of features and which features are supported in a particular Cisco IOS image.

    Feature Navigator is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. To access Feature Navigator, you must have an account on Cisco.com. If you have forgotten or lost your account information, e-mail the Contact Database Administration group at [email protected] If you do not have an account on Cisco.com, go to http://www.cisco.com/register and follow the directions to establish an account.

    To use Feature Navigator, you must have a JavaScript-enabled web browser such as Netscape 3.0 or later, or Internet Explorer 4.0 or later. Internet Explorer 4.0 always has JavaScript enabled. To enable JavaScript for Netscape 3.x or Netscape 4.x, follow the instructions provided with the web browser. For JavaScript support and enabling instructions for other browsers, check with the browser vendor.

    Feature Navigator is updated when major Cisco IOS software releases and technology releases occur. You can access Feature Navigator at the following URL:

    http://www.cisco.com/go/fn

    Using Software Release NotesCisco IOS software releases include release notes that provide the following information:

    Platform support information

    Memory recommendations

    Microcode support information

    Feature set tables

    Feature descriptions

    Open and resolved severity 1 and 2 caveats for all platforms

  • About Cisco IOS Software DocumentationDocument Conventions

    xxviiCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Release notes are intended to be release-specific for the most current release, and the information provided in these documents may not be cumulative in providing information about features that first appeared in previous releases.

    Document ConventionsWithin Cisco IOS software documentation, the term router is generally used to refer to a variety of Cisco products (for example, routers, access servers, and switches). Routers, access servers, and other networking devices that support Cisco IOS software are shown interchangeably within examples. These products are used only for illustrative purposes; that is, an example that shows one product does not necessarily indicate that other products are not supported.

    The Cisco IOS documentation set uses the following conventions:

    Command syntax descriptions use the following conventions:

    Nested sets of square brackets or braces indicate optional or required choices within optional or required elements. For example:

    Convention Description

    ^ or Ctrl The ^ and Ctrl symbols represent the Control key. For example, the key combination ^D or Ctrl-D means hold down the Control key while you press the D key. Keys are indicated in capital letters but are not case sensitive.

    string A string is a nonquoted set of characters shown in italics. For example, when setting an SNMP community string to public, do not use quotation marks around the string or the string will include the quotation marks.

    Convention Description

    boldface Boldface text indicates commands and keywords that you enter literally as shown.

    italics Italic text indicates arguments for which you supply values.

    [x] Square brackets enclose an optional element (keyword or argument).

    | A vertical line indicates a choice within an optional or required set of keywords or arguments.

    [x | y] Square brackets enclosing keywords or arguments separated by a vertical line indicate an optional choice.

    {x | y} Braces enclosing keywords or arguments separated by a vertical line indicate a required choice.

    Convention Description

    [x {y | z}] Braces and a vertical line within square brackets indicate a required choice within an optional element.

  • About Cisco IOS Software DocumentationObtaining Documentation

    xxviiiCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Examples use the following conventions:

    The following conventions are used to attract the attention of the reader:

    Caution Means reader be careful. In this situation, you might do something that could result in equipment damage or loss of data.

    Note Means reader take note. Notes contain helpful suggestions or references to materials not contained in this manual.

    Timesaver Means the described action saves time. You can save time by performing the action described in the paragraph.

    Obtaining DocumentationThe following sections provide sources for obtaining documentation from Cisco Systems.

    World Wide WebThe most current Cisco documentation is available on the World Wide Web at the following website:

    http://www.cisco.com

    Translated documentation is available at the following website:

    http://www.cisco.com/public/countries_languages.html

    Documentation CD-ROMCisco documentation and additional literature are available in a CD-ROM package, which ships with your product. The Documentation CD-ROM is updated monthly and may be more current than printed documentation. The CD-ROM package is available as a single unit or through an annual subscription.

    Convention Description

    screen Examples of information displayed on the screen are set in Courier font.

    boldface screen Examples of text that you must enter are set in Courier bold font.

    < > Angle brackets enclose text that is not printed to the screen, such as passwords.

    ! An exclamation point at the beginning of a line indicates a comment line. (Exclamation points are also displayed by the Cisco IOS software for certain processes.)

    [ ] Square brackets enclose default responses to system prompts.

  • About Cisco IOS Software DocumentationDocumentation Feedback

    xxixCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Ordering DocumentationCisco documentation can be ordered in the following ways:

    Registered Cisco Direct Customers can order Cisco product documentation from the Networking Products MarketPlace:

    http://www.cisco.com/cgi-bin/order/order_root.pl

    Registered Cisco.com users can order the Documentation CD-ROM through the online Subscription Store:

    http://www.cisco.com/go/subscription

    Nonregistered Cisco.com users can order documentation through a local account representative by calling Cisco corporate headquarters (California, USA) at 408 526-7208 or, in North America, by calling 800 553-NETS(6387).

    Documentation FeedbackIf you are reading Cisco product documentation on the World Wide Web, you can submit technical comments electronically. Click Feedback in the toolbar and select Documentation. After you complete the form, click Submit to send it to Cisco.

    You can e-mail your comments to [email protected]

    To submit your comments by mail, use the response card behind the front cover of your document, or write to the following address:

    Cisco Systems, Inc.Document Resource Connection170 West Tasman DriveSan Jose, CA 95134-9883

    We appreciate your comments.

    Obtaining Technical AssistanceCisco provides Cisco.com as a starting point for all technical assistance. Customers and partners can obtain documentation, troubleshooting tips, and sample configurations from online tools. For Cisco.com registered users, additional troubleshooting tools are available from the TAC website.

    Cisco.comCisco.com is the foundation of a suite of interactive, networked services that provides immediate, open access to Cisco information and resources at anytime, from anywhere in the world. This highly integrated Internet application is a powerful, easy-to-use tool for doing business with Cisco.

    Cisco.com provides a broad range of features and services to help customers and partners streamline business processes and improve productivity. Through Cisco.com, you can find information about Cisco and our networking solutions, services, and programs. In addition, you can resolve technical issues with online technical support, download and test software packages, and order Cisco learning materials and merchandise. Valuable online skill assessment, training, and certification programs are also available.

  • About Cisco IOS Software DocumentationObtaining Technical Assistance

    xxxCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Customers and partners can self-register on Cisco.com to obtain additional personalized information and services. Registered users can order products, check on the status of an order, access technical support, and view benefits specific to their relationships with Cisco.

    To access Cisco.com, go to the following website:

    http://www.cisco.com

    Technical Assistance CenterThe Cisco TAC website is available to all customers who need technical assistance with a Cisco product or technology that is under warranty or covered by a maintenance contract.

    Contacting TAC by Using the Cisco TAC Website

    If you have a priority level 3 (P3) or priority level 4 (P4) problem, contact TAC by going to the TAC website:

    http://www.cisco.com/tac

    P3 and P4 level problems are defined as follows:

    P3Your network performance is degraded. Network functionality is noticeably impaired, but most business operations continue.

    P4You need information or assistance on Cisco product capabilities, product installation, or basic product configuration.

    In each of the above cases, use the Cisco TAC website to quickly find answers to your questions.

    To register for Cisco.com, go to the following website:

    http://www.cisco.com/register/

    If you cannot resolve your technical issue by using the TAC online resources, Cisco.com registered users can open a case online by using the TAC Case Open tool at the following website:

    http://www.cisco.com/tac/caseopen

    Contacting TAC by Telephone

    If you have a priority level 1 (P1) or priority level 2 (P2) problem, contact TAC by telephone and immediately open a case. To obtain a directory of toll-free numbers for your country, go to the following website:

    http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/687/Directory/DirTAC.shtml

    P1 and P2 level problems are defined as follows:

    P1Your production network is down, causing a critical impact to business operations if service is not restored quickly. No workaround is available.

    P2Your production network is severely degraded, affecting significant aspects of your business operations. No workaround is available.

  • xxxiCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Using Cisco IOS Software

    This chapter provides helpful tips for understanding and configuring Cisco IOS software using the command-line interface (CLI). It contains the following sections:

    Understanding Command Modes

    Getting Help

    Using the no and default Forms of Commands

    Saving Configuration Changes

    Filtering Output from the show and more Commands

    Identifying Supported Platforms

    For an overview of Cisco IOS software configuration, refer to the Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide.

    For information on the conventions used in the Cisco IOS software documentation set, see the chapter About Cisco IOS Software Documentation located at the beginning of this book.

    Understanding Command ModesYou use the CLI to access Cisco IOS software. Because the CLI is divided into many different modes, the commands available to you at any given time depend on the mode you are currently in. Entering a question mark (?) at the CLI prompt allows you to obtain a list of commands available for each command mode.

    When you log in to the CLI, you are in user EXEC mode. User EXEC mode contains only a limited subset of commands. To have access to all commands, you must enter privileged EXEC mode, normally by using a password. From privileged EXEC mode you can issue any EXEC commanduser or privileged modeor you can enter global configuration mode. Most EXEC commands are one-time commands. For example, show commands show important status information, and clear commands clear counters or interfaces. The EXEC commands are not saved when the software reboots.

    Configuration modes allow you to make changes to the running configuration. If you later save the running configuration to the startup configuration, these changed commands are stored when the software is rebooted. To enter specific configuration modes, you must start at global configuration mode. From global configuration mode, you can enter interface configuration mode and a variety of other modes, such as protocol-specific modes.

    ROM monitor mode is a separate mode used when the Cisco IOS software cannot load properly. If a valid software image is not found when the software boots or if the configuration file is corrupted at startup, the software might enter ROM monitor mode.

  • Using Cisco IOS SoftwareGetting Help

    xxxiiCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Table 1 describes how to access and exit various common command modes of the Cisco IOS software. It also shows examples of the prompts displayed for each mode.

    For more information on command modes, refer to the Using the Command-Line Interface chapter in the Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide.

    Getting HelpEntering a question mark (?) at the CLI prompt displays a list of commands available for each command mode. You can also get a list of keywords and arguments associated with any command by using the context-sensitive help feature.

    To get help specific to a command mode, a command, a keyword, or an argument, use one of the following commands:

    Table 1 Accessing and Exiting Command Modes

    Command Mode Access Method Prompt Exit Method

    User EXEC Log in. Router> Use the logout command.

    Privileged EXEC

    From user EXEC mode, use the enable EXEC command.

    Router# To return to user EXEC mode, use the disable command.

    Global configuration

    From privileged EXEC mode, use the configure terminal privileged EXEC command.

    Router(config)# To return to privileged EXEC mode from global configuration mode, use the exit or end command, or press Ctrl-Z.

    Interface configuration

    From global configuration mode, specify an interface using an interface command.

    Router(config-if)# To return to global configuration mode, use the exit command.

    To return to privileged EXEC mode, use the end command, or press Ctrl-Z.

    ROM monitor From privileged EXEC mode, use the reload EXEC command. Press the Break key during the first 60 seconds while the system is booting.

    > To exit ROM monitor mode, use the continue command.

    Command Purposehelp Provides a brief description of the help system in any command mode.

    abbreviated-command-entry? Provides a list of commands that begin with a particular character string. (No space between command and question mark.)

    abbreviated-command-entry Completes a partial command name.

    ? Lists all commands available for a particular command mode.

    command ? Lists the keywords or arguments that you must enter next on the command line. (Space between command and question mark.)

  • Using Cisco IOS SoftwareGetting Help

    xxxiiiCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Example: How to Find Command OptionsThis section provides an example of how to display syntax for a command. The syntax can consist of optional or required keywords and arguments. To display keywords and arguments for a command, enter a question mark (?) at the configuration prompt or after entering part of a command followed by a space. The Cisco IOS software displays a list and brief description of available keywords and arguments. For example, if you were in global configuration mode and wanted to see all the keywords or arguments for the arap command, you would type arap ?.

    The symbol in command help output stands for carriage return. On older keyboards, the carriage return key is the Return key. On most modern keyboards, the carriage return key is the Enter key. The symbol at the end of command help output indicates that you have the option to press Enter to complete the command and that the arguments and keywords in the list preceding the symbol are optional. The symbol by itself indicates that no more arguments or keywords are available and that you must press Enter to complete the command.

    Table 2 shows examples of how you can use the question mark (?) to assist you in entering commands. The table steps you through configuring an IP address on a serial interface on a Cisco 7206 router that is running Cisco IOS Release 12.0(3).

    Table 2 How to Find Command Options

    Command CommentRouter> enablePassword: Router#

    Enter the enable command and password to access privileged EXEC commands. You are in privileged EXEC mode when the prompt changes to Router#.

    Router# configure terminalEnter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.Router(config)#

    Enter the configure terminal privileged EXEC command to enter global configuration mode. You are in global configuration mode when the prompt changes to Router(config)#.

    Router(config)# interface serial ? Serial interface number

    Router(config)# interface serial 4 ?/

    Router(config)# interface serial 4/ ? Serial interface number

    Router(config)# interface serial 4/0Router(config-if)#

    Enter interface configuration mode by specifying the serial interface that you want to configure using the interface serial global configuration command.

    Enter ? to display what you must enter next on the command line. In this example, you must enter the serial interface slot number and port number, separated by a forward slash.

    You are in interface configuration mode when the prompt changes to Router(config-if)#.

  • Using Cisco IOS SoftwareGetting Help

    xxxivCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Router(config-if)# ?Interface configuration commands:

    .

    .

    .ip Interface Internet Protocol config commandskeepalive Enable keepalivelan-name LAN Name commandllc2 LLC2 Interface Subcommandsload-interval Specify interval for load calculation for an

    interfacelocaddr-priority Assign a priority grouplogging Configure logging for interfaceloopback Configure internal loopback on an interfacemac-address Manually set interface MAC addressmls mls router sub/interface commandsmpoa MPOA interface configuration commandsmtu Set the interface Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU)netbios Use a defined NETBIOS access list or enable

    name-cachingno Negate a command or set its defaultsnrzi-encoding Enable use of NRZI encodingntp Configure NTP...

    Router(config-if)#

    Enter ? to display a list of all the interface configuration commands available for the serial interface. This example shows only some of the available interface configuration commands.

    Router(config-if)# ip ?Interface IP configuration subcommands:

    access-group Specify access control for packetsaccounting Enable IP accounting on this interfaceaddress Set the IP address of an interfaceauthentication authentication subcommandsbandwidth-percent Set EIGRP bandwidth limitbroadcast-address Set the broadcast address of an interfacecgmp Enable/disable CGMPdirected-broadcast Enable forwarding of directed broadcastsdvmrp DVMRP interface commandshello-interval Configures IP-EIGRP hello intervalhelper-address Specify a destination address for UDP broadcastshold-time Configures IP-EIGRP hold time...

    Router(config-if)# ip

    Enter the command that you want to configure for the interface. This example uses the ip command.

    Enter ? to display what you must enter next on the command line. This example shows only some of the available interface IP configuration commands.

    Table 2 How to Find Command Options (continued)

    Command Comment

  • Using Cisco IOS SoftwareUsing the no and default Forms of Commands

    xxxvCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Using the no and default Forms of CommandsAlmost every configuration command has a no form. In general, use the no form to disable a function. Use the command without the no keyword to reenable a disabled function or to enable a function that is disabled by default. For example, IP routing is enabled by default. To disable IP routing, use the no ip routing command; to reenable IP routing, use the ip routing command. The Cisco IOS software command reference publications provide the complete syntax for the configuration commands and describe what the no form of a command does.

    Configuration commands also can have a default form, which returns the command settings to the default values. Most commands are disabled by default, so in such cases using the default form has the same result as using the no form of the command. However, some commands are enabled by default and

    Router(config-if)# ip address ?A.B.C.D IP addressnegotiated IP Address negotiated over PPP

    Router(config-if)# ip address

    Enter the command that you want to configure for the interface. This example uses the ip address command.

    Enter ? to display what you must enter next on the command line. In this example, you must enter an IP address or the negotiated keyword.

    A carriage return () is not displayed; therefore, you must enter additional keywords or arguments to complete the command.

    Router(config-if)# ip address 172.16.0.1 ?A.B.C.D IP subnet mask

    Router(config-if)# ip address 172.16.0.1

    Enter the keyword or argument you want to use. This example uses the 172.16.0.1 IP address.

    Enter ? to display what you must enter next on the command line. In this example, you must enter an IP subnet mask.

    A is not displayed; therefore, you must enter additional keywords or arguments to complete the command.

    Router(config-if)# ip address 172.16.0.1 255.255.255.0 ?secondary Make this IP address a secondary address

    Router(config-if)# ip address 172.16.0.1 255.255.255.0

    Enter the IP subnet mask. This example uses the 255.255.255.0 IP subnet mask.

    Enter ? to display what you must enter next on the command line. In this example, you can enter the secondary keyword, or you can press Enter.

    A is displayed; you can press Enter to complete the command, or you can enter another keyword.

    Router(config-if)# ip address 172.16.0.1 255.255.255.0Router(config-if)#

    In this example, Enter is pressed to complete the command.

    Table 2 How to Find Command Options (continued)

    Command Comment

  • Using Cisco IOS SoftwareSaving Configuration Changes

    xxxviCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    have variables set to certain default values. In these cases, the default form of the command enables the command and sets the variables to their default values. The Cisco IOS software command reference publications describe the effect of the default form of a command if the command functions differently than the no form.

    Saving Configuration ChangesUse the copy system:running-config nvram:startup-config command to save your configuration changes to the startup configuration so that the changes will not be lost if the software reloads or a power outage occurs. For example:

    Router# copy system:running-config nvram:startup-configBuilding configuration...

    It might take a minute or two to save the configuration. After the configuration has been saved, the following output appears:

    [OK]Router#

    On most platforms, this task saves the configuration to NVRAM. On the Class A Flash file system platforms, this task saves the configuration to the location specified by the CONFIG_FILE environment variable. The CONFIG_FILE variable defaults to NVRAM.

    Filtering Output from the show and more CommandsIn Cisco IOS Release 12.0(1)T and later releases, you can search and filter the output of show and more commands. This functionality is useful if you need to sort through large amounts of output or if you want to exclude output that you need not see.

    To use this functionality, enter a show or more command followed by the pipe character (|); one of the keywords begin, include, or exclude; and a regular expression on which you want to search or filter (the expression is case-sensitive):

    command | {begin | include | exclude} regular-expression

    The output matches certain lines of information in the configuration file. The following example illustrates how to use output modifiers with the show interface command when you want the output to include only lines in which the expression protocol appears:

    Router# show interface | include protocol

    FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is upSerial4/0 is up, line protocol is upSerial4/1 is up, line protocol is upSerial4/2 is administratively down, line protocol is downSerial4/3 is administratively down, line protocol is down

    For more information on the search and filter functionality, refer to the Using the Command-Line Interface chapter in the Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide, Release 12.2.

    http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios122/122cgcr/ffun_c/index.htm

  • Using Cisco IOS SoftwareIdentifying Supported Platforms

    xxxviiCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Identifying Supported PlatformsCisco IOS software is packaged in feature sets consisting of software images that support specific platforms. The feature sets available for a specific platform depend on which Cisco IOS software images are included in a release. To identify the set of software images available in a specific release or to find out if a feature is available in a given Cisco IOS software image, see the following sections:

    Using Feature Navigator

    Using Software Release Notes

    Using Feature NavigatorFeature Navigator is a web-based tool that enables you to quickly determine which Cisco IOS software images support a particular set of features and which features are supported in a particular Cisco IOS image.

    Feature Navigator is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. To access Feature Navigator, you must have an account on Cisco.com. If you have forgotten or lost your account information, e-mail the Contact Database Administration group at [email protected] If you do not have an account on Cisco.com, go to http://www.cisco.com/register and follow the directions to establish an account.

    To use Feature Navigator, you must have a JavaScript-enabled web browser such as Netscape 3.0 or later, or Internet Explorer 4.0 or later. Internet Explorer 4.0 always has JavaScript enabled. To enable JavaScript for Netscape 3.x or Netscape 4.x, follow the instructions provided with the web browser. For JavaScript support and enabling instructions for other browsers, check with the browser vendor.

    Feature Navigator is updated when major Cisco IOS software releases and technology releases occur. You can access Feature Navigator at the following URL:

    http://www.cisco.com/go/fn

    Using Software Release NotesCisco IOS software releases include release notes that provide the following information:

    Platform support information

    Memory recommendations

    Microcode support information

    Feature set tables

    Feature descriptions

    Open and resolved severity 1 and 2 caveats for all platforms

    Release notes are intended to be release-specific for the most current release, and the information provided in these documents may not be cumulative in providing information about features that first appeared in previous releases.

  • Using Cisco IOS SoftwareIdentifying Supported Platforms

    xxxviiiCisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

  • FC-1Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Configuration Fundamentals Overview

    This chapter provides an overview of the Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide for Cisco IOS Release 12.2. It includes descriptions of the parts and chapters of this document, and suggestions on which parts of the documentation to read to perform common tasks.

    Organization of This GuideThe Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide is divided into three main parts:

    Cisco IOS User Interfaces

    File Management

    System Management

    This section provides a description of the chapters within each part.

    Cisco IOS User InterfacesThe user interface chapters describe the different methods of entering commands into a router and altering the user environment:

    Using the Command-Line Interface

    The command-line interface (CLI) is the primary means of configuring Cisco IOS software-based devices. This chapter provides an overview of the CLI, and discusses its editing features, context-sensitvie help, and other features.

    Using AutoInstall and Setup

    The Cisco IOS software includes two features that simplify or automate the configuration of Cisco devices: AutoInstall and Setup. AutoInstall allows a network manager to load configuration files onto new Cisco devices automatically. Setup guides a user throught the initial configuration of a Cisco device. This chapter describes how to set up your network for AutoInstall, and how to use Setup.

    Configuring Operating Characteristics for Terminals

    A basic method of accessing the CLI is to connect a terminal to the router through the console port or one of the tty lines. This terminal connection uses default settings, which should work for most terminal sessions. However, you may want to alter the terminal settings. This chapter provides details on how to perform these alterations.

  • Configuration Fundamentals OverviewOrganization of This Guide

    FC-2Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Managing Connections, Menus, and System Banners

    This chapter provides details on managing connections you make to other hosts, displaying messages to users connecting to your router, and setting up user menus.

    Using the Cisco Web Browser User Interface

    This chapter provides detailed information on using the Cisco IOS web browser user interface (UI) to configure and monitor your router, as an alternative to using the CLI. It also explains how to configure the Web Browser interface for other users.

    File ManagementThe file management chapters describe the tasks associated with copying, saving, moving, and loading different types of files, such as configuration files, images, and microcode:

    Using the Cisco IOS File SystemThis chapter descibes how to manage files using the Cisco IOS File System (IFS), which provides a common syntax for managing all file systems on Cisco devices, including Flash memory file systems and network file systems, as well as for any other endpoints used for reading or writing data.

    Managing Configuration FilesThis chapter describes how to modify configuration files, as well as how to upload, store, and download configuration files. This chapter also explains how to specify which configuration file the system should use at startup.

    Loading and Maintaining System ImagesThis chapter describes how to download images from servers, store images on servers, and specify which image is loaded at system startup. If you are not upgrading your system image and you do not want to change image booting procedures, you do not need to read this chapter.

    Maintaining System MemoryThis chapter describes the different types of memory your router may have and how to use this memory to manage files.

    RebootingThis chapter focuses on tasks related to the rebooting procedure. Read this chapter if you want to change which image or configuration file is loaded at system startup. This chapter also discusses ROM Monitor mode, which allows you to boot the router manually.

    Configuring Basic File Transfer ServicesThis chapter describes how to configure your router to function as a server, or use the remote shell (rsh) and remote copy (rcp) functions. As a TFTP server, your router can provide other routers with images and configuration files over the network. The rsh and rcp functions allow users to remotely execute commands or copy files to or from another host. This chapter also addresses optional configuration of Maintenance Operation Protocol (MOP) and Boot Operation Protocol (BOOTP) services.

    System ManagementThe system management chapters discuss tasks that allow you to maintain your router after it is configured with the network, routing, and WAN protocols. These chapters discuss ways you can fine-tune the router and maintain it over time. These chapters also discuss router and network monitoring tools used for gathering information about connected devices and network performance.

  • Configuration Fundamentals OverviewTask-Oriented Documentation Approaches

    FC-3Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Performing Basic System ManagementDiscusses basic optional tasks. For example, you can change the name of the router, create command aliases, enable minor services, and set time and calendar services.

    Troubleshooting and Fault ManagementProvides an introduction to troubleshooting techniques (including use of show commands), error message logging, and debugging commands. If you are troubleshooting a particular protocol, read this chapter to learn how to log system error messages and use debugging commands. Then, refer to the chapter in the documentation set that documents your protocol. For detailed troubleshooting information, see the Internetwork Troubleshooting Guide.

    Configuring SNMP SupportDescribes the steps for configuring Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) on your router.

    Configuring Cisco Discovery ProtocolDescribes the Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP), and how to use CDP to discover other local devices.

    Configuring RMON SupportDescribes the Remote Monitoring (RMON) features available on Cisco routers to supplement SNMP use.

    Network Monitoring Using Cisco Service Assurance AgentDescribes the Cisco Service Assurance Agent (SA Agent), and how to use SA Agent operations to monitor network performance and ensure levels of service.

    Configuring Web Cache Services Using WCCPDescribes the Web Cache Control Protocol, a Cisco-developed content-routing technology that allows you to utilize cache engines (such as the Cisco Cache Engine 550) and web-caches in your network.

    Task-Oriented Documentation ApproachesThe above parts and chapters of the Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide suggest a framework for learning configuration and maintenance tasks. This section provides some suggestions on alternate paths you can take through the documentation to learn about particular topics or tasks, focusing on common configuration topics that span multiple chapters of this book.

    For complete descriptions of the configuration commands introduced in this guide, see the Release 12.2 Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Command Reference, which is the second book of this documentation module.

    Overview of Router Configuration TasksTo configure your router or access server, you must perform several tasks. Initially, you must determine the following:

    Which network protocols you are supporting (for example, AppleTalk, IP, Novell IPX, and so on)

    The addressing plan for each network protocol

    Which routing protocol you will use for each network protocol

    Which WAN protocols you will run on each interface (for example, Frame Relay, HDLC, SMDS, X.25, and so on)

  • Configuration Fundamentals OverviewTask-Oriented Documentation Approaches

    FC-4Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Then, refer to the Cisco Product Catalog and the platform-specific release notes for a list of Cisco-supported protocols, interfaces, and platforms. Set up the hardware as described in the documentation shipped with your product. Configure any user interface, file management, or interface management tasks as described in this book. Configure protocol-specific features on your router or access server as described in the appropriate chapters of the other Cisco IOS software configuration guides.

    Understanding the Cisco IOS Command-Line InterfaceIf you are not familiar with the Cisco IOS command-line interface, read the following sections to gain a basic understanding of the user interface and basic configuration tasks:

    In the Using the Command-Line Interface chapter:

    Understanding Cisco IOS Command Modes

    Using the No and Default Forms of Commands

    Getting Context-Sensitive Help Within a Command Mode

    Checking Command Syntax

    Using CLI Command History

    Using Command-Line Editing Features and Shortcuts

    In the Modifying, Downloading, and Maintaining Configuration Files chapter:

    Displaying Configuration File Information

    Understanding Configuration Files

    Entering Configuration Mode and Selecting a Configuration Source

    Configuring Cisco IOS from the Terminal

    Reexecuting the Configuration Commands in Startup Configuration

    Clearing the Configuration Information

    In the Performing Basic System Management chapter:

    Setting the Router Name

    You may also wish to review the Appendix of this book, Cisco IOS Command Modes, for a summary description of modes available in the command-line interface.

    Storing or Obtaining Configuration Files or Images from a ServerYou might want to save a configuration or image on a server or upgrade your image to a different software release. If you will be storing or obtaining configuration files or images from a server, read the following sections:

    In the Managing Configuration Fileschapter:

    Copying Configuration Files from the Router to a Network Server

    Copying Configuration Files from a Network Server to the Router

    Maintaining Configuration Files Larger than NVRAM

    Copying Configuration Files Between Different Locations

  • Configuration Fundamentals OverviewTask-Oriented Documentation Approaches

    FC-5Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    In the Maintaining System Memory chapter:

    Partitioning Flash Memory

    Using Flash Load Helper to Upgrade Software on Run-from-Flash Systems

    Changing the Image or Configuration File Loaded by the RouterIf you want to change the image or configuration file used when the system reloads, read the following sections:

    In the Managing Configuration Files chapter:

    Specifying the Startup Configuration File

    In theLoading and Maintaining System Images chapter:

    Specifying the Startup System Image in the Configuration File

    In the Rebooting chapter:

    Displaying Booting Information

    Rebooting Procedures

    Modifying the Configuration Register Boot Field

    Setting Environment Variables

  • Configuration Fundamentals OverviewTask-Oriented Documentation Approaches

    FC-6Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

  • Cisco IOS User Interfaces

  • FC-9Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide

    Using the Command-Line Interface

    The Cisco IOS command-line interface (CLI) is the primary user interface used for configuring, monitoring, and maintaining Cisco devices. This user interface allows you to directly and simply execute Cisco IOS commands, whether using a router console or terminal, or using remote access methods.

    This chapter describes the basic features of the Cisco IOS CLI and how to use them. Topics covered include an introduction to Cisco IOS command modes, navigation and editing features, help features, and command history features.

    Additional user interfaces include Setup mode (used for first-time startup), the Cisco Web Browser, and user menus configured by a system administrator. For information about Setup mode, see the Using AutoInstall and Setup chapter of this book. For information on issuing commands using the Cisco Web Browser, see the Using the Cisco Web Browser User Interface chapter of this book. For information on user menus, see the Managing Connections, Menus, and System Banners chapter of this book.

    For a complete description of the user interface commands in this chapter, refer to the Basic Command-Line Interface Commands chapter of the Release 12.2 Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Command Reference. To locate documentation of other commands that appear in this chapter, use the Cisco IOS Command Reference Master Index or search online.

    This chapter contains the following sections:

    Cisco IOS CLI Command Modes Overview

    Cisco IOS CLI Task List

    Using the Cisco IOS CLI Examples

    Cisco IOS CLI Command Modes OverviewTo aid in the configuration of Cisco devices, the Cisco IOS command-line interface is divided into different command modes. Each command mode has its own set of commands available for the configuration, maintenance, and monitoring of router and network operations. The commands available to you at any given time depend on the mode you are in. Entering a question mark (?) at the system prompt (router prompt) allows you to obtain a list of commands available for each command mode.

    The use of specific commands allows you to navigate from one command mode to another. The standard ord