Civil Engineer's Reference Book - aabankhan Engineer's Reference Book - aabankhan

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  • Civil

    Engineer's

    Reference

    Book

    Fourth Edition

    Edited by

    L S Blake

    BSc(Eng), PhD, CEng, FICE, FlStructEConsultant; formerly Director of theConstruction Industry Research andInformation Association

    With specialist contributors

  • Butterwo rth-HeinemannLinacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP225 Wildwood Avenue, Woburn, MA 01801-2041A division of Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd

    6< A member of the Reed Elsevier pic group

    OXFORD AUCKLAND BOSTONJOHANNESBURG MELBOURNE NEWDELHI

    First published as Civil Engineering Reference Book 1951Second edition 1961Third edition 1975Fourth edition 1989Paperback edition 1994Reprinted 1995 (twice), 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001

    Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd 1989

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced inany material form (including photocopying or storing in any medium byelectronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to someother use of this publication) without the written permission of the copyrightholder except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designsand Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the CopyrightLicensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London WlP OLP.Applications for the copyright holder's written permission to reproduce anypart of this publication should be addressed to the publishers

    British Library Cataloguing in Publication DataCivil engineer's reference book - 4th ed.

    1. Civil engineeringI. Blake, L. S. (Leslie Spencer)624

    Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication DataCivil engineer's reference book

    Includes bibliographies and index1. Civil engineering - handbooks, manuals, etc.I. Blake, L. S. (Leslie Spencer), 1925-TA151.C58 1989 62488-30220

    ISBN O 7506 1964 3

    For more information on all Butterworth-Heinemann publicationsplease visit our website at www.bh.com

    Printed and bound in Great Britainby The Bath Press, Bath

    FOR EVERV TITLE THAT WE PUBLISH, BlTTERWORTH-HEIiVEMAIVNWILL PAY FOR BTCV TO PLANT AJSD CAKE FOR A TREE.

  • Preface to the

    fourth edition

    The aim of this edition, as of those that preceded it, is to givecivil engineers a concise presentation of theory and practice inthe many branches of their profession. The book is primarily afirst point of reference which, through its selective lists ofreferences and bibliographies, will enable the user to study asubject in greater depth. However, it is also an importantcollection of state-of-the-art reports on design and constructionpractices in the UK and overseas.

    First published in 1951, the book was last revised in 1975.Although civil engineering is not normally regarded as involvingfast-moving technologies, so many advances have occurred inthe theory and practice of most branches of civil engineeringduring the past decade or so that the preparation of a fourthedition became essential. Some of these advances have taken theform of improvements in earlier practices, for example insurveying, geotechnics, water management, project manage-ment, underwater working, and the control and use of materials.Other radical changes have resulted from the evolving needs ofclients for almost all forms of construction, maintenance andrepair. Another major change has been the introduction of newnational and Euro-codes based on limit state design coveringmost aspects of structural engineering.

    The fourth edition incorporates these advances and, at thesame time, gives greater prominence to the special problemsrelating to work overseas, with differing client requirements andclimatic conditions.

    As before, careful attention has been given to the needs of thedifferent categories of readers. Students and graduates at thestart of their careers need guidance on the practice of design andconstruction in many of the fields of civil engineering covered inChapters 11 to 44. The engineer in mid-career will also find thesechapters valuable as presentations of the state of the art byacknowledged experts in each field, in addition to the referencesand bibliographies they contain for deeper study of specificproblems. Chapters 1 to 10 provide engineers, at all levels ofdevelopment, with up-to-date 'lecture notes' on the basic theor-ies of civil engineering.

    Although the book was primarily prepared for civil engineersin the UK and elsewhere in the world, members of otherprofessions involved in constructionarchitects, lawyers,mechanical engineers, insurers and clientswill also benefit byreferring to it.

    I am most grateful to the authors who have contributedchapters. They are all engineers of considerable standing-consultants, contractors, research workers or academicswhohave devoted a substantial amount of time to presenting theirexpert knowledge and experience for the benefit of the profes-sion.

    L.S. BlakeBournemouth

    November 1988

  • Peter Ackers, MSc(Eng), CEng, FICE, MIWEM, MASCEHydraulics consultant

    The late J Allen, DSc, LLD, FICE, FRSEEmeritus Professor, University of Aberdeen

    W H Arch, BSc(Eng), CEng, MICE

    R W Barrett, MScManager, Underwater Engineering Group, London

    S C C Bate, CBE, BSc(Eng), PhD, CEng, FICE, FIStructEFormerly at the Building Research Establishment, and laterconsultant to Harry Stanger Ltd

    B C Best, BScConsultant

    Keith M Brook, BSc, CEng, FICE, FIHTWimpey Laboratories Ltd

    Robert Gather, BScArup Research and Development

    Staff of Central Electricity Generating BoardGeneration Development and Construction Division

    G H Child, MSc, FGSKeith Farquharson and Associates

    C R I Clayton, MSc, PhD, CEng, MICEReader in Geotechnical Engineering, University of Surrey

    D S Currie, FEng, FICE, MIMechEDirector of Civil Engineering, British Rail

    R H R Douglas, BSc(Eng), CEng, FICE, FIHT, MConsESir Frederick Snow and Partners

    J B Dwight, MA, MSc, CEng, FIStructE, MIMechEEmeritus Reader in Structural Engineering, University ofCambridge

    C J Evans, MA(Cantab), FEng, FICE, FIStructEWallace Evans and Partners

    E V Finn, CEng, FICE, FIStructE, FRSH, MIWEM,MConsESir Frederick Snow and Partners

    P G Fookes, DSc(Eng), PhD, BSc, CEng, FIMM, FGSConsultant

    List of

    Contributors

    Staff of Goodfellow Associates LtdOffshore and subsea technology

    T R Graves Smith, MA, PhD, CEng, MICEDepartment of Civil Engineering, University of Southampton

    D J Irvine, BSc, CEng, FICETarmac Construction Ltd

    W M Jenkins, BSc, PhD, CEng, FICE, FIStructEEmeritus Professor of Civil Engineering, The HatfieldPolytechnic

    T J M Kennie, BSc, MAppSci (Glasgow), ARICS, MInstCESLecturer in Engineering Surveying, University of Surrey

    Philip King, BScArup Research and Development

    D J Lee, BSc Tech, DIC, FEng, FICE, FIStructEMaunsell Group

    T R Mills, CEng, MICE, FIDEChartered Engineer

    Sir Alan Muir Wood, FRS, FEng, FICEConsultant, Sir William Halcrow and Partners

    F H Needham, BSc(Eng), CEng, ACGI, FICE, FIStructEFormerly at the Constructional Steel Research andDevelopment Organisation

    I K Nixon, ACGI, CEng, FICE, FGSConsultant

    D J Osborne, BSc(Eng), CEng, FICE, FIHT, MIWEM,MBIMSir Frederick Snow and Partners

    W Pemberton, BSc, CEng, FICESir Murdoch MacDonald and Partners

    A D M Penman, DSc, CEng, FICEGeotechnical Engineering Consultant

    F H Potter, BSc Tech, CEng, MICE, FIWSc, AMCTFormerly of the Department of Civil Engineering, ImperialCollege of Science and Technology

    J L Pratt, BSc(Eng), CEng, MIEE, FWeIdIFormerly Research Manager, Braithwaite & Co. EngineersLtd

  • A Price Jones, BSc(Eng), MSc, CEng, MICESoil Mechanics Ltd

    D W Quinion, BSc(Eng), CEng, FICE, FIStructETarmac Construction Ltd

    A L Randall, CEng, FIStructEFormerly at the British Steel Corporation

    B Richmond, BSc(Eng), PhD, FCGI, CEng, FICEMaunsell Group

    C E Rickard, BSc, CEng, MICE, MIWEMSir Murdoch MacDonald and Partners

    J Rodin, BSc, CEng, FICE, FIStructE, MConsEBuilding Design Partnership

    B H Rofe, MA(Cantab), CEng, FICE, FIWEM, FGSRofe, Kennard and Lapworth

    John H Sargent, CEng, FICE, FGSCostain Group pic

    R J M Sutherland, FEng, BA, FICE, FIStructEHarris and Sutherland

    F L Terrett, MEng, CEng, FICE, MConsEPosford Duvivier

    The late A R Thomas, OBE, BSc(Eng), CEng, FICE, FASCEFormerly consultant, Binnie and Partners

    P A Thompson, BSc(Eng), MSc, CEng, FICE, MIWEMUniversity of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology

    M J Tomlinson, CEng, FICE, FIStructE, MConsEConsulting engineer

    J A Turnbull, CEng, FICE, FIHT, DipTEMott, Hay & Anderson

    Cdr H WardleSubsea consultant, Sovereign Oil and Gas pic

    Staff of Watson HawksleyConsulting engineers

    C J Wilshere, OBE, BA, BAI, CEng, FICEJohn Laing Design Associates Ltd

    T A Wyatt, PhDDepartment of Civil Engineering, Imperial College of Scienceand Technology

    Hugh C WyldeIndependent management consultant

  • This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation. vii

    Contents

    Preface to the Fourth Edition ....................................................................................... v

    List of Contributors ....................................................................................................... xi

    1. Mathematics and Statistics .................................................................................... 1/1

    2. Strength of Materials .............................................................................................. 2/1

    3. Theory of Structures .............................................................................................. 3/1

    4. Materials .............................................