CLASS A AIRCRAFT

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    AEROPLANES CLASS APERFORMANCE

    JAR 25 CERTIFIED

    PERFORMANCE CLASS AAEROPLANES - JAR 25 CERTIFIED

    JAR ATPL - 032 03

    Version 0 / MAR 06

    Predava:

    Zlatko irac,dipl.ing.zlatko.sirac@croatiaairlines.hr

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    LIMITATIONS

    Environmental

    Envelope

    AEROPLANES CLASS APERFORMANCE

    JAR 25 CERTIFIEDLIMITATIONS

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    LIMITATIONS

    Speeds

    AEROPLANES CLASS APERFORMANCE

    JAR 25 CERTIFIED

    VMCG - minimum control speed on the ground

    It is the calibrated airspeed during the take-off run, at which, whenthe critical engine is suddenly made inoperative, it is possible tomaintain control of the aeroplane with the use of the primaryaerodynamic controls alone (without the use of nose-wheelsteering) to enable the take-off to be safely continued using normalpiloting skill.

    VMCA - minimum control speed in the air

    It is the calibrated airspeed, at which, when the critical engine issuddenly made inoperative, it is possible to maintain control of the

    aeroplane with that engine still inoperative, and maintain straightflight with an angle of bank of not more than 5 degrees.

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    AEROPLANES CLASS APERFORMANCE

    JAR 25 CERTIFIEDVMCL - Minimum control speed during approach and landing

    It is the calibrated airspeed at which, when the critical engine is

    suddenly made inoperative, it is possible to maintain control of theaeroplane with that engine still inoperative, and maintain straightflight with an angle of bank of not more than 5.

    VMU

    Minimum unstick speed

    It is the calibrated airspeed at and above which the aeroplane cansafely lift off the ground, and continue the take-off.

    LIMITATIONS

    Speeds

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    Engine Failure Speed: VEFVEF is the calibrated airspeed at which the critical engine is assumed to fail.VEF must be selected by the applicant, but may not be less than VMCG.

    Decision Speed: V1

    V1 is the maximum speed at which the crew can decide to reject the takeoff,and is ensured to stop the aircraft within the limits of the runway.V1 may not be less than VEF plus the speed gained with the critical engineinoperative during the time interval between the instant at which the criticalengine is failed, and the instant at which the pilot recognises and reacts to theengine failure.The time which is considered between the critical engine failure atVEF, and the pilot recognition at V1, is 1 second.

    TAKEOFF

    VMCG VEF V1

    AEROPLANES CLASS APERFORMANCE

    JAR 25 CERTIFIED

    TAKEOFF

    Speeds

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    AEROPLANES CLASS APERFORMANCE

    JAR 25 CERTIFIEDVR Rotation speed

    The speed at which the pilot initiates the rotation, at the appropriate

    rate of about 3 per second in order to achieve V2 at 35ft.

    VLOF Liftoff speed

    The speed at which the aeroplane first becomes airborne.

    V2 Takeoff safety speed

    The minimum climb speed that must be reached at a height of 35feet above the runway surface, in case of an engine failure.

    TAKEOFF

    SpeedsVR 1.05 VMCA

    VLOF 1.05 VMU (OEI)VLOF 1.10 VMU (AEO)

    V2 1.13 VS1g (Fly-By-Wire aircraft)V2 1.2 VS (Classic types)

    V2 1.1 VMCA

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    AEROPLANES CLASS APERFORMANCE

    JAR 25 CERTIFIEDMaximum Brake Energy Speed: VMBEThe Maximum speed at which the brakes will absorb aircraft kinetic

    energy and stop aircraft safely.When the takeoff is aborted, brakes must absorb and dissipate theheat corresponding to the aircrafts kinetic energy at the decisionpoint.

    Maximum Tire Speed: VTThe tire manufacturer specifies the maximum ground speed thatcan be reached, in order to limit the centrifugal forces and the heatelevation that may damage the tire structure.

    TAKEOFF

    Speeds

    V1

    VMBE

    VLOF VTIRE

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    AEROPLANES CLASS APERFORMANCE

    JAR 25 CERTIFIED

    TAKEOFF

    Speeds

    Takeoff speeds limitations summary

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    AEROPLANES CLASS APERFORMANCE

    JAR 25 CERTIFIED

    TAKEOFF

    Distances

    TAKEOFF DISTANCES

    TOD - Takeoff distance

    Takeoff distance is the greater of the following values:

    TODN-1 = Distance covered from the brake release to a point at whichthe aircraft is at 35 feet (15 feet on wet runway) above the takeoffsurface, assuming the failure of the critical engine at VEF andrecognized at V1

    1.15 TODN = 115% of the distance covered from brake release to apoint at which the aircraft is at 35 feet (15 feet on wet runway) above

    the takeoff surface, assuming all engines operating.

    TOD = max of {TODN-1 , 1.15 TODN }

    The takeoff distance on a wet runway may not be lower than on a dry one.

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    AEROPLANES CLASS APERFORMANCE

    JAR 25 CERTIFIED

    TAKEOFF

    Distances

    TOD - Takeoff distance

    35 ftVR

    TOD1 E/O

    All engines operative

    35 ft

    From BR to 35 ft above runway surface.

    V2

    One engine out at V1

    + 15%

    TODAll engines

    1 engine1 engine

    outout

    V1

    TODOEI

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    AEROPLANES CLASS APERFORMANCE

    JAR 25 CERTIFIED

    TAKEOFF

    Distances

    TOR - Takeoff run

    The takeoff run is the greater of the following values :

    TORN-1 = Distance covered from brake release to a point equidistantbetween the point at which VLOF is reached and the point at which theaircraft is 35(15) feet above the takeoff surface, assuming failure of the

    critical engine at VEF and recognized at V1,

    1.15 TORN = 115 % of the distance covered from brake release to apoint equidistant between the point at which VLOF is reached and thepoint at which the aircraft is 35(15) feet above the takeoff surface,assuming all engines operating.

    TOR = max of {TORN-1 , 1.15 TORN }

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    AEROPLANES CLASS APERFORMANCE

    JAR 25 CERTIFIED

    TAKEOFF

    Distances

    TOR - Takeoff run

    + 15%

    TORAll engines

    All engines operative

    35 ftVR

    From BR to middle point.

    (between 35ft and LOF point)

    TOR1 E/O

    35 ftV2

    One engine out at V1

    1 engine out1 engine out

    V1

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    AEROPLANES CLASS APERFORMANCE

    JAR 25 CERTIFIED

    TAKEOFF

    Distances

    ASD Accelerate-stop distance

    The accelerate-stop distance is the greater of the following values:

    ASDN-1 = Sum of the distances necessary to:- Accelerate the airplane with all engines operating to VEF,- Accelerate from VEF to V1, assuming the critical enginefails at VEF and the pilot takes the first action to reject thetakeoff at V1 (delay between VEF and V1 = 1 second)- Come to a full stop- Plus a distance equivalent to 2 seconds at constant V1

    speed. ASDN = Sum of the distances necessary to:

    - Accelerate the airplane with all engines operating to V1,assuming the pilot takes the first action to reject the takeoff

    at V1- With all engines still operating come to a full stop- Plus a distance equivalent to 2 seconds at constant V1speed

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    AEROPLANES CLASS APERFORMANCE

    JAR 25 CERTIFIED

    TAKEOFF

    Distances

    ASD Accelerate-stop distance

    V1 V=0

    2 sAll engines idle

    ASDall engines

    V1 V=0

    All engines2 s

    1 E/O idle

    ASD 1 E/O

    All engines operative

    1 Engine out

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    AEROPLANES CLASS APERFORMANCE

    JAR 25 CERTIFIED

    TAKEOFF

    Distances

    TakeOff Run Available (TORA)

    The length of runway which is declared available by the appropriate

    authority and suitable for the ground run of an aeroplane taking off.

    TOR TORA

    Takeoff Distance Available (TODA)The length of the takeoff run available plus the length of theclearway available.

    TOD TODA

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    AEROPLANES CLASS APERFORMANCE

    JAR 25 CERTIFIED

    TAKEOFF

    Distances

    Accelerate-Stop Distance Available (ASDA)

    The length of the takeoff run available plus the length of the stopway,

    if such stopway is declared available by the appropriate Authority andis capable of bearing the mass of the aeroplane under the prevailingoperating conditions.

    ASD ASDA

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    AEROPLANES CLASS APERFORMANCE

    JAR 25 CERTIFIED

    TAKEOFF

    Distances

    TOR TORA

    TOD TODA

    ASD ASDA

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    AEROPLANES CLASS APERFORMANCE

    JAR 25 CERTIFIED

    TAKEOFF

    Distances

    Loss of Runway Length due to Alignment (Line-up distance)

    JAR-OPS 1.490(c)(6): an operator must take account of the loss, if any,of runway length due to alignment of the aeroplane prior to takeoff.