Classification of Classification of PlantsPlants
CHAPTER 28 CHAPTER 28
Non - flowering Plants
Do NOT produce flowers
A plant can be divided into 3 partsA plant can be divided into 3 parts
Examples of Examples of MossesMosses
No true roots, No vascular tissues (no transport)
Characteristics of Characteristics of MossesMosses
Simple stems & leaves
Have rhizoids for anchorage
Spores from capsules (wind-dispersal)
Damp terrestrial land
A leaf (finely divided into small parts)
roots, feathery leaves & underground stems
Characteristics of Ferns
have vascular tissuesvascular tissues (transport & support)
DampDamp & shadyshady places
Spore-producing organSpore-producing organ on the underside of leaves (reproduction)
Male cones (in clusters)
Female cones (scattered)
roots, woody stems
Characteristics of Characteristics of GymnospermsGymnosperms
tall evergreen trees
cones with reproductive structures
vascular tissues (transport)
naked seeds in female cones
2 2 groupsgroups
roots, stems, leaves
vascular tissues (transport)
flowers, fruits (contain seeds)
Characteristics of Characteristics of MonocotyledonsMonocotyledons
leaves have parallel veins
e.g. grass, maize
Veins in network
Characteristics of Characteristics of DicotyledonsDicotyledons
leaves have veins in network
e.g. trees, sunflower, rose
Plant Plant ClassificationClassificationNon-flowering
Plant Structure and
The main body of the portion above ground of a tree, shrub or herb.
The ascending plant axis. Have buds.
Support of other plant organs. Ps. Storage (water and food).
An elongated underground horizontal stem.
Ex: Iris, many grasses
An elongated above-ground horizontal stem.
Ex: Strawberries Airplane Plant
A much-enlarged, short, fleshy underground stem tip.
Ex: Dahlia, Potato
Lateral outgrowths of the stem axis.
Primary photosynthetic organs. Function:
1. Tendrils: for support Ex: Peas
2. Bulbs: for food storage Ex: Onion
3. Insect Catching Ex: Carnivorous Plants
4. Flowers: thought to be modified leaves.
Succulent Leaves Bracts
Other Modifications of Leaves
The descending axis of a plant, normally below ground.
Functions: Anchorage. Absorption of water and minerals. Storage.
Taproot - one main root. Ex: carrot
Fibrous Roots - many small roots of equal size. Ex: grass roots
Modified leaves grouped together on a stem.
Sexual reproductive organs. Function:
A mature ovary, sometimes including other floral parts.
Function: Seed dispersal Seed protection
Mature ovule containing the embryo and nutrient tissues.
Function: Dispersal unit in sexual
Main Tissue Systems
Epidermis or "skin" of the plant.
Often has a cuticle, a waxy coating to prevent water loss.
Functions: Prevent water loss. Water absorption (root hairs).
Made of Xylem and Phloem. Functions:
Transport and support Xylem - Water Phloem - Food
Sieve Cell – alive when functioning, but lacks a nucleus.
Companion Cell – alive, controls itself and the sieve cell.
Root Hairs Extensions of the epidermis to
increase surface area for water absorption.
Not a true tissue. Comment - root hairs are very
delicate and must be continually replaced.
Stem outgrowths for Ps. Leaf Morphology:
Blade - the flattened portion of a leaf.
Petiole - stalk of a leaf.
Blade/Leaf Types Simple - 1 blade. Compound - Several blades.
Nodes and Internodes
Node - stem area where a leaf and bud are attached.
Internode - stem area between nodes.
The tissues within a leaf.
1. Upper Epidermis
3. Lower Epidermis
Cuticle present. Usually 1 cell layer thick. Cells w/o chloroplasts . Function: protects the
1. Palisade upright cells.
2. Spongy loosely organized cells with air spaces.
Function: major sites for Ps.
Cuticle present. Usually 1 cell layer. Cells w/o chloroplasts. Stomata present for gas
Regulated by Guard Cells which have chloroplasts.